Kakdwip (community development block)

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Kakdwip
কাকদ্বীপ
Community development block
সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
Kakdwip is located in West Bengal
Kakdwip
Kakdwip
Location in West Bengal
Coordinates: 21°52′06″N 88°11′12″E / 21.86833°N 88.18667°E / 21.86833; 88.18667
Country  India
State West Bengal
District South 24 Parganas
Parliamentary constituency Mathurapur
Assembly constituency Kakdwip
Area
 • Total 252.73 km2 (97.58 sq mi)
Elevation 5 m (16 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 281,963
 • Density 1,100/km2 (2,900/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+5.30)
PIN 743347 (Kakdwip)
Area code(s) 03210
Vehicle registration WB-19, WB-20, WB-22
Literacy Rate 77.93 per cent
Website http://s24pgs.gov.in/

Kakdwip is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Kakdwip subdivision of South 24 Parganas district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Tebhaga movement[edit]

During the Bengal famine of 1943 the Communist Party of India provided relief to the peasantry of the Sundarbans area. In September 1946 Bangiya Pradeshik Kisan Sabha decided to launch the Tebhaga movement. The peasant movement broke out in Kakdwip, Sonarpur, Bhangar and Canning. Kakdwip and Namkhana were the storm centres of the movement. The movement aimed at improving the share of the peasant engaged as sharecroppers. The prominent leaders of the movement were: Kansari Halder, Ashoke Bose and Rash Behari Ghosh. Peasant leaders like Gajen Malik, Manik Hazra, Jatin Maity, Bijoy Mondal and others rose to prominence. The movement continued till 1950, when the Bargadari Act was enacted. The Act recognised the right of the sharecropper to two-thirds of the produce when he provided the inputs.[1]

Land reforms[edit]

Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. In 1967, West Bengal witnessed a peasant uprising, against non-implementation of land reforms legislation, starting from Kheyadaha gram panchayat in Sonarpur CD Block. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal under the Left Front government. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants. Subsequently, “Operation Barga” was aimed at securing tenancy rights for the peasants. In Kakdwip CD Block 6,277.88 acres of land was acquired and vested. Out of this 3,497.88 acres or 55.72% of the vested land was distributed amongst the peasants. The total number of patta holders was 12,021.[2]

Geography[edit]

Location[edit]

Kakdwip is located at 21°52′06″N 88°11′12″E / 21.8683°N 88.1867°E / 21.8683; 88.1867.

Kakdwip CD Block is bounded by Kulpi CD Block in the north, Patharpratima in the east, Namkhana and Sagar CD Blocks in the south and Nandigram I CD Block in Purba Medinipur district, across the Hooghly estuary in the west.[3][4]

It is located 81 km from Alipore, the district headquarters.[3]

Area and administration[edit]

Kakdwip CD Block has an area of 252.74 km2. Kakdwip police station serves this CD Block. Kakdwip panchayat samity has 11 gram panchayats. The block has 39 inhabited villages.[5] Headquarters of this block is at Pukurberia.

Sundarbans settlements[edit]

Village in a clearing of Sundarbans. Drawing by Frederic Peter Layard after an original sketch of 1839
House in Sundarbans with a pond and rice fields, 2010

The Sundarbans area, in the south of the district, includes 102 deltaic islands, out of which 54 are inhabited and the rest is reserved forest. The area spread over 54,000 km2 is home to 3.9 million people or around 40% of the population of the district. As per December 2001 census there were 271 Royal Bengal tigers and other animals in the Indian portion of the Sundarban forest, spread across 42,000 km2. The floor of the Sunderbans varies from 0.9 m to 2.11 m above sea level. Tidal saline water from the Bay of Bengal alternatively drowns and exposes the islands twice a day throughout the year. Around 3,500 km of earthen embankments, protecting the inhabited islands, have been facing the daily onslaught in a cyclone-prone area for more than a century. Clearing of the forests effectively started in 1781 and in about a century Hingalganj, Hasnabad, Sandeshkhali I and II, Minakhan, Haroa (all in North 24 Parganas district in 2016) Canning I and II, Jaynagar I and II, Mathurapur I and II, and Sagar (all in South 24 Parganas district in 2016) had been fully or substantially cleared of forests. Thereafter, much of the interiors of Kakdwip, Patharpratima, Basanti, Kultali and Gosaba were cleared for human settlement. People started moving into the area. The refugees from erstwhile East Pakistan were the last to come in large numbers between 1951 and 1971. Canning I and II, Jaynagar I and II, Mathurapur I and II, Kakdwip and Namkhana are a little away from the forests and being attached/ connected to the mainland their conditions are similar to other mainland blocks in the district, but Basanti, Gosaba, Kultali, Patharpratima and Sagar are largely isolated from the mainland. These islands are mostly separated from the deep forest by a river. Electric connections are rare, and transport and communications, other than river transport, are not there. Around 95% people depend on rain-fed agriculture. Sagar lies at the mouth of the Hooghly, which carries fresh water and so things are a little different there. The sea level, around India, is estimated to be rising at 2.55 mm per year. In the last 70 years, 220 km2 of forest land has been submerged and the process continues.[6]

Gram panchayats[edit]

Gram panchayats of Kakdwip block/panchayat samiti are: Bapuji, Madhusudanpur, Netajee, Pratapdityanagar, Rabindra, Ramgopalpur, Rishi Bankim Chandra, Sri Ramkrishna, Srinagar, Surjanagar and Swami Vivekananda.[7]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per 2011 Census of India Kakdwip CD Block had a total population of 281,963, all of which were rural. There were 144,120 (51%) males and 137,843 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 34,715. Scheduled Castes numbered 97,944 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 1,836.[8]

As per 2001 census, Kakdwip block had a total population of 239,381, out of which 122,792 were males and 116,589 were females. Kakdwip block registered a population growth of 25.93 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for South 24 Parganas district was 20.89 per cent. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent. Scheduled castes at 87,638 formed around one-third the population. Scheduled tribes numbered 3,398.[5][9][10]

Large villages[edit]

Large villages in Kakdwip CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Suryanagar (5,554), Ramtanunagar (6,203), Madhusudanpur (6,242), Sibkalinagar (6,674), Sitarampur (10,244), Srinagar (10,959), Kashinagar (10,356), Kalinagar (28,669), Ganespur (32,932), Ramratanpur (4,821), Chandipur (8,519), Taktipur Abad (6,832), Manmathapur (7,981), Sibnagar (4,530), Ramchandranagar (10,396), Mrinalnagar (7,851), Ramgopalpur (4,636), Dakshin Kasiabad (4,438), Harendranagar (4,494), Gangadharpur (6,514), Bamanagar (6,844), Gobindarampur (6,526), Bhubannagar (6,879), Akshyanagar (18,883) and Kakdwip (19,368).[5]

Literacy[edit]

As per 2011 census the total number of literates in Kakdwip CD Block was 192,692 (77.93% of the population over 6 years) out of which 106,726 (55%) were males and 85,996 (45%) were females.[8]

As per 2011 census, literacy in South 24 Parganas district was 77.51[11] Literacy in West Bengal was 77.08% in 2011.[12] Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%.[12]

As per 2001 census, Kakdwip block had a total literacy of 70.53 per cent for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 81.39 per cent female literacy was 59.05 per cent. South 24 Parganas district had a total literacy of 69.45 per cent, male literacy being 79.19 per cent and female literacy being 59.01 per cent.[5]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Language[edit]

Bengali is the local language in these areas.[3]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Kakdwip CD Block
Hindu
  
82.37%
Muslim
  
17.09%
Others
  
0.54%

In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 232,263 and formed 82.37% of the population in Kakdwip CD Block. Muslims numbered 48,181 and formed 17.09% of the population. Others numbered 1,519 and formed 0.54% of the population.[13]

In the 2011 census, Hindus numbered 5,155,545 and formed 63.17% of the population in South 24 Parganas district. Muslims numbered 2,903,075 and formed 35.57% of the population.[13] In West Bengal Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.[13]

Human Development Report[edit]

According to the South 24 Parganas district Human Development Report, it is an overwhelmingly rural district with 85% of the population living in rural areas. An analysis of the district’s population shows that 33 percent of the district’s population belongs to Scheduled Castes. While 65.86% of people are Hindus, 33.24% are Muslims. 86% of the population resided in the 29 CD Blocks. In 2005, more than 4 lakh households were identified as living below poverty line, pushing the poverty ratio in the district to 34.11%, way above the state and national poverty ratios.[14]

Kakdwip CD Block had a poverty ratio of 34.91% of the households in 2005. The Sundarbans region in general is afflicted with poverty with all the 13 CD Blocks recording above 30% and 8 CD Blocks recording more than 40% households in the BPL category.[14]

In standard of living Kakdwip had a rank of 18 amongst all the 29 blocks. In infrastructure development it was 18th amongst all CD Blocks. In Kakdwip, 12.82% households had access to electricity. The length of surfaced roads was 1.21 km per km2 area. The number of bank branches was 0.29 per 10,000 population. Lack of access to irrigation is a major problem for most of the CD Blocks in South 24 Parganas, but it assumes particular significance in the Sundarbans area, where there is limited scope for employment beyond the agricultural sector. In Kakdwip, 54.98% of rural households were engaged as daily/ agricultural/ other physical labour, 20.89% were cultivators, 4.72% were self-employed rural artisans/ hawkers, 8.80% were engaged in labour oriented regular jobs in the unorganised sector, and 11.16% were engaged in the organised sector or work as professionals.[14]

As per 1991 census, while male literacy rate was 67.22% female literacy was 36.14% and there was a gender gap of 31.08% in Kakdwip. In 2006, Kakdwip had 39 secondary and higher secondary schools. All of them had library facility and 9 of them had computer facilities (the highest amongst the Sundarbans CD Blocks).[14]

In 2006, in Kakdwip for 189 villages there were 54 health sub-centres and 4 rural hospital/public health centres having 116 beds with 25 medical officers, 41 nurses, 56 health assistants and 5 pharmacists and technicians. 39.5% of the 329 habitations in Kakdwip CD Block were fully covered with safe drinking water (including tube wells and tap water), 29.2% habitations were partly covered and 31.3% habitations were not covered.[14]

Kakdwip has 203.35 km of embankments. Breaches in these embankments ranged between 3.4 and 3.6 km annually. Embankments raised along rivers are of critical importance for the safety of lives and protection of crops, against daily tides and tidal surges. Technologically the embankment structures are weak and there is need of proper drainage of accumulated rain water through sluice gates. Crude cuts in embankments for drainage of accumulated rain water and channels built for providing water to large fisheries (bheris) also add to the hazards. Cyclones and tropical depressions are regular threats.[14]


References[edit]

  1. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  2. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 17 April 2016. 
  3. ^ a b c "Kak-Dwip Block". onefivenine. Retrieved 2 April 2016. 
  4. ^ "South 24 Parganas". CD Block/Tehsil map. Maps of India. Retrieved 2 April 2016. 
  5. ^ a b c d "District Statistical Handbook – 2009 – South 24 Parganas" (PDF). South 24 Parganas at a glance, Tables 2.1, 2.2, 2.4 (b), 4.5. Bureau of Applied Economics and Statistics, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 3 April 2016. 
  6. ^ "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Chapter 9: Sundarbans and the Remote Islanders, p 290-311. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2016. 
  7. ^ "Blocks and Gram Panchayats in South 24 Parganas". South 24 Parganas District Administration. Retrieved 1 April 2016. 
  8. ^ a b "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 2 April 2016. 
  9. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001 – South 24 Parganas. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  10. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2011-01-20. 
  11. ^ "District Census 2011". Population Census 2011. Retrieved 24 January 2016. 
  12. ^ a b "Provisional population tables and annexures" (PDF). Census 2011:Table 2(3) Literates and Literacy rates by sex. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 9 February 2016. 
  13. ^ a b c "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 18 June 2016. 
  14. ^ a b c d e f "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". Intro: pp 16-19, 42 Block specific: pp 39-40, 73, 99, 132, 146, 192, 221. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 April 2016.