Kalyani, West Bengal
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|Nickname(s): Smart City|
|Founded by||Bidhan Chandra Roy|
|• Body||Kalyani Municipality|
|• Total||29.14 km2 (11.25 sq mi)|
|Elevation||11 m (36 ft)|
|• Density||3,500/km2 (8,900/sq mi)|
|• Official||Bengali, English|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Sex ratio||978 ♂/♀|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Bangaon|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Kalyani|
Kalyani is a city and a municipality in the Indian state of West Bengal. It is located around 50 kilometres (31 mi) from Kolkata — the capital of West Bengal, forming the northern most boundary of Kolkata metropolitan area. Kalyani is the administrative headquarters of Kalyani subdivision, a part of Nadia district. Situated on the banks of Hooghly River, the city is spread over an area of 29.14 square kilometres (11.25 sq mi). According to the 2011 census, Kalyani had a population of 100,620.
During the World War II, Kalyani was site of an American Airbase, known by the name of Roosevelt Town or Roosevelt Nagar. It was developed as a planned town in early 1950s by the Government of West Bengal on behest of Bidhan Chandra Roy - the second Chief Minister of West Bengal - for hosting the Indian National Congress meeting and to accommodate the housing needs of the growing population of Calcutta. Kalyani being a planned town, it is characterised by underground sewage system, paved roads forming rectangular grids, tree-lined avenues and community parks.
Kalyani has a dedicated industrial zone including Andrew Yule and Company, Kalyani Breweries (UB Group), and Dabur, though many of the industries have closed or stopped production. It is an important center of education in West Bengal, with two universities (University of Kalyani and Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya), three engineering colleges, one medical college, and other institutes of higher education and research. Kalyani Stadium has emerged as an alternative location to Kolkata for holding numerous I-League football matches and other sporting events. The Bengal Cricket Academy and a stadium have been established by Cricket Association of Bengal in Kalyani for promotion and development of cricket.
Kalyani, located in Nadia district in the state of West Bengal, is a relatively young town. During the Second World War, Kalyani, was the site of an American military airbase, formed out of 45 villages in the district of Nadia. The military garrison town was named after the American president, Franklin D. Roosevelt as "Roosevelt Town" or "Roosevelt Nagar". Hangars and other reminders of the airfield are still visible in the 'A' Block and some areas around Kalyani University, whose buildings were built on or over the runways. After World War II, the American military left the base, and the airfield and hangars went into disuse.
Development of modern Kalyani is credited to then Chief Minister of West Bengal, Dr. Bidhan Chandra Roy, who named the city "Kalyani", after the daughter of Nilratan Sircar. After Independence of India, in 1950, the master plan of the town was developed and the foundation stone for the town was laid by then Governor of West Bengal, Kailashnath Katju, on 24 February 1951. This town was built in a short time in order to host the 51st Indian National Congress meeting in 1954. In the same year, the name of the current Kalyani railway station, was changed from "Chandmari Halt". In 1957, the Kalyani police station was formed. In 1979, the rail line was extended from Kalyani main to Kalyani Simanta station and also established direct connectivtity to Kolkata thorough Kalyani local EMU trains.
In 1995, Kalyani Municipality was established, which has been crucial in development of infrastructure in Kalyani. In 2014, Kalyani was selected as a candidate for "Smart City" project.
Geography and urban structure
Kalyani is located in the Nadia district of West Bengal, within the Kolkata metropolitan area. Kalyani lies along the east bank of the Hooghly River, within the upper Ganges Delta. As with most of the Indo-Gangetic Plain, the soil and water are predominantly alluvial in origin. Kalyani is located over the "Bengal basin", a pericratonic tertiary basin. According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, on a scale ranging from I to V in order of increasing susceptibility to earthquakes, the city lies inside seismic zone III; according to a United Nations Development Programme report, its wind and cyclone zone is "very high damage risk".
Kalyani is a planned city, having underground drainage systems, tree lined avenues, community parks, paved roads intersecting each other at 90-degree angles. The city itself is divided into four blocks — Block A, Block B, Block C and Block D, which are further divided into sub-blocks. Block A is mostly residential in character with commercial market in A-2 and near the Kalyani Main Railway station. Development in Kalyani started from Block B, which has residential as well as mixed use patterns. The Kalyani Main Post Office, Kalyani Town Club, Industrial Training Institute, Electricity, Telephone offices and the Public Library along with offices of major Banks is situated in Block B. 2 No Market, Saptaparni Market and 3 No Market are the major markets in Kalyani, all of which is situated in Block B. Major parks like the Central Park, Lake Park and Picnic Garden is located in Block B. Block C and Block D are located north of the Kalyani Simanta branch line. Block C is reserved for institutional use and is largely occupied by the Kalyani University and Kalyani Government Engineering College. Block D is the industrial zone, consisting of many small and medium-sized industries.
In June 2015, the Government of West Bengal declared establishment of an "Analytics City" in Kalyani, which was projected to attract investments of more than Rs 3,000 crore in next three years. In the first phase, being developed over 52 acres off Kalyani Expressway, the hub will accommodate academic, residential and commercial centers apart from real estate projects.
As of 2011 India census, Kalyani has a population of 100,620. Males constitute 50.55% of the population and females 49%. Kalyani has an average literacy rate of 88.75%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 92.79%, and female literacy is 84.65%. In Kalyani, 7.55% of the population is under 6 years of age. The sex ratio of Kalyani is 978. As per 2001 Census, the average household size of Kalyani is approximately 4.61. Percentage of main workers out of total population is 29%.
Civic administration and utility services
The town is within the Bongaon Lok Sabha Constituency and elects one member to the Lok Sabha (the Lower House of the Indian Parliament). The town area is covered by one assembly constituency, Kalyani that elects one member to the Vidhan Sabha, which is the West Bengal state legislative assembly. Kalyani town comes under the jurisdiction of the district police (which is a part of the state police); the Superintendent of Police oversees the town's security and matters pertaining to law and order. Kalyani is also seat of the Subdivisional Court.
Kalyani quickly registered itself as a self-sufficient township. Its gradual development continued as a notified area. In 1995, it was upgraded to a municipality.
Kalyani's schools are run by the state government or private organisations. Bengali and English are the primary languages of instruction. Schools in Kalyani follow the "10+2+3" plan. After completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in schools that have a higher secondary facility and are affiliated with the West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education, the ICSE, or the CBSE. They usually choose a focus on liberal arts, business, or science. Vocational programs are also available.
Healthcare system in Kalyani consists of both government and private healthcare facilities. The Army hospital established during WWII by the American and British alliance was the first hospital in Kalyani. Later former Chief Minister of West Bengal Dr. B.C. Roy converted it into a hospital for tuberculosis patients in the 1960s, currently known as Netaji Subhash Sanatorium. Jawaharlal Nehru Memorial Hospital, a 500-bed hospital, is one of the major hospitals in the town. A medical college, College of Medicine & JNM Hospital, established in 2009, which acts as the University college of West Bengal University of Health Sciences. Gandhi Memorial Hospital has a dedicated cardiac surgery and cardiology department. ESI Hospital provides healthcare to workers under Employees' State Insurance scheme.
In June 2014, the central government gave in-principle clearance for setting up All India Institute of Medical Sciences at Kalyani. This project was shifted from earlier plans of setting up the AIIMS at Raiganj because of problems in land acquisition. The project will cost nearly Rupees 850 Crores.
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