Berlin Brandenburg Airport
|Berlin Brandenburg Airport|
Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg
|Operator||Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg GmbH|
|Elevation AMSL||157 ft / 48 m|
Berlin Brandenburg Airport (IATA: BER, ICAO: EDDB) (German: Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg „Willy Brandt") is an international airport under construction near the capital of Germany, Berlin. It is adjacent to Berlin Schönefeld Airport in Schönefeld, 18 kilometres (11 mi) south of the city centre. It was originally intended to replace both Schönefeld and Berlin Tegel Airport and become the single commercial airport serving Berlin and the surrounding state of Brandenburg. This is an area with a combined 6 million inhabitants. However, it is now planned that it will replace only Tegel, with Schönefeld Airport currently being expanded as it will still be required to cope with rising passenger numbers.
With projected annual passenger numbers of around 34 million, Berlin Brandenburg Airport would become the third busiest airport in Germany. This would surpass Düsseldorf Airport and make it one of the fifteen busiest in Europe. Lufthansa, Germanwings and EasyJet are expected to become the leading carriers at Berlin Brandenburg Airport and have announced their intent to relocate their hub / base operations to the new airport. These hubs are currently at Tegel and Schönefeld airports.
After almost 15 years of planning, construction began in 2006. Originally planned to open in October 2011, the airport has encountered a series of delays and cost overruns. These were due to poor construction planning, execution, management and corruption. Autumn 2020 became the new target for the official opening date as 2019 became too improbable. A new TÜV report published in November 2017 suggested that the opening could even be delayed until 2021.
- 1 History
- 2 Construction progress
- 3 Airport overview
- 4 Expected airlines and destinations
- 5 Access
- 6 Commercial and exposition area
- 7 Controversies
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 Further reading
- 11 External links
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Aviation in Schönefeld
Berlin Brandenburg Airport is located just south of Berlin Schönefeld Airport, which opened as an airfield to accommodate the local Henschel aircraft plant on 15 October 1934. On 22 April 1945, Soviet troops occupied the airfield as part of the Battle of Berlin. In 1946, the headquarters of the Soviet Air Forces moved to Schönefeld from Johannisthal Air Field.
During the following years Schönefeld Airport became the most important civilian airport in the newly-founded German Democratic Republic (East Germany), with national flag carrier Interflug based there. In 1976, the modern passenger terminal, currently known as Terminal A, opened.
Plans for a new Berlin Airport
After the fall of the Berlin Wall, there was a need to have a standard airport for Berlin. On 7 December 1989, Lufthansa and Interflug began discussions on the possibility of having a single airport. Following German reunification in 1990, Berlin once again became the German federal capital and leaders made plans to recognise the city's increased importance by constructing a large commercial airport. This was because Tegel Airport, Schönefeld Airport and Tempelhof Airport were aging and becoming increasingly congested due to rising passenger numbers. To ensure the economic viability of the project, they pursued the single airport concept, meaning that the new airport would become the sole commercial airport for Berlin and Brandenburg. They planned to close Tegel, Schönefeld and Tempelhof upon opening the new airport, then ban commercial aviation from any other airport in Brandenburg.
On 2 May 1991, the Berlin Brandenburg Flughafen Holding GmbH (BBF) was founded, owned by the states of Berlin and Brandenburg (37 percent each) and the Federal Republic of Germany (the remaining 26 percent). Eberhard Diepgen, Mayor of Berlin, became the first chairman of the supervisory board. The holding company announced on 20 June 1993 that Sperenberg Airfield, Jüterbog Airfield and the area south of Schönefeld Airport, where the evaluation of the locations Sperenberg, Jüterbog East, Jüterbog West, Tietzow, Michelsdorf, Borkheide and Schönefeld South was carried out according to 5 criteria with different weighting. Each site was advocated by various factions in the ensuing political discussion. With regard to land-use planning and noise pollution, rural Sperenberg and Jüterbog were considered more suitable for construction of a large airport. Economic considerations favoured an airport located near the city center, with existing road and rail links (as it is the case with Schönefeld).
On 28 May 1996 Mayor Diepgen, Minister-President of Brandenburg Manfred Stolpe and Federal Minister for Transport Matthias Wissmann committed to Schönefeld as the site for the new airport. This so-called consensus decision was later affirmed by the respective state legislatures. The new airport will use some infrastructure, such as a runway, from the current Schönefeld Airport.
Originally, BBF hoped the new airport would be owned and operated by a private investor. They called for proposals, which led to two bidding consortia emerging as serious contenders. One was led by Hochtief through its Hochtief Airport subsidiary and included ABB, Fraport and Bankengesellschaft Berlin as partners. The other consortium comprised IVG, Flughafen Wien AG, Dorsch-Consult, Commerzbank and Caisse des Dépôts. On 19 September 1998, BBF announced that the Hochtief consortium were the successful bidder. This saw them granted exclusive authority to negotiate the terms and conditions for an acquisition of the Berlin Brandenburg Airport holding and the construction and operation of the new airport for 50 years.
On 31 March 1999, BBF officially commissioned Hochtief and its partners to construct the new airport, causing IVG to file a lawsuit. The Brandenburg Oberlandesgericht acknowledged the concerns voiced by IVG. In its review, it found that in certain points the assessment of the applications had been biased towards Hochtief. This led to annulment of the contract award on 3 August of that year.
Hochtief Airport and IVG teamed up and created a plan for a joint bid on 10 November 2000 in an attempt to receive the contract to construct and operate the new airport. At the time BBF hoped that the planning approval could be completed in 2002, with the tentative opening in 2007.
When Hochtief/IVG submitted its bid in February 2002, the BBF board consisted of Manfred Stolpe, now Federal Minister of Transportation; Klaus Wowereit, who replaced Eberhard Diepgen as Mayor of Berlin and chair of the board; and Matthias Platzeck, who replaced Stolpe as Minister-President of Brandenburg. The board determined that the proposal would not be practical and voted 22 May 2003 to scrap the privatization plan. Hochtief and IVG received approximately €50 million compensation for their planning effort.
Public ownership and construction permit
The new Berlin airport would be planned, owned and operated by BBF Holding. shortly afterwards BBF Holding became Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg GmbH (FBB) and remained under the ownership of Berlin, Brandenburg and the federal government. On 13 August 2004, the Brandenburg state ministry for infrastructure and regional policy granted approval for the development of Schönefeld Airport into new Berlin Brandenburg International Airport.
A legal battle ensued, as local residents filed lawsuits against the ministry's decision. The dispute ended 16 March 2006, when the Federal Administrative Court of Germany rejected the residents' arguments. However, the court imposed stipulations on the flight operations at the new airport. The construction permit was granted only under the condition that once operational, the number of people living in the approach path would be lower compared to the situation surrounding the three existing airports — Tegel, Schönefeld and Tempelhof. Therefore, it was mandatory for Tegel and Schönefeld to close (Tempelhof was already decommissioned in 2008) once Berlin's air traffic is concentrated at the new airport.
By 2009 the construction cost was budgeted at €2.83 billion. FBB raised the financing for the project by a credit raising of €2.4 billion, a bank deposit of €430 million by the FBB partners and an additional €440 million of equity capital provided by FBB.
During construction, it became clear that the airport would become significantly more expensive due to underestimating the actual costs, construction flaws and increased expenses for soundproofing nearby homes. The series of delays in opening is expected to lead to a number of lawsuits against FBB, which may result in large-scale damage compensation for the affected airlines and airport businesses. Air Berlin already announced its intention of such a move.
By late 2012 expenditures for Berlin Brandenburg Airport totalled €4.3 billion, nearly twice the originally anticipated figure.
It became clear in November 2015 that the financial concept of the airport will remain fundamentally flawed. The main purpose of the many stores planned at the airport was to serve passengers who were changing planes, assuming that Berlin would be a big international hub. However, it was acknowledged in 2015 for the first time that competition between the hubs was already too stiff. Frankfurt Airport and London Heathrow would resist losing passenger shares without a price war and that few if any airlines would leave their hubs for Berlin. The only remaining potential airline for operating a hub was Air Berlin, which was in financial difficulties and did not plan to provide long distance service anytime soon.
In November 2015, auditors with the Brandenburg Comptroller concluded that financial control executed by Berlin, Brandenburg and Germany over the airport as owners was insufficient and inefficient. The Comptroller published a 400-page report in February 2016 describing the flawed opening including several construction lapses. This led the BER boss to retaliate publicly against the comptroller on 27 February decrying the release of the numbers.
Soundproofing nearby homes will be €50 million more expensive due to a verdict of the main administrative court of the states Berlin and Brandenburg. As of 5 May 2016 the court decided in favour of 25,500 plaintiffs. See also: Federal Administrative Court of Germany. The key directive of the verdict is that rooms must be provided with adequate ventilation if windows are closed due to noise and the airport authority must also determine how air inside the structures can be vented.
The airport avoided liability claims against Imtech and other firms involved in the construction of the fire exhaustion system.
Financing for the entire airport appeared headed toward bankruptcy in June 2016 due to the EU's unwillingness approve a pending request for €2.5 billion bringing the project to €6.9 billion. If the request was denied, the airport authority stated it would be bankrupt by August 2016. The EU permitted an additional €2.2 billion on 3 August 2016. A €2.4 billion loan was signed on 13 February 2017 containing €1.1 billion for financing and €1.3 billion to resolve old bad loans. The German federal government and the states of Berlin and Brandenburg guaranteed the debt.
Current total costs amount to €5.4 billion. Revised plans suggest additional costs amounting to an extra €2.19 billion. As of 3 June 2015, Germany applied for an additional €2.5 billion spending approval from the EU. This is in addition to the previous total of €4.3 billion, bringing total costs to €6.8 billion. The EU would only permit an additional €2.2 billion, which it did on 3 August 2016. Although the airport has yet to open officials are planning a possible third runway for approximately €1 billion and other new projects such as an additional terminal, expanded baggage system and another freight facility. The total additional spending would amount to €3.2 billion. The board warned of a further rise in costs because the airport will not open before 2017. The current time-cost frame is limited to 2016; the estimated cost of €6.9 billion is current as of May 2016. The airport company reportedly made the assurance to the European Investment Bank that the airport will open in September 2019. Forecasts estimate the airport will not be ready to open until 2020. This means a need for €500 million for refinancing to bridge the time gap between 2019 and 2020. The airport published a need for another billion euros up until 2020. This means that the three years of work from 2018 onwards will cost at least €900 million. The total cost of the airport will top €6.5 billion.
As of 13 January 2018, the company requested an additional €2.8 billion for extensions until 2030. Taking that into account, the total cost comes to €9.4 billion, with a total of €10.3 billion if the €900 million in overheads previously mentioned are factored in. An economical estimate determined the costs for the overheads at a conservative figure of €770 million.The airport is planning to borrow €400 million. Another issue arose when it became public that the airport head earns an annual salary of €500,000. A new loan was granted by German parliament on 30-june-18 totalling 132 mio€. The other two owners id est the states of Brandenburg and Berlin will likely permit their shares of the loan as well so the loan will total 500 mio€. The board postponed a decision concerning the loan until end of august 18, what leaves the entire finance planning dire. 
During much of the planning and construction phase the new airport was known as Berlin Brandenburg International Airport, abbreviated BBI. It was then discovered that the IATA code BBI already referred to Biju Patnaik International Airport, (also known as Bhubaneswar Airport) in India. When the planned opening date of 2 June 2012 drew nearer the FBB launched a marketing campaign introducing the BER branding, reflecting the new airport code.
In 2007 the FBB board decided that Berlin Brandenburg Airport would be given a second name, honoring a person with a distinctive link to the city of Berlin. On 11 December 2009, the decision was made in favor of Willy Brandt. The Nobel Peace laureate of 1971 served as mayor of West Berlin from 1957 to 1966 and as West German chancellor from 1969 to 1974. Berlin mayor Klaus Wowereit and Minister-President of Brandenburg Matthias Platzeck, both members of the Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD) (which Brandt led from 1964 to 1987) led the effort to add Brandt's name to the airport.
Other suggested honorees included Claus Schenk Graf von Stauffenberg; Albert Einstein and Marlene Dietrich (suggested by members of the Christian Democratic Union) Gustav Stresemann (nominated by the Free Democratic Party) and Otto Lilienthal (advocated by the Green Party).
As a result of the ongoing problems affecting the airport and the continuous negative publicity it gets in the German press, the Willy Brandt Foundation considered revoking the airport's permission to bear the former chancellor's name. This is due to concerns that an ongoing association might be considered disrespectful towards his legacy. However, no such measure has been taken so far.
|5 September 2006 (original)||30 October 2011|
|25 June 2010||3 June 2012|
|7 May 2012||17 March 2013|
|27 October 2012||27 October 2013|
|January 2013||on/after 2014|
|8 January 2014||on/after 2015|
|24 February 2014||on/after 2016|
|14 May 2014||on/after 2017|
|December 2014||2nd half of 2017|
|21 January 2017||2018|
|15 December 2017||October 2020|
To make way for the new airport, two villages were removed. The 335 inhabitants of Diepensee received compensation and were offered new homes in Königs Wusterhausen, a move that was completed by late 2004. The 35 villagers of Selchow were resettled to Großziethen in mid-2005.:16
After nearly 15 years of planning, actual construction work for Berlin Brandenburg Airport began on 5 September 2006.
In November 2007, the BER-Infotower opened a 32 metres (105 ft) high public observation tower and information center. It was part of the airport's visitor facilities, which also had a webcam of the construction progress. The transparent and twisted structure was originally intended to be temporary, with a scheduled removal announced in 2016.
Construction of the terminal building began in July 2008. On 8 and 9 May 2010, the airport celebrated its topping out with open days at the airport site. On 30 October 2011, the railway line and terminal station were ready for service, however no scheduled trains will operate until the opening.
Operating tests and service trials began on 24 November 2011, based on the anticipated opening date of 3 June 2012. A total of 12,000 volunteers participated in simulated check-in, security screening, boarding and baggage claim. The tests used 15,000 pieces of luggage in the automated baggage processing system, covered night-time operations and emergency scenarios. This phase also saw the acceptance tests of various airport systems. It became clear on 8 May 2012 that the building could not open on schedule, officially due to the failure of the fire protection system. In reality, according to a Brandenburg State Audit report in February 2016 the usability of the airport was at 56.2% (there were no ticket counters, the escalators did not work, etc.). The report went on to say there was no realistic chance that it could be used "reasonably successfully" in 2012. Legal implications concerning the failed 2012 opening are likely following the publication of the 2016 report.
Delayed opening and construction flaws
The construction of Berlin Brandenburg Airport has suffered from continued delays.
When construction of the terminal building began in 2006, FBB announced 30 October 2011 as the opening day for the new facility.
A few days after 14 June 2010 topping out ceremony, FBB announced that construction deadlines could not be met. They postponed the opening to 3 June 2012. This was blamed on the bankruptcy of pg bbi, the construction planning company.
As the new date drew nearer, airlines amended their timetables to reflect their plans to operate from BER. On the retail side of the airport shops and restaurants prepared for the opening. As the airports in Tegel and Schönefeld were to close once the last flights of 2 June had been serviced, a major logistics operation for moving the airports' infrastructure was launched. Vehicles, equipment and supplies that were needed at Tegel until the final moments would have been transported to BER during the night of 2–3 June. To allow this, the authorities planned to restrict the highways linking the two airports (A113, A100 and parts of A111) to airport traffic only. Rundfunk Berlin Brandenburg, the national broadcaster for Berlin and Brandenburg, scheduled 24 hours of continuous live coverage of the airport move. A special Lufthansa flight to Frankfurt Airport, operated with an Airbus A380, was scheduled as the first departure from the new airport on 3 June at 06:00.
On 8 May 2012 just 26 days before the move, FBB again postponed the opening date. The postponement led to the cancelling of moving plans and in some cases reversing actions already completed. It cited technical difficulties, primarily concerning the fire safety and smoke exhaust systems for the delay. As a result, FBB dismissed the director for technical affairs Manfred Körtgen and replaced him with Horst Amann. It also announced 17 March 2013 as the new opening date for BER. However, this was soon met by doubts due to the large number of construction flaws and problems that inspectors continued to find.
In early September 2012, FBB further postponed the opening to 27 October 2013. Again, media and experts (most notably Peter Ramsauer, Federal Minister for Construction and Infrastructure) voiced doubts about the deadline.
FBB announced on 6 January 2013 that the opening would be further delayed, at least until 2014; however, no definite opening date was given. Klaus Wowereit resigned as chairman of the supervisory board and was replaced by Matthias Platzeck, who previously had served as his deputy. The board also dismissed Rainer Schwarz, the CEO of FBB, on 16 January. By January 2013, FBB had announced and canceled four official opening dates. FBB named Hartmut Mehdorn, previously CEO of Deutsche Bahn (1999–2011) and Air Berlin (2011–2013) as Schwarz's replacement on 8 March 2013.
On 8 January 2014, FBB announced the airport would not open that year. Mehdorn stated on 24 February 2014 that it was unlikely the airport would open before 2016. In remarks made in August 2014, he pointed towards 2017 or 2018. Mehdorn announced no opening date by 14 October 2014, so a special commission established by the Brandenburg Parliament retained oversight of the project.
Citing dissatisfaction with construction progress, members of the airport board indicated during their 8 December 2014 meeting that they were beginning the search for a new CEO. Although Mehdorn's contract ran through 2016. One week later, Mehdorn announced he would resign as soon as the board named a successor but no later than June 2015. Karsten Mühlenfeld, former head of Rolls Royce Germany replaced him as airport CEO in March. On 20 March 2015, Mehdorn again faced questions from the Investigative Commission of Berlin's parliament. Mehdorn eventually ceased all public duties on 21 May 2015 citing health concerns.
Berlin's mayor Michael Müller was appointed the new head of the control board (Aufsichtsrat) on 3 July 2015. However, he had disagreements with Mühlenfeld. These disagreements were primarily over the opening date. Led by Mayor Müller, the board insisted on an opening in 2017.
A former manager for BER was taken into remand for alleged bribery on 13 May 2015. An Imtech manager is alleged to have given bribes to a BER manager at a highway gas station in 2012. Imtech built parts of the fire exhaustion system.
The German branch of (Dutch) Royal Imtech filed for bankruptcy on 6 August 2015 and its parent company went bankrupt a few days later. As a result, Martin Delius, leader of the commission of inquiry into the failures during the airport's construction stated that the planned opening in late 2017 was doubtful.
In August 2015, new allegations of corruption were published in the Bild newspaper. According to the paper, some large contractors filed additional payment demands after completion of their respective projects within BER and received the complete requested payments with almost no objections. Lawyers reviewing the process stated that the high percentage of claims granted approval was unique and extraordinary. As a result, all payments beginning from the start of the project were to be reviewed. The projected opening in 2017 was declared unlikely around the same time.
By 2016 further consequences of the low likelihood of a 2017 opening appeared on the horizon. Tegel's permit was set to expire at the end of 2017 but if Tegel was closed before BER was opened, massive disruptions would occur due to Tegel handling over 60% of all passenger traffic in Berlin. This led to expectations that pressure to open BER would mount drastically.
In April 2016, press spokesman Daniel Abbou was fired after giving a "too honest" interview. In the interview he stated that billions of euros had been squandered and that only someone "dependent on medication will give you any firm guarantees for this airport."
By May 2016, it had become clear that the expedited approval of the underground station would not occur. This effectively guaranteed that the airport would not open in 2017.
On 23 August 2016, a former Imtech department head admitted in court to taking €150,000 in bribes on a parking lot next to a highway in 2012.
At the end of August 2016 it was announced that the airport had missed an internal deadline and that the permissions for the next phase of construction could not be issued. This was because the fire protection system for the connection between the airport and railway station lacked sufficient documentation. These conditions were met on 6 October 2016. The conditions for the final construction approval would only be met on 27 January 2017.
The project management missed a 7 October 2016 deadline to announce a definite opening date for the airport. In October 2016, traffic commission chairman Burkert declared that an opening in 2017 was impossible.
By the end of 2016, unfinished construction and corrective work indicated that an opening prior to late 2017 was unlikely. Ryanair marketing head Kenny Jacobs suggested March 2018. In December 2016, Mühlenfeld hinted at a possible 2018 opening.
In January 2017, it became clear that the airport would not open in 2017. Estimates suggested that the airport would open in 2018 or 2019, at the latest.[excessive citations] Recent reports mentioned the 3rd quarter of 2019. On 6 March 2017 Engelbert Lütke Daldrup was appointed to replace Mühlenfeld as the head of the construction project. The target opening was pushed to 2018 or 2019 and 2020 became an option. The payment ability of the airport was expected to last until 2018. The airport filed a complaint regarding the release of secret information. Rainer Breitschenider was appointed head of the supervisory board on 17 March 2017. Mayor Mueller confirmed that the airport will not be ready until 2019. The recent bankruptcy of Air Berlin was another problem for the airport. With Air Berlin missing it became even clearer that the airport will not become a major hub where people connect from one flight to another. The number of connections you can catch will be immediately reduced and Tegel is too far away to be any help in this regard. Interested citizens forced a non-binding public quorum that was held parallel to the federal election. It carried the question whether Tegel should remain open if BER was already in operation. The majority of Berlin's citizens agreed. A new check of the entire airport by Germany's technical supervision service TÜV yielded anew grave lapses in terms of smoke control, sprinklers, fire detection, sirens, emergency bulbs and similar control system.,This meant that opening might be delayed until 2022. In response, the airport now planed to erect the "Ryanair terminal" T1E fast-lane. This would be used as a preliminary main hub even before the main terminal was finished. This may come to fruition at the end of 2022,and the main terminal would be delayed until 2022.Official estimates suggested the airport could open in October  2019.[excessive citations]The 2019 target became obsolete due to the aforementioned TÜV analysis. This highlighted the inadequacies in the handling of fire protection and sprinkler systems. Construction firms will then be upgraded or downgraded depending on their success from December 2017 onward.
It was mentioned as an issue of dismay that the airport head earns a monthly wage while also receiving a retirement pension as a former state secretary of the state of Berlin. The airport will open in 2020 and costs will top €7 billion. The airport chief executive gave his assurance that the date would be met. 750 display screens have already reached the end of their service life and will need to be replaced, as they were switched on for 6 years despite the airport not being open.
The planned extension of the airport is also a threat to opening in 2020, according to the airport's engineering advisor Faulenbach da Costa. He said: "The masterplan leads to the idea that opening in 2020 will be unlikely." He made the statement on Friday 16 March 2018 in front of the house of representatives in Berlin.  The reason for this is that more people than previously expected will be moving through the main terminal, causing an increase in fire emergency load. Even more passengers will arrive through the railway station in the basement. Thus smoke systems need to be adjusted once again, which will take time.  Lufthansa board member Thorsten Dirks said "the airport will be torn down and rebuilt."  Jörg Marks, the head of the technical department of the project, left the company on 19 April 2018. Mandatory acceptance test TUV listed 863 cable errors as of 21-may-2018. Brandenburg's state secretary for airport affairs Rainer Bretschneider "MR.BER"[better source needed] will go into retirement in June aged 69. The airport head got invited to testify in front of Berlin's senate' airport commission on 22 May concerning undelivered paperwork for Siemens for completion of the software for the smoke suction. Siemens declared beforehand that it would need the paperwork to complete the suction software . Berlin's assembly agreed on a 2nd parliamentary control commission concerning construction lapses on 28 June 2018. 
The delays have been caused by a catalogue of issues.
The most significant cause for the continuing delays has been the fire protection and alarm system. In the terminal building the system was not built according to the construction permit and failed the mandatory acceptance test necessary to open the airport. FBB proposed an interim solution employing up to 700 human fire spotters, which the building supervision department of the local Dahme-Spreewald district rejected. Inspectors have uncovered flaws in the wiring, programming and implementation of the highly complex system designed by Siemens and Bosch. The system automatically controls sprinklers, smoke extractors and fire doors. For aesthetic reasons designers decided that the terminal would have smoke extraction ducts in its ceiling, but they would not exhaust on its rooftop. During a fire, smoke would be pumped from the ceiling into a shaft running down and through the basement below the structure. This required the natural rising behavior of hot air in the shaft to be reversed. Achieving this on the scale necessary for this airport is a unique undertaking and so far this elaborate smoke extraction system has not worked as planned. To meet the acceptance test requirements, large scale reconstruction work of the fire system might be needed.
It emerged that Alfredo di Mauro who designed the fire safety system was not a qualified engineer. While his business cards stated he was an engineer he was actually qualified as an engineering draughtsman. Di Mauro was dismissed by the airport company in early May 2014. In the termination notice the company cited "serious defects" in his work and that trust in their relationship was "now finally shattered". The airport company went on to state that Di Mauro's plans would be "disposed of". The system was to be rebuilt and divided into three areas in order to make it "manageable". The costs of this work was reported as being a nine-digit figure.
Another factor impacting on the construction of the airport was insolvency of general planner Planungsgemeinschaft Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg International (pg bbi) and the dismissal of the Gerkan, Marg and Partners architects. Inspectors have uncovered many examples of poor workmanship due to a lack of proper supervision and documentation, most notably concerning the wiring. Reports have surfaced about cable conduits that hold too many cables or hold cables in incompatible combinations, such as phone lines next to high voltage wires. A total of 60 kilometres (37 mi) of cooling pipes were allegedly installed with no thermal insulation. To correct this, the demolition of numerous walls may be necessary. Furthermore, exterior vents appear to be in improper locations, allowing rainwater from the western façade to enter them. The 18 km (11 mi) long exhaust system to remove smoke from a fire is leaking.
The initial design for the main hall, known as "monster" to construction workers, called for a single exhaust system. Revised plans called for multiple systems controlled by 90 km (56 mi) of wiring. By 19 May 2014 Siemens had not yet designed the wire harnesses. These problems are forcing the initial construction budget to skyrocket.
BBI sought to open the north pier for use by three to ten flights per day as a test, though other parts of the airport would not be operational for some time. It requested that Technischer Überwachungsverein (Technical Inspection Association, TÜV) review the facility for safety and compliance to Brandenburg building codes. In its assessment report issued on 29 July 2014, TÜV found that some lightning rods were missing and that the back-up generator powering the sprinkler system did not provide adequate power. One source with the TÜV stated, "What the airport ordered was sufficient for a circus tent, but [if power fails] not for the dimensions of the terminal."
When Mehdorn testified before the Investigations Commission of the Berlin parliament in March 2015, he stated that redesigns to correct the exhaust system will not be complete until "after the summer break" and that the terminal will not be finished until March or April 2016.
An immediate halt to all construction efforts in terminal was ordered on 21 September 2015 because a collapse of the main roof was imminent. This was done according to Dahme-Spreewald district's construction supervision. The shutdown lasted two weeks. Furthermore, 600 fire protection walls have to be replaced because they were built out of gas concrete blocks meaning they provide insufficient fire protection. The mortar was found to be inadequate as well.
As of 7 February 2016, 24 opaque skylights (which can allow smoke to escape) in the main gangway required approval. The opaque skylights are part of the fire exhaustion system. FBB spokesman Daniel Abbou confirmed to Berliner Morgenpost that the 24 skylights may need "individual approval" rather than a blanket approval for all.
The main construction permission, i.e. the permission of the authority of Berlin issues to construction firms, was destined to expire. This would mean all construction work would have to terminate on 23 November 2016. A new law, referred to as a "Lex BER", extended the construction permission for ongoing projects.
As of April 2016, the fire exhaustion system has further lapses that will delay a new issuing of the rework permission (for the fire exhaustion). The underground railway station needs a redesign for the underground part of the fire exhaustion system. Incoming or departing trains may suck smoke into the station. As of such, air flow guidance is needed to avoid this effect. However, the airport cannot decide upon the method itself, permission is needed from Eisenbahnbundesamt. The construction authority of the district of Dahme-Spreewald, Eisenbahnbundesamt and the airport thus need to take part in the redesign effort. The plans on how to rebuild the underground part will not be finished before June. Thus with no plans the district cannot grant the redesign permission. As such, the airport cannot start the redesign effort before start July (anticipating that the district will shortly check on the plans). As such, the construction process is delayed by at least 8 months.
On 17 April 2016, it became clear that the district will check on the plans intensively. Airport head Mühlenfeld thus publicly demanded that the parties come to grips with their decision. The core of the problem is that there are two designs: one for the underground station by German railways and one for the connecting hallway and stairs from the terminal (by the airport). The plans are just being adapted towards each other and whether they are compatible remains to be seen.
On 25 April 2016, Mühlenfeld stated that "surprisingly, demands (towards a simulation of the problem) are higher than expected." In fact, the Federal Railway Authority demanded that the commuter trains get simulated up to a speed of 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph) when entering or leaving the station. This means it will take more time to simulate the exact solution for the underground railway station. The Federal Railway Authority also called for the simulation of emergency/evacuation scenarios. To prevent suffocation in an emergency, glass towers are to be built inside the railway station that connect to openings in the roof, which will provide fresh air. Mold seems to be persistent, the railway station is already ventilated from time to time by mobile fans.
By May 2016, it had become clear that an expedited approval of the underground station would not happen. Because of this, the timetable for opening has to be pushed back to 2018 or later. Specifically the airport was not able to conform to the fifth appendix for the construction permission, therefore it was declined. The airport found it disappointing that there was no quick approval of the underground redesign efforts as of 10 June. Instead, the authority stated that a filing for the fifth appendix was incomplete and insufficient. Chris Halecker decried political pressure from the airport. He is the vice in the hierarchy of Dahme-Spreewald.
An 11 October 2016 committee session found that motors used to open and close windows do not operate above 30 degrees Celsius and they need to be exchanged. Three thousand smoke detectors went missing, but were later found. Technical issues involving the electric doors became public on 18 January 2017. It was discovered that 80% of the doors would not open, which created concerns around venting of smoke in a fire. The sprinkler system has sustained failures in the south pier. The sprinkler heads were replaced for increased water flow, but the pipes are too thin to withstand the increased water pressure. The roof needs to be opened and the pipes will get exchanged. On 5 March 2017, the transformer station exploded. The new low-cost terminal T1 will probably delayed until 2021. It was revealed in a newspaper report that the airport cannot open before 2018 and that this was known by the airport for 3 years though it maintained otherwise.
As of May 2017, estimates suggest the airport will open in 2019, but an opening in 2020 has not been ruled out. The opening date of 2019 has been described as ambitious and even an opening date of 2020 has been called into question. On 23 November 2017, exactly 2,000 days after the originally planned opening date in 2012, a TÜV report listed additional deficits. It is possible that the new deficits will cause an additional delay of up to two years, with an opening in 2021.
Berlin Brandenburg Airport will have two parallel runways. With a spacing of 1,900 metres (6,200 ft), this will allow independent flight operations without interference from wake turbulence.
The northern runway of BER is the southern runway of the old Schönefeld Airport and has been in use since the 1960s. To adapt it for the new airport, it has been renovated and lengthened from 3,000 to 3,600 metres (9,800 to 12,000 ft).
The newly-built southern runway has a length of 4,000 metres (13,000 ft) and was officially commissioned 31 May 2012. Blackouts of the runway beacon of the southern runway led to investigations concerning air traffic security.
Since 2015, those two runways have been used to access the Schönefeld Airport. The northern position of the terminal makes for increased taxiing times when using the southern runway.
Air Traffic Control
The Deutsche Flugsicherung is responsible for air traffic control and apron control at Berlin Brandenburg Airport. At 72 metres (240 ft), the control tower is the third highest in Germany (only surpassed by Munich Airport and Düsseldorf Airport). On 25 March 2012, the new tower opened replacing the former facility at Schönefeld. Technical control (power supply & IT) went into operation on 16 March 2018.
The U-shaped terminal building of Berlin Brandenburg Airport was designed by gmp architects. They are the same company which designed the hexagonal Terminal A at Tegel Airport which opened in 1974. At BER the terminal sits between the two runways, creating a so-called midfield airport above the underground train station. The terminal has four public levels designated 0, 1, 2 and 3.
The check-in area is located in the public area at Level 1 and houses 118 counters organised in eight clusters, called check-in isles. Planners anticipate that a significant number of passengers will use the more than 100 self check-in machines that will be installed. Additionally, by May 2015 two extensions had been added to both sides of the main check-in area containing 12 more check-in counters and eight security lanes each to avoid overcrowding of the main hall.
The airside area will be accessible only to ticketed and screened passengers. Securitas Germany will staff the 35 screening stations. BER is equipped with 25 jet bridgeswith another 85 aircraft stands on the apron. The boarding and arrival areas are divided into three piers with the main pier 715 metres (2,350 ft) long and the north and south piers at 350 metres (1,150 ft) each. The main pier contains 16 jet-bridges, all but one have two levels, thus separating arriving and departing passengers. Level 1 is intended for Schengen passengers (gates A01–A20, B01–B20), while Level 2 (gates C01–C19, D01–D17) is for non-Schengen passengers.:8–10 Eight of the gates can accommodate wide-body aircraft and one gate has been designed to accommodate the Airbus A380. The apron has sufficient space to allow installation of a dual jetway allowing a quick boarding and disembarking process. A mezzanine (Level Z) at gates A21–22 and B21 allows for additional pre-boarding security checks for high-risk flights to the United States and Israel. Air Berlin, Lufthansa and Air France/KLM will operate airport lounges in the main pier which will also be open for passengers of the respective alliance partners.
The south pier was reserved for near-exclusive use of defunct Air Berlin and its Oneworld partners. The south terminal contains nine single-storey jet bridges (gates A30–A38). The north pier features a more minimalist design compared to the other two piers. This is to meet the demands of low-cost carriers and has no jet-bridges, but walk-boarding-gates (B30–45) with direct apron access.
Plans for a separate low-cost airline terminal costing €200 million were released in March 2016.
Plans for the transition terminal at the old tarmac what would be used while the old tarmac gets renovated failed fire regulations.
Cargo and general aviation
The initial module of the midfield cargo facilities has a capacity of 60,000 tonnes (59,000 long tons; 66,000 short tons) of cargo per year. With the completion of all planned expansions this could handle up to 600,000 tonnes (590,000 long tons; 660,000 short tons) per year. The general aviation terminal is located in the northern part of BER.
Airport tourism facilities
The Infotower is a 32 metres (105 ft) observation tower located adjacent to the northern cargo terminal. It includes a museum and a gift shop and is the only portion of the airport currently open to the public. FBB also offers guided tours of the airport which have grown in popularity since the delayed opening.
The two large hangars at BER were to be used by Lufthansa and Air Berlin respectively. However, Air Berlin have ceased operations as of 28 October 2017. Both provide enough space for maintenance work on four to five narrow-body aircraft.
The air transport wing of the German Defence Ministry (Flugbereitschaft) responsible for government flights will move to Berlin Brandenburg Airport from its current base at Cologne Bonn Airport. It operates a fleet of Bombardier Global Express, Airbus A319, Airbus A310 and Airbus A340-300 VIP configured aircraft. The Institute for Federal Real Estate is planning to construct a terminal on the northern edge of the airport for use by government officials and to welcome foreign dignitaries during state visits. The glass and wood building is expected to be completed by 2016. The former Terminal A of Schönefeld Airport is serving as an interim terminal.
In March 2016 the management of the airport terminated the contract with the German government that guaranteed usage of terminal A of Schönefeld Airport upon the completion of BER. While still not finished, the entire design is now supposed to have a different purpose than government use. However, the government is due a provisional solution following this termination. Karsten Mühlenfeld described the termination as a "formality". This description was disputed by Alexander Dobrindt, the Minister of Transport and Digital Infrastructure. Mühlenfeld suggested the provisional area RAMP1 as a replacement solution for terminal A at the end of February 2016. No construction firm could be found as of May 2016.
Noise abatement regulations in the airport's operating licence mean no take-offs or landings are allowed between midnight and 05:00. The Federal Administrative Court of Germany rejected a lawsuit by residents aiming to extend this night flight ban from 23:00 to 06:00 on 13 October 2011. It was also ruled that affected residents should be provided with additional noise insulation.
Projected passenger volume and expansion plans
Since German reunification, air traffic in Berlin has grown greatly. In 1991, the combined passenger volume of the city's airports was at 7.9 million per year. By 2014, this number had risen to 28 million. When Berlin Brandenburg opens, it will have a capacity of 27 million passengers per year. There are concerns that the airport will have insufficient capacity upon opening and plans are already in place for expansion. It may be expanded by up to two satellite concourses, bringing the terminal capacity to 45 million with runways capable of accommodating 50 million passengers per year. The two satellites located on the apron parallel to the main pier and linked by tunnel, are included in the construction permit of Berlin Brandenburg Airport. This means they could be built at any time without further regulatory hurdles or the possibility of third-party objections. A possible third runway could be located in the south, though no such plans exist to date.
Expected airlines and destinations
Air Berlin planned to move its primary hub from Tegel to Berlin Brandenburg. As a member of the Oneworld global airline alliance, Air Berlin required airport facilities capable of meeting the demands of its connecting passengers that Tegel cannot provide. However, Air Berlin filed for insolvency on 15 August 2017 and was bought in large parts by Lufthansa on 12 October, ahead of its collapse on the 27th of that month. Lufthansa will not use BER as a hub because it is too small.
With the expected opening of BER in 2019, Lufthansa will greatly expand its presence in Berlin. At its interim facilities at Tegel Airport the airline is adding several European destinations. Over the coming years, Lufthansa plans to have all European flights that do not originate or terminate at either Frankfurt Airport or Munich Airport operated by its Germanwings subsidiary. Germanwings has meanwhile been integrated into the Eurowings brand which will likely become one of the largest tenants at BER.
EasyJet will become the leading low-cost carrier at BER in terms of routes served, relocating from its current Schönefeld base. If their respective plans concerning Berlin services do not change, Germania will have an aircraft base at the new airport.
Airport head Lütke-Daldrup declared on 16 September 2017 that the bankruptcy of Air Berlin has no imminent impact towards the expected traffic flow volume at BER. Air Berlin will be merged into several other companies.
Projected traffic data
Combined total passengers at Berlin Tegel and Berlin Schönefeld Airports in 2010
|United Kingdom, London||Heathrow||593,989|
|France, Paris||Charles de Gaulle||494,445|
|United Kingdom, London Stansted||Stansted||264,482|
|Spain, Palma de Mallorca||Palma de Mallorca||584,709|
|Russia, Moscow||Domodedovo, Sheremetyevo, Vnukovo||431,007|
|Turkey, Istanbul||Atatürk, Sabiha Gökçen||406,063|
The terminal connects to a 3.1-kilometre (1.9 mi) east-west railway tunnel under the apron and the terminal complex. As the nine tunnel sections were the first structures to be built, they were constructed by conventional excavations.
A railway station with six tracks forms the lowest level of the terminal. Two tracks serve as a terminus for the S-Bahn – with the S9 serving the northern and the S45 serving the southern public transit ring. The other four tracks handle EuroCity, InterCity, Intercity-Express and Regional-Express trains.
Deutsche Bahn confirmed in August 2011 that multiple daily Intercity-Express and InterCity trains will connect the airport to Bielefeld, Hannover, Hamburg, Dresden, Leipzig, Halle and Wolfsburg. EuroCity trains will also connect to Wrocław and Kraków in Poland, Amsterdam in the Netherlands and Prague in the Czech Republic.
About half of the passengers are expected to access BER by rail. An express line (Regionalbahn) will connect the airport with the Berlin Hauptbahnhof (Berlin main station) in 30 minutes. Two more stops at Potsdamer Platz and Berlin Südkreuz will be part of the Airport Express, which is planned to make the trip in 20 minutes. As of 2016, rebuilding the Berlin–Dresden railway that would allow the 20 minute trip to Hauptbahnhof is not expected to finish until 2024.
According to the district administrator of Dahme-Spreewald, train rides towards BER might be complicated and require changing trains. He suggests a new rail concept might be necessary.Ringbahn suffered another setback when construction was halted due to bats. Final construction permission for the railway station was granted on 26 March 2018.
Line U7 stops short of the airport but there are plans to extend it towards the airport if and when funds become available. The issue is complicated by the fact that the line would have to cross the state border and it is unclear who would have to pay for which parts of construction operations and maintenance.
Berlin Brandenburg Airport is connected by its own exit to the A113. The road carries traffic into Berlin to the A100 and out to the A10 where it continues south as the A13in the direction of Dresden. The highway 96a along the north side of the airport is being expanded to four lanes towards Potsdam.
Four car parks and a car rental centre will be completed by the opening of BER. Around 10,000 parking spaces will be available in four multi-storey car parks.
A study released in September 2016 attested that BER will double the amount of vehicular traffic, causing frequent traffic jams on the Autobahn once the airport opens. The A100 and A113 do not have enough lanes to support the expected volume of traffic. The approach to BER was deemed insufficient for the expected traffic and will lead to heavy congestion on the highways throughout south-central Berlin. There are also concerns at increased accidents and air pollution. The traffic volumes would also cause frequent closings of the Britz tunnel on the A100.
Over 10% of passengers are expected to come from Poland , also thanks to upgraded highways on the Polish side of the border. It is hoped that these upgrades will make the airport accessible for air travellers from the western regions of that country. Congestion will be high in tunnels leading to the airport.
Public transport connections at the new airport will include numerous bus services. BER will be served by the express buses X7 and X11. The X7 connects to the U7 subway at Rudow station. The X11 bus continues to Lichterfelde-West and to Dahlem. Other bus lines also stop at a number of stations, providing connections with Berlin’s public transport network and destinations in Brandenburg.
Commercial and exposition area
Berlin Air Show (ILA)
On 3 July 2012, the Berlin ExpoCenter Airport opened on the southeastern portion of the airport grounds. Messe Berlin operates the 250,000 square metres (2,700,000 sq ft) exposition facility that is primarily intended as the site of the biennial Berlin Air Show.
Airport Information Center
Coinciding with groundbreaking for construction of the new airport, an information and public relations center called airportworld opened near the old Schönefeld Airport. On 14 November 2007, the Infotower, a 32 metres (105 ft) high public viewing tower containing an exhibition about the new airport opened on the BER construction site.
The area surrounding BER is zoned as a commercial district. Plans call for the construction of shopping centers and parking structures as well as industrial, commercial and office spaces. Situated directly at the terminal complex will be the BER Airport City with an area of 16 hectares (40 acres). Marketing of the real estate began in autumn 2006 and beginning in 2009 offices, hotels, car rentals, four parking decks with a capacity of 10,000, restaurants and retail spaces were built here.
To the north is the BER Business Park Berlin with a planned area of 109 hectares (270 acres) for industrial and commercial use as well as congress centers. A further Business Park North was proposed as a future use of the area of the old Schönefeld terminal. However, so far there are no definite plans for the future use of this area.
In September 2010 Deutsche Flugsicherung published aircraft arrival and departure paths for Berlin Brandenburg Airport, which significantly differ from earlier ones used in the court decision for the construction permit. In the original maps, aircraft were expected to take off and land in a path parallel with the runway. The new plans saw flight paths that deviate from the runway direction by 15 degrees. Therefore, aircraft would now fly over areas in southern Berlin (Lichtenrade, Steglitz and Zehlendorf) and adjacent Brandenburg (Teltow, Stahnsdorf, Kleinmachnow and Potsdam) to the surprise of local residents. This prompted a wave of protests and a lawsuit that the courts rejected.
Both the expansion of Schönefeld Airport into BER and the quality of the connection to the railway network are the subject of public debate. The Bürgerverein Brandenburg-Berlin e.V. represents local residents who protest an expansion of air traffic to and from the south of Berlin. Also, traffic and environmental experts criticise the late completion dates for the fast connection to the Berlin Hauptbahnhof. Still, Berlin Hauptbahnhof will be only a 30-minute journey with trains departing every 15 minutes upon inauguration. By 2020, this should be reduced to 20 minutes after reconstruction of the Dresdner bahn.
Due to the rising passenger numbers at Berlin airports and delays to BER, concerns were voiced in 2013 that the new airport might be too small as passenger numbers at existing Berlin airports were approaching the BER design capacity.
In May 2016, it emerged that a whistle blower on the airport project, who had alerted the public to major corruption within the project, had been poisoned with a "deadly substance" but survived after a three-month period of illness.
- Transport in Germany
- List of airports in Germany
- List of world's most expensive transport infrastructure
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Derzeit gehe die Flughafengesellschaft Berlin-Brandenburg (FBB) von rund 5,3 Milliarden Euro Gesamtkosten aus. ("Currently, the airport company Berlin-Brandenburg (FBB) expects approximately €5.3 billion total cost.")
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- "Mega move to new Berlin Airport begins". The Local. 11 April 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
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- "BER-Überraschung: Mehdorn wird Chef des Berliner Flughafens" [BER surprise: Mehdorn is chief of the Berlin airport]. Der Spiegel (in German). 8 March 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Berlin airport's 2014 opening cancelled again". The Local. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 28 July 2014.
- "BER öffnet vielleicht erst 2016" [BER may open in 2016]. Berliner Zeitung (in German). 24 February 2014. Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- Schacht, Holger (11 August 2014). "Mehdorn verplappert sich: "2017 oder 18"" [Mehdorn flubs it... 2017 or 18!]. Berliner Kurier. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- Metzner, Thorsten. "Bericht des Untersuchungsausschusses Überall Verfehlungen Das BER-Drama auf über 1000 Seiten" [Report of the control commission: Lapses everywhere, The BER Drama on over 1000 pages].
- "Neues vom Pannenflughafen: Finden Sie den Fehler auf diesem BER-Foto" [News from the Disaster-airport: Try to find the error in this BER picture]. Bild. 20 June 2016.
- "Rechnungshof: Flughafen-Aufsichtsrat mit Fachleuten besetzen" [Court of Auditors: Fill Airport Board with experts]. Die Welt (in German). 15 October 2014.
- "Landtag will erneut BER-Sonderausschuss einrichten" [Parliament wants to install new BER Special Commission]. Lausitzer Rundschau (in German). Retrieved 15 October 2014.
- Schon, Michael (14 October 2014). "Landtag will weiter über den BER reden" [Parliament wants to talk about the BER]. RBB (in German). Archived from the original on 15 October 2014.
- "Neuer Chef für Berliner Flughafen gesucht" [Looking for New Chief of Berlin airport]. n-tv (in German). 8 December 2014. Retrieved 8 December 2014.
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- Fritsche, Andreas (15 December 2014). "Scheitern programmiert: Andreas Fritsche ist dennoch überrascht von Mehdorns Rückzug" [Programmed Failure: Andreas Fritsche is still surprised by Mehdorn withdrawal]. Neues Deutschland (in German). Retrieved 15 December 2014.
- "Flughafen-Chef Mühlenfeld beginnt mit der Arbeit" [Airport chief Mühlenfeld begins work]. RBB (in German). 16 March 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "The anti-Mehdorn: calm, but without vision". Märkische Allgemeine (in German). Retrieved 23 June 2015.
- "BER soll Baukosten in 25 Jahren einspielen" [BER to recover construction costs in 25 years]. RBB (in German). 18 March 2015. Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Flughafen-Chef Mühlenfeld beginnt mit der Arbeit" [Airports CEO Mühlenfeld starts working] (in German). Archived from the original on 24 March 2015. Retrieved 21 March 2015.
- "Mehdorn legt alle öffentlichen Ämter nieder" [Mehdorn leaves all public offices]. Handelsblatt. Dusseldorf. 20 May 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Flughafen Berlin-Brandenburg: Michael Müller zum Aufsichtsratschef gewählt" [Michael Müller was elected as a member of the Supervisory Board]. Der Spiegel (in German). 3 July 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Michael Müller rückt von BER-Geschäftsführung ab" [Michael Müller leaves BER's management]. Der Tagesspiegel (in German). 14 October 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "BER weiter vier Monate hinter dem Zeitplan" [BER Four More Months Behind Schedule]. Neues Deutschland. 15 October 2015.
- "Bauarbeiten liegen weiterhin hinter dem Soll zurück" [Construction work remains behind the target]. RBB. 14 October 2015. Archived from the original on 15 October 2015. Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- Petersen, Lars (15 October 2015). "Wird der Flughafen BER doch erst 2018 eröffnet?". Bild (in German). Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- Dittmer, Diana (22 April 2016). "BER-Start 2017 "plus vier Wochen"? Müller: Jetzt sind die Behörden dran" [BER start 2017 "plus 4 weeks"? Müller: Authorities must act now] (in German). Retrieved 21 July 2017.
- "Früherer BER-Manager wegen Fluchtgefahr in U-Haft". Retrieved 5 June 2015.[permanent dead link]
- "Korruptionsverdacht: Richter steckt früheren BER-Manager in U-Haft". Retrieved 3 June 2015.
- "Neuer Rückschlag für Großflughafen BER". Retrieved 7 August 2015.
- "Imtech files for bankruptcy protection in NL—Imtech beantragt in Niederlanden Gläubigerschutz". Retrieved 11 August 2015.
- "Drum rettet nur den BER, wer auch denken kann wie er" [BER can only be saved by someone who thinks like BER]. welt.de.
- "Schrecken ohne Ende" [Horrors without end]. Neues Deutschland.
- "Delius sieht BER-Eröffnungstermin stark gefährdet". Retrieved 15 July 2015.
- "BER-Manager unter Korruptionsverdacht". Retrieved 16 August 2015.
- "BER-Eröffnung Ende 2017 wackelt".
- "Berliner Flughäfen steigern 2016 ihre Passagierzahlen um elf Prozent". airliners.de. Berlin. 12 January 2017. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
- "BER-Desaster fordert Tegel heraus" [BER disaster challenges Tegel]. abendblatt.
- Griggs, Ian (15 April 2016). "Troubled German airport's PR man 'sacked for straight-talking interview'". PRWeek. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
- "Berliner Pannenflughafen: Zu ehrliches Interview – BER-Pressesprecher gefeuert" [Berlin's Defective Airport: Too Honest Interview – BER Press Spokesman fired]. Der Spiegel. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
- "Notplan für BER-Eröffnung 2017 geplatzt" [BER opening plan for 2017 cancelled].
- "Geständnis zu Prozessbeginn: Ex-BER-Bereichsleiter nahm Schmiergeld an". n-tv. 2016-08-23. Retrieved 2018-01-01.
- "BER verpasst nächste Teil-Genehmigung für 2017" [BER misses next part-permission]. Tagesspiegel. 2016-08-25. Retrieved 2018-01-01.
- "TU-Professor: Tegel kann nach Start des BER offen bleiben" [Technical univ prof – Tegel may stay open after BER start]. 2016-10-06. Retrieved 6 October 2016.
- "Landrat: Letzte Genehmigung für den BER Ende Januar". Berliner Morgenpost. 2017-01-09.
- Metzner, Thorsten (28 January 2017). "Nach Verschiebung des Eröffnungstermins: Letzte Baugenehmigung für den BER erteilt" [After postponement of opening date: Final construction approval issued for BER]. Der Tagesspiegel. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
- "Vor Aufsichtsratssitzung: Wieder platzt ein Termin am BER" [Ahead of board meeting: another deadline goes bust]. Berliner Zeitung. 2016-09-27. Retrieved 28 September 2016.
- "Verkehrsausschuss-Chef: BER-Eröffnung nicht vor 2018".[permanent dead link]
- von Bullion, Constanze (23 October 2013). "Verloren in der Entrauchungsmatrix" [Lost in the smoke extractor matrix]. Süddeutsche Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 24 October 2013.
- "BER: Berliner, wollt ihr ewig bauen?" [Berliners, do you want to build forever?]. web.de. Archived from the original on 15 August 2015. Retrieved 15 August 2015.
- "Schon wieder verschoben: Großflughafen BER öffnet wohl frühestens 2018". business insider. Retrieved 27 December 2015.
- "Was die Eröffnung jetzt noch gefährden kann" [What might still endanger the next opening date – Willy Brandt airport is supposed to open in 2 years]. Wirtschaftswoche. Retrieved 29 December 2015.
- "Ryanairs Marketingchef kurbelt BER-Spekulationen an" [Ryanair marketing head fuels BER speculation].[permanent dead link]
- "Auch Flughafen-Chef Mühlenfeld deutet nun BER-Eröffnung erst für 2018 an" [Airport head Mühlenfeld hints at opening in 2018]. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
- "Chance auf BER-Start 2017 "sehr gering"" [Chances of BER opening in 2017 are "very low"]. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
- "BER- Eröffnung erneut verschoben?" [opening delayed anew? 5th shift of opening likely – 16 January 2017 likely to see inking of new 1.1 bio loan]. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
- "BER-Eröffnung auf 2018 verschoben". Focus. Retrieved 31 December 2016.
- "Anders als mit Pfusch ist das nicht zu erklaeren" [It cannot be explained as anything other than a botch].
- "Abgeordnetenhaus berät über BER-Chaos" [Berlin's house of representatives reviews BER-chaos].
- "Ber kann 2017 engueltig nicht oeffnen" [need to rewire electronic doors].
- "Mehdorn plant den Abflug Spätestens 2019 soll der BER eröffnen" [Mehdorn seeks movers for shift to BER 2019 at latest]. Die Tageszeitung. 17 August 2014. Retrieved 19 August 2014.
- "Pannen-Flughafen BER: Steht die Eröffnung erst 2018 an?" [The Defective Berlin Airport: Will it open before 2018?]. The Huffington Post. 18 August 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Streit beim Flughafenbau: Berliner Flughafen BER trennt sich vom TÜV" [Dispute over Airfield Construction: TÜV gets fired]. Huffington Post. 19 August 2014. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- Wedekind, Olaf (12 August 2014). "Geht Berlins Pannen-Airport erst 2018 an den Start?" [Will Berlin's Defective Airport Open before 2018?]. Bild. Retrieved 10 September 2014.
- "Pannen-Flughafen BER: Eröffnung rückt in immer weitere Ferne" [Defective BER Airport: opening moves further and further away]. Focus (in German). 22 November 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014.
- "Ist der BER schon fertig?". Retrieved 25 July 2015.
- "Terminplan des Pannenairport – Das muss alles passieren, damit der BER eröffnet wird" [Dateline of the error-ridden airport – this needs to happen so it opens].
- "Prognose_zum_neuen_Berliner_Flughafen – Der BER kann erst 2019 starten" [estimate for the airport: it can only open 2019 says Dieter Faulenbach da Costa]. Tagesspiegel.
- "Lütke Daldrup soll es nun richten" [Luetke-Daldrup is now supposed to get a grip]. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- "Neuer BER-Flughafenchef Daldrup: "Nicht so viel quatschen"". bild. Retrieved 6 March 2017.
- "Neuer BER-Chef soll 400.000 Euro Gehalt bekommen" [new BER head supposed to earn 400.000euros per year]. Retrieved 19 March 2017.
- "Kaum ist der neue BER-Chef im Amt, verschiebt er schon!" [The new BER CEO is hardly in office and is already postponing!].
- "BER-Eröffnung erst 2020?" [Ber opening only 2020].
- "BER 2018 geht das Geld aus" [BER runs out of money in 2018].
- "Flughafen stellt Anzeige" [Airport files criminal complaint]. tagesspiegel. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
- "BER – ein Lexikon des Wahnsinns" [thesaurus of lunacy]. welt. Retrieved 12 March 2017.
- "Breitschneider to be new head controller". Retrieved 17 March 2017.
- "Eröffnung des BER möglicherweise erst Anfang 2019".
- "Was bedeutet das Ende von Air Berlin für den BER?" [What does the end of Air Berlin mean for the BER?].
- "CDU hat es beim Flughafen TXL jetzt eilig-Die Union diskutiert mit Experten, wie Tegel offen bleiben kann. Zentrale Forderungen: ein Gutachten zur BER-Kapazität und Lärmschutzzonen" [Conservatives are now in a hurry - conservatives discussing with experts how Tegel may remain open-central demand is an analysis concerning capacity and airplane noise]. tagesspiegel. Retrieved 2017-10-22.
- "Noch mehr Mängel am Flughafen BER" [even more lapses]. Retrieved 2017-11-23.
- "Irre Idee BER öffnet ohne Hauptterminal –" [nutters idea: BER opens without main terminal]. Berliner Kurier. Retrieved 2017-12-09.
- "BER - Ein Neuanfang im Nirgendwo?" [a new beginning in nowhere land?]. Retrieved 2017-09-13.
- "Geheimes BER-Eröffnungsdatum: Hauptstadtfughafen soll im September 2019 starten" [secret BER opening date: capital city airport supposed to start in sep 19]. Retrieved 2017-09-16.
- "bosch und Siemens widersprechen neuem Terminplan für Hauptstadtflughafen BER".
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- "Eröffnung des BER möglicherweise erst Anfang 2019" [Opening of BER may not occur until early 2019]. Die Zeit (in German). 16 July 2017.
- "Eröffnung erst im Herbst 2019 möglich" [opening only in autumn 19]. Bild. Retrieved 20 August 2017.
- "Flughafenchef will Starttermin nicht vor Dezember nennen" [airport head will not announce before dec17 when it opens]. tagesspiegel. Retrieved 2017-08-30.
- "Neue Recherchen zum BER: Eröffnung erst 2019?N" [new files about BER: opening only 2019??]. neues Deutschland. Retrieved 2017-08-30.
- "Eröffnung 2019 oder doch erst 2023 – oder" [opening 2019 or only 2023... or???]. Retrieved 2017-09-16.
- "Kommentar zum Hauptstadtflughafen Der BER ist noch für Überraschungen gut –" [commentary: BER's still in for a surprise].
- "Der nächste Termin wird egaler und egaler" [The next date is becoming even more irrelevant on the dateline].
- "Bezieht der BER-Chef rechtswidrig doppelte Bezüge?". Retrieved 2018-02-01.
- "Kosten explodieren weiter – Eröffnung erneut verschoben –" [costs continue to explode - opening delayed anew]. MZ. Retrieved 2018-02-24.
- "Kosten für BER übersteigen sieben Milliarden Euro". spiegel. Retrieved 2018-02-24.
- "Interview with Luetke-Daldrup". youtube.
- "Hunderte Monitore am BER schon veraltet" [Hundreds of monitors already obsolete]. spiegel. Retrieved 2018-03-16.
- "Im BER sind bereits 750 Monitore ausgebrannt". rp. Retrieved 2018-03-16.
- "Faulenbach: BER-Ausbau gefährdet Eröffnung". Retrieved 2018-04-14.
- "FLUGHAFEN-BERATER ZWEIFELT AN START DES HAUPTSTADTFLUGHAFENS 2020". verkehrs rundschau. Retrieved 2018-03-16.
- "Das Ding wird abgerissen und neu gebaut". welt. Retrieved 2018-03-17.
- "BER-laesst-Frustpegel-bei-der-Lufthansa-steigen-" [video board member talks deconstruction - BER lets frustration quota fly at Lufthansa]. ntv. Retrieved 2018-03-18.
- "Technikchef Marks verlässt den BER" [Technical chief Marks leaves BER]. Retrieved 2018-04-20.
- "Der Technik-Chef des BER hört auf - und bekommt eine sechsstellige Abfindung" [6-digit compensation for former technical head]. Retrieved 2018-04-29.
- "Keine Betriebssicherheit – BER fällt durch TÜV" [no sustained operation - BER fails TUV test]. Retrieved 2018-05-21.
- "wiki:Rainer Bretschneider".
- "Platz- und Zeitnot: Am BER wird es eng und enger-Neue TÜV-Gutachten, strittige Passagierprognosen, dazu eine Personalie und die Frage nach dem Weiterbetrieb Tegels" [It's turning tighter and tighter around (the) BER - new TUV analysis, diverging passenger number predictions- further lack of time and as well whether Tegel will carry on]. Retrieved 2018-05-22.
- "CDU zitiert BER-Chef in den Ausschuss 2018-05-22" [CDU invites BER head for commission appearance]. Retrieved 2018-05-23.
- "Wieso noch ein U-Ausschuss zum BER?" [why's there yet another control commission?]. Retrieved 2018-07-02.
- Joshua Hammer Reprints (23 July 2015). "How Berlin's Futuristic Airport Became a $6 Billion Embarrassment". Bloomberg. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
- "Interesting Engineering Blunders, Interview with Alfredo Di Mauro". Retrieved 30 January 2016.
- Amann, Melanie; Scherff, Dyrk (13 January 2013). "Die geheime Mängelliste" [The secret list of defects]. Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Fake engineer made Berlin Airport fire system". The Local.de.
- "Ex-Planer Alfredo di Mauro war offenbar Hochstapler". Der Tagesspiegel.
- "Zeitung: Brandschutzanlage am BER undicht" [Newspaper: Fire protection system at BER leaking]. Yahoo! News (in German). 18 May 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "666 – Number of the Beast". Die Tageszeitung (in German). 18 May 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Wehmeyer, J.C. (1 August 2014). "Raten Sie mal, was am BER jetzt wieder vergessen wurde" [Guess what was forgotten at BER again this time]. Bild (in German). Retrieved 6 August 2012.
- "BER gibt Such nach Generalplaner auf". Archived from the original on 12 June 2015. Retrieved 12 June 2015.
- "Suche abgeschlossen: BER-Generalplaner gefunden". BZ. Retrieved 27 August 2015.
- "Wie es nach dem Baustopp am BER jetzt weitergeht". Retrieved 23 September 2015.
- "Baustopp am BER aufgehoben".
- "Teilentwarnung am BER-Terminal – Alert partly lifted concerning BER terminal – shutdown probably won't take so long". Berliner Zeitung. Retrieved 26 September 2015.
- "BER-Terminalsperrung könnte in Teilen länger dauern – terminal shutdown could take longer in parts- where ventilators are hanging which weigh 4 instead of 2 tons – in total 5".
- "BER-Aufsichtsrat hält an 2017 fest-Wenn es schlecht laufe, finde man in dem neuen Terminal in Schönefeld noch 15 solcher Fehler, vermutete Bretschneider.-Brettschneider assumed that if it goes bad you may find 15 of such failures".
- "600 Wände müssen ausgetauscht werden".
- "600 Wände müssen ausgetauscht werden".
- "Wieder wegen Brandschutz- Beim BER klappt mal wieder nichts".
- "Neue Spekulationen um BER-Eröffnung".
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- "BER liegt acht Monate hinter dem Zeitplan" [BER's 8 months behind schedule]. Tagesspiegel. 2016-04-09. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- "Spätestens im Mai muss eine Einigung zum Brandschutz fallen" [At least in May a decision is needed concerning fire protection (in the underground station)]. Tagesspeigel.
- "Auflagen gefährden Start des BER" [requirements menace start of BER].
- "Dieser Brief gefährdet die BER Eröffnung" [This letter endangers the BER opening]. Bild.
- "Sturzflug am BER" [Does the BER dive?].
- "Dieses Loch soll das Brandschutzproblem lösen" [This hole is supposed to solve the fire problem].
- "BER bekommt zwei Terrarien für frische Luft" [2 terrariums for fresh air provided].
- "BER und Deutsche Bahn einigen sich auf Vergleich" [airport and GermanRailways agree on agreement concerning the railway station – no court involved]. Archived from the original on 9 May 2016.
- "Und wieder gehen Terminpläne am BER in Rauch auf" [timetable went up in smoke once more]. rbb. Archived from the original on 2017-01-01.
- "Behörde sagt Fehlende Unterlagen kann man nicht bearbeiten" [authority says missing forms cannot be handled].
- "BER-Chef dämpft Hoffnung auf rasche Eröffnung – ww.berliner-zeitung.de/24876880" [BER head dampens hopes for quick opening].
- "BER: Defekte Motoren und veraltete Monitore" [defunct motors and antique monitors].
- "Bau des Hauptstadtflughafens – Die Lach- und Sachgeschichten des BER" [the top 5 in weird construction failures].
- "Der BER bleibt länger zu, weil die Türen nicht aufgehen" [BER stays closed because the doors will not open]. BZ.
- "ROUNDUP: Neue Probleme rücken BER-Fertigstellung in die Ferne" [New problems push opening further into the future].
- "soll" [7 reasons why Tegel should stay open].
- "BER kämpft jetzt mit zu dünnen Wasserrohren und defekten Türen" [BER battles thin water pipes].
- "Großeinsatz nach Explosion im Umspannwerk" [Emergency after explosion in transformer station].
- "BER-Bosse wissen seit 2014, dass bis 2018 nichts fliegt" [BER-Bosses knew since 2014 that nothing would fly until 2018]. bild. Retrieved 1 April 2017.
- "Berliner Flughafen erst 2021 fertig?". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. Retrieved 2017-11-24.
- "Closure of the south runway at Schoenefeld". Berliner Flughafen-Gesellschaft mbH. 12 October 2007. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
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- "Opening of the BER control tower". youtube.com.
- "Technische Leitstelle am BER erfolgreich in Betrieb genommen". Austrian Wings..
- "Pavillons am neuen Hauptstadtflughafen BER sind fertig". airliners.de. Retrieved 17 May 2016.
- Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg Handbuch (PDF). Berliner Flughafen-Gesellschaft mbH. Archived from the original (PDF) on 17 April 2012. Retrieved 6 April 2012.
- "Noch mehr Bau am Bau" [Still more construction within the construction-BER gets discount terminal-Plans for the capital airport are being revised again-now, a further terminal for discount airlines is supposed to be built] (in German).
- "Starttermin weiter offenAufsichtsrat billigt BERErweiterung" [Starting date still open - board agrees on BER expansion].
- "Berliner PannenprojektFlughafen BER könnte schnell an Grenzen stoßen" [Berlin's flub project: Ber close to overflow??].
- "Wieder Brandschutzprobleme an Berliner Flughafen" [again fire regulation FAIL at BER].
- "Infotower". Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg GmbH. Archived from the original on 13 April 2014. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Cottrell, Chris (10 April 2014). "In a Land of On-Time Arrivals, a Tour of Anything But". The New York Times. p. A9.
- "airberlin, Germania, Harder & Partner and Berlin Airports celebrate laying of foundation stone for first maintenance hangar at BBI". Airberlin.com. 21 March 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "Lufthansa Technik: Spatenstich für BER-Wartungshalle" [Lufthansa Technik: Groundbreaking for BER maintenance hangar] (in German). airliners.de. 21 June 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- "List of civilian aircraft types operated by German Luftwaffe". airfleets.net. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Paul, Ulrich (14 May 2012). "Bauverzögerung führt zu Mehrkosten" [Construction delay leads to additional costs]. Berliner Zeitung (in German). Retrieved 29 July 2014.
- Schoelkopf, Katrin (27 July 2008). "Warum die Bundesregierung umweltschädlich ist" [Why the Federal Government is harmful to the environment]. Berliner Morgenpost (in German). Retrieved 29 July 2014.
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- "BER-Drama und kein Ende Streit um Regierungsterminal verschärft sich" [battle for govt terminal escalating] (in German).
- "Flughafen BER findet keine Baufirma für Regierungsterminal" [Airport cannot contract a construction firm]..
- ADV Monthly Traffic Report (PDF). Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Verkehrsflughäfen (ADV). 5 February 2013. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2015. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
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- "Air-Berlin-Insolvenz hat kaum Folgen für Berliner Flughäfen –".
- "Was bedeutet das Ende von Air Berlin für den BER?" [what does the end of Air Berlin mean for BER?]. Retrieved 2017-09-16.
- "Air Berlin wird zerschlagen-Gläubiger verhandeln vor allem mit dem deutschen Marktführer Lufthansa".
- Luftverkehr auf allen Flugplätzen [Traffic at All Airports] (PDF) (in German). Federal Statistical Office of Germany (Destatis). 28 July 2011. Archived from the original (PDF) on 18 November 2013. Retrieved 29 July 2014.
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- "Nach BER-Eröffnung Kollaps" [Loge warns of traffic collapse]. 18 October 2016. Retrieved 3 July 2017.
- "Fledermäuse stoppen Bauarbeiten für Ringbahnbrücke" [work for Ringbahn bridge halted due to bats]. Retrieved 2018-01-18.
- "Bauamt genehmigt BER-Bahnhof" [Controller permits BER-station]. Retrieved 2018-03-26.
- "Der BER könnte die Stadtautobahn lahmlegen" [BER could cripple traffic on city highways]. Retrieved 14 September 2016.
- "Wenn der Flughafen BER öffnet, dann schließt der Tunnel Britz" [if BER opens tunnel Britz closes].
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