|Community development block
সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
|District||South 24 Parganas|
|Assembly constituency||Jaynagar, Kultali|
|• Total||186.25 km2 (71.91 sq mi)|
|Elevation||7 m (23 ft)|
|• Density||1,400/km2 (3,500/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5.30)|
|PIN||743338 (Nimpith Ashram)
743337 (Joynagar Majilpur)
|Vehicle registration||WB-19, WB-20, WB-22|
|Literacy Rate||69.71 per cent|
During 1946-1950 the Tebhaga movement in several parts of the 24 Parganas district led to the enactment of the Bargadari Act. Although the Bargadari Act of 1950 recognised the rights of bargadars to a higher share of crops from the land that they tilled, it was not implemented. Large tracts, beyond the prescribed limit of land ceiling, remained with the rich landlords. In 1967, West Bengal witnessed peasant uprising, against non-implementation of land reforms legislation, starting from Kheyadaha gram panchayat in Sonarpur CD Block. From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal under the Left Front government. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants. Subsequently, “Operation Barga” was aimed at securing tenancy rights for the peasants. In Jaynagar II CD Block 2,264.89 acres of land was acquired and vested. Out of this 2,034.12 acres or 89.88% of the vested land was distributed. The total number of patta holders was 1,342.
Beledurganagar, a constituent panchayat of Jaynagar II block, is located at.
Jaynagar II CD Block is bounded by Jaynagar I CD Block in the north, Kultali CD Block in the east, Sundarbans forests in the south, and Mathurapur II, Mathurapur I and Mandirbazar CD Blocks in the west.
Area and administration
Jaynagar II CD Block has an area of 186.25 km2. Jaynagar police station serves this CD Block. Jaynagar II panchayat samity has 10 gram panchayats. The block has 49 inhabited villages. Headquarters of this block is at PO Ramkrishna Ashram.
The Sundarbans area, in the south of the district, includes 102 deltaic islands, out of which 54 are inhabited and the rest is reserved forest. The area spread over 54,000 km2 is home to 3.9 million people or around 40% of the population of the district. As per December 2001 census there were 271 Royal Bengal tigers and other animals in the Indian portion of the Sundarban forest, spread across 42,000 km2. The floor of the Sunderbans varies from 0.9 m to 2.11 m above sea level. Tidal saline water from the Bay of Bengal alternatively drowns and exposes the islands twice a day throughout the year. Around 3,500 km of earthen embankments, protecting the inhabited islands, have been facing the daily onslaught in a cyclone-prone area for more than a century. Clearing of the forests effectively started in 1781 and in about a century Hingalganj, Hasnabad, Sandeshkhali I and II, Minakhan, Haroa (all in North 24 Parganas district in 2016) Canning I and II, Jaynagar I and II, Mathurapur I and II, and Sagar (all in South 24 Parganas district in 2016) had been fully or substantially cleared of forests. Thereafter, much of the interiors of Kakdwip, Patharpratima, Basanti, Kultali and Gosaba were cleared for human settlement. People started moving into the area. The refugees from erstwhile East Pakistan were the last to come in large numbers between 1951 and 1971. Canning I and II, Jaynagar I and II, Mathurapur I and II, Kakdwip and Namkhana are a little away from the forests and being attached/ connected to the mainland their conditions are similar to other mainland blocks in the district, but Basanti, Gosaba, Kultali, Patharpratima and Sagar are largely isolated from the mainland. These islands are mostly separated from the deep forest by a river. Electric connections are rare, and transport and communications, other than river transport, are not there. Around 95% people depend on rain-fed agriculture. Sagar lies at the mouth of the Hooghly, which carries fresh water and so things are a little different there. The sea level, around India, is estimated to be rising at 2.55 mm per year. In the last 70 years, 220 km2 of forest land has been submerged and the process continues.
As per 2011 Census of India Jaynagar II CD Block had a total population of 252,164, of which 239,784 were rural and 12,380 were urban. There were 128,858 (51%) males and 123,306 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 38,872. Scheduled Castes numbered 85,587 and Scheduled Tribes numbered 1,046.
As per 2001 census, Jaynagar II block had a total population of 209,136, out of which 108,059 were males and 101,077 were females. Jaynagar II block registered a population growth of 17.93 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for South 24 Parganas district was 20.89 per cent. Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent. Scheduled castes at 78,652 formed over one-third the population. Scheduled tribes numbered 3,407.
Census towns and large villages
Large villages in Jaynagar II CD Block (2011 census figures in brackets): Kalinagar (6,600), Bijaynagar (6,274), Khaiyamara (10,804), Mayahauri (19,604), Gordoani (20,984), Mallar Chak (4,928), Jautia (5,749), Baishata (6,245), Pat Pukur (5,290), Purba Raghunathpur (4,575), Beladurga (6,106), Rupnagar (8,561), Taranagar (4,340), Kariberia (4,971), Manirtala (17,711), Radhaballabhpur (14,884), Nalgora (10,373), Sonatikri (15,536), Bhubankhali (6,949) and Chuprijhara (11,738).
As per 2011 census the total number of literates in Jaynagar II CD Block was 148,676 (69.71% of the population over 6 years) out of which 84,612 (57%) were males and 64,064 (43%) were females.
As per 2001 census, Jaynagar II block had a total literacy of 59.23 per cent for the 6+ age group. While male literacy was 72.08 per cent female literacy was 45.35 per cent. South 24 Parganas district had a total literacy of 69.45 per cent, male literacy being 79.19 per cent and female literacy being 59.01 per cent.
|Literacy in CD Blocks of
South 24 Parganas district
|Alipore Sadar subdivision|
|Bishnupur I – 78.33%|
|Bishnupur II – 81.37%|
|Budge Budge I – 80.57%|
|Budge Budge II – 79.13%|
|Thakurpukur Mahestala – 83.54%|
|Baruipur – 76.46%|
|Bhangar I – 72.06%|
|Bhangar II – 74.49%|
|Jaynagar I – 73.17%|
|Jaynagar II – 69.71%|
|Kultali – 69.37%|
|Sonarpur – 79.70%|
|Basanti – 68.32%|
|Canning I – 70.76%|
|Canning II – 66.51%|
|Gosaba – 78.98%|
|Diamond Harbour subdivision|
|Diamond Harbour I – 75.72%|
|Diamond Harbour II – 76.91%|
|Falta – 77.17%|
|Kulpi – 75.49%|
|Magrahat I – 73.82%|
|Magrahat II – 77.41%|
|Mandirbazar – 75.89%|
|Mathurapur I – 73.93%|
|Mathurapur II – 77.77%|
|Kakdwip – 77.93%|
|Namkhana – 85.72|
|Patharpratima – 82.11%|
|Sagar – 84.21%|
|Source: 2011 Census: CD Block Wise
Primary Census Abstract Data
In the 2011 census Muslims numbered 131,704 and formed 52.23% of the population in Jaynagar II CD Block. Hindus numbered 118,591 and formed 47.03% of the population. Others numbered 1,869 and formed 0.74% of the population. Amongst the others, Christians numbered 1,381.
In the 2011 census, Hindus numbered 5,155,545 and formed 63.17% of the population in South 24 Parganas district. Muslims numbered 2,903,075 and formed 35.57% of the population. In West Bengal Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.
Human Development Report
According to the South 24 Parganas district Human Development Report, it is an overwhelmingly rural district with 85% of the population living in rural areas. An analysis of the district’s population shows that 33 percent of the district’s population belongs to Scheduled Castes. While 65.86% of people are Hindus, 33.24% are Muslims. 86% of the population resided in the 29 CD Blocks. In 2005, more than 4 lakh households were identified as living below poverty line, pushing the poverty ratio in the district to 34.11%, way above the state and national poverty ratios.
Jaynagar II CD Block had a poverty ratio of 42.60% of the households in 2005. The Sundarbans region in general is afflicted with poverty with all the 13 CD Blocks recording above 30% and 8 CD Blocks recording more than 40% households in the BPL category.
In standard of living Jaynagar II had a rank of 20 amongst all the 29 blocks. In infrastructure development it was 22nd amongst all CD Blocks. In Jaynagar II, 5.80% households had access to electricity. The length of surfaced roads was 0.64 km per km2 area. The number of bank branches was 0.29 per 10,000 population. Lack of access to irrigation is a major problem for most of the CD Blocks in South 24 Parganas, but it assumes particular significance in the Sundarbans area, where there is limited scope for employment beyond the agricultural sector. In Jaynagar II, 44.45% of rural households were engaged as daily/ agricultural/ other physical labour, 28.81% were cultivators, 13.89% were self-employed rural artisans/ hawkers, 11.01% were engaged in labour oriented regular jobs in the unorganised sector, and 7.88% were engaged in the organised sector or work as professionals.
As per 1991 census, while male literacy rate was 59.44% female literacy was 22.80% and there was a gender gap of 36.64% in Jaynagar II. In 2006, Jaynagar II had 19 secondary and higher secondary schools. All of them had library facility but none of them had computer facilities.
In 2006, in Jaynagar II for 115 villages there were 47 health sub-centres and 4 rural hospital/public health centres having 52 beds with 9 medical officers, 15 nurses, 67 health assistants and 8 pharmacists and technicians. 29.7% of the 101 habitations in Jaynagar II CD Block were fully covered with safe drinking water (including tube wells and tap water), 68.3% habitations were partly covered and 2.0% habitations were not covered.
Jaynagar II has 42 km of embankments. Embankments raised along rivers are of critical importance for the safety of lives and protection of crops, against daily tides and tidal surges.
|Poverty Ratio in CD Blocks of
South 24 Parganas district
|Percentage of Households|
|Alipore Sadar subdivision|
|Bishnupur I – 16.59%|
|Bishnupur II – 10.82%|
|Budge Budge I – 14.78%|
|Budge Budge II – 34.04%|
|Thakurpukur Mahestala – 6.44%|
|Baruipur – 26.04%|
|Bhangar I – 28.22%|
|Bhangar II – 17.20%|
|Jaynagar I – 39.57%|
|Jaynagar II – 42.60%|
|Kultali – 46.86%|
|Sonarpur – 23.36%|
|Basanti – 64.89%|
|Canning I – 31.05%|
|Canning II – 50.32%|
|Gosaba – 38.03%|
|Diamond Harbour subdivision|
|Diamond Harbour I – 24.27%|
|Diamond Harbour II – 27.30%|
|Falta – 21.56%|
|Kulpi – 52.64%|
|Magrahat I – 28.41%|
|Magrahat II – 29.26%|
|Mandirbazar – 29.90%|
|Mathurapur I – 34.43%|
|Mathurapur II – 39.59%|
|Kakdwip – 34.91%|
|Namkhana – 48.17%|
|Patharpratima – 49.18%|
|Sagar – 44.46%|
|Source: 2005:Rural Household Survey
District Human Development Report
Chapter 3 Page 43
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