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Ilocos Norte Capitol at Laoag City
Location in the province of Ilocos Norte
|Region||Ilocos (Region I)|
|Congressional District||1st District|
|Cityhood||19 June 1965|
|• Mayor||Chevylle V. Fariñas|
|• Vice Mayor||Michael V. Fariñas|
|• Total||116.08 km2 (44.82 sq mi)|
|• Density||900/km2 (2,300/sq mi)|
|Time zone||PHT (UTC+8)|
|Languages||Ilocano, English, Tagalog|
Laoag, officially the City of Laoag (Ilokano: Ciudad ti Laoag; Filipino: Lungsod ng Laoag), is a first class city and capital of the province of Ilocos Norte in the Philippines. The northernmost city in the nation, it is the province's political, commercial, and industrial hub and the location of the Ilocos region's only commercial airport. According to the 2010 census, it had a population of 104,904 people.
The municipalities of San Nicolas, Paoay, Sarrat, Vintar, and Bacarra form its boundaries. The foothills of the Cordillera Central mountain range to the east, and the South China Sea to the west are its physical boundaries.
Laoag experiences the prevailing monsoon climate of Northern Luzon, characterized by a dry season from November to April and a wet season from May to October, occasionally visited by powerful typhoons.
- 1 History
- 2 Geography
- 3 Demographics
- 4 Local government
- 5 Economy
- 6 Education
- 7 Tourism
- 8 List of Cultural Properties of the Philippines in Laoag
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Media
- 11 Notes
- 12 Bibliography
- 13 External links
Long before the coming of the Spaniards, there already existed an extensive region consisting of the present provinces of Ilocos Norte,Ilocos Sur,Abra and La Union renowned for its gold mines. Merchants from Japan and China would often visit the area to trade gold with beads, ceramics and silk. The inhabitants of the region, believed to be of Malay origin, called their place "samtoy," from "sao mi itoy," which literally meant "this is our language."
In 1571, when the Spanish conquistadors had Manila more or less under their control, they began looking for new sites to conquer. Legaspi’s grandson, Juan de Salcedo, volunteered to lead one of these expeditions. Together with eight armed boats and 45 men, the 22-year-old voyager headed north.
On June 13, 1572, Salcedo and his men landed in Vigan and then proceeded towards Laoag, Currimao, and Badoc. As they sailed along the coast, they were surprised to see numerous sheltered coves ("looc") where the locals lived in harmony. As a result, they named the region "Ylocos" and its people "Ylocanos".
As the Christianization of the region grew, so did the landscape of the area. Vast tracts of land were utilized for churches and bell towers in line with the Spanish mission of "bajo de las campanas" or 'under the bells'-a proclamation by King Philip's 1573 Law of the Indies. In the town plaza, it was not uncommon to see garrisons under the church bells. The colonization process was slowly being carried out.
The Spanish colonization of the region, however, was never completely successful. Owing to the abusive practices of many Augustinian friars, a number of Ilocanos revolted against their colonizers. Noteworthy of these were the Dingras uprising (1589) and Pedro Almasan revolt in San Nicolas (1660). In 1762, Diego Silang led a series of battles aimed at freeing the Ilocanos from the Spanish yoke. When he died from an assassin’s bullet, his widow Gabriela continued the cause. Unfortunately, she too was captured and hanged. In 1807, the sugar cane ("basi") brewers of Piddig rose up in arms to protest the government’s monopoly of the wine industry. In 1898, the church excommunicated Gregorio Aglipay for refusing to cut off ties with the revolutionary forces of Gen. Emilio Aguinaldo. Unperturbed, he established the "Iglesia Filipina Independiente." Aglipay’s movement and the national sentiment it espoused helped restore the self-respect of many Filipinos.
"The great increase in population from 1715 to 1818 from 18,980 to 282,845 made the administration of the province very difficult. Due to the excessive monopolies and forced labor, there were several uprisings: first by the people of Dingras in 1589; one that was led by Pedro Almazan in 1616; the revolt of Diego Silang in 1762-1763; by Ambaristo in 1788; by Pedro Mateo in 1808 and uprising of Sarrat in 1815. For this reason, the division of the Ilocos into two provinces was recommended by the local authorities. On February 2, 1818, a Spanish Royal Decree was promulgated dividing the Province of Ilocos Norte from Ilocos Sur. Laoag City, which was then the biggest center of population, was made the capital of Ilocos Norte."
|Conventional Long Name||Barangay
|Barangay No. 1, San Lorenzo (Poblacion)||1||San Lorenzo||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 2, Santa Joaquina (Poblacion)||2||Santa Joaquina||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 3, Nuestra Señora del Rosario (Poblacion)||3||Nuestra Señora del Rosario||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 4, San Guillermo (Poblacion)||4||San Guillermo||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 5, San Pedro (Poblacion)||5||San Pedro||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 6, San Agustin (Poblacion)||6||San Agustin||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 7-A, Nuestra Señora del Natividad (Poblacion)||7-A||Nuestra Señora del Natividad||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 7-B, Nuestra Señora del Natividad (Poblacion)||7-B||Nuestra Señora del Natividad||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 8, San Vicente (Poblacion)||8||San Vicente||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 9, Santa Angela (Poblacion)||9||Santa Angela||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 10, San Jose (Poblacion)||10||San Jose||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 11, Santa Balbina (Poblacion)||11||Santa Balbina||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 12, San Isidro (Poblacion)||12||San Isidro||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 13, Nuestra Señora de Visitacion (Poblacion)||13||Nuestra Señora de Visitacion||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 14, Santo Tomas (Poblacion)||14||Santo Tomas||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 15, San Guillermo (Poblacion)||15||San Guillermo||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 16, San Jacinto (Poblacion)||16||San Jacinto||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 17, San Francisco (Poblacion)||17||San Francisco||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 18, San Quirino (Poblacion)||18||San Quirino||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 19, Santa Marcela (Poblacion)||19||Santa Marcela||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 20, San Miguel (Poblacion)||20||San Miguel||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 21, San Pedro (Poblacion)||21||San Pedro||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 22, San Andres (Poblacion)||22||San Andres||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 23, San Matias (Poblacion)||23||San Matias||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 24, Nuestra Señora de Consolacion (Poblacion)||24||Nuestra Señora de Consolacion||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 25, Santa Cayetana (Poblacion)||25||Santa Cayetana||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 26, San Marcelino (Poblacion)||26||San Marcelino||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 27, Nuestra Señora de Soledad (Poblacion)||27||Nuestra Señora de Soledad||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 28, San Bernardo (Poblacion)||28||San Bernardo||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 29, Santo Tomas (Poblacion)||29||Santo Tomas||Poblacion|
|Barangay No. 30-A, Suyo||30-A||Suyo||–|
|Barangay No. 30-B, Santa Maria||30-B||Santa Maria||–|
|Barangay No. 31, Talingaan||31||Talingaan||–|
|Barangay No. 32-A, La Paz East||32-A||La Paz East||–|
|Barangay No. 32-B, La Paz West||32-B||La Paz West||–|
|Barangay No. 32-C, La Paz East||32-C||La Paz East||–|
|Barangay No. 33-A, La Paz Proper||33-A||La Paz Proper||–|
|Barangay No. 33-B, La Paz Proper||33-B||La Paz Proper||–|
|Barangay No. 34-A, Gabu Norte West||34-A||Gabu Norte West||–|
|Barangay No. 34-B, Gabu Norte East||34-B||Gabu Norte East||–|
|Barangay No. 35, Gabu Sur||35||Gabu Sur||–|
|Barangay No. 36, Araniw||36||Araniw||–|
|Barangay No. 37, Calayab||37||Calayab||–|
|Barangay No. 38-A, Mangato East||38-A||Mangato East||–|
|Barangay No. 38-B, Mangato West||38-B||Mangato West||–|
|Barangay No. 39, Santa Rosa||39||Santa Rosa||–|
|Barangay No. 40, Balatong||40||Balatong||–|
|Barangay No. 41, Balacad||41||Balacad||–|
|Barangay No. 42, Apaya||42||Apaya||–|
|Barangay No. 43, Cavit||43||Cavit||–|
|Barangay No. 44, Zamboanga||44||Zamboanga||–|
|Barangay No. 45, Tangid||45||Tangid||–|
|Barangay No. 46, Nalbo||46||Nalbo||–|
|Barangay No. 47, Bengcag||47||Bengcag||–|
|Barangay No. 48-A, Cabungaan North||48-A||Cabungaan North||–|
|Barangay No. 48-B, Cabungaan South||48-B||Cabungaan South||–|
|Barangay No. 49-A, Darayday||49-A||Darayday||–|
|Barangay No. 49-B, Raraburan||49-B||Raraburan||–|
|Barangay No. 50, Buttong||50||Buttong||–|
|Barangay No. 51-A, Nangalisan East||51-A||Nangalisan East||–|
|Barangay No. 51-B, Nangalisan West||51-B||Nangalisan West||–|
|Barangay No. 52-A, San Mateo||52-A||San Mateo||–|
|Barangay No. 52-B, Lataag||52-B||Lataag||–|
|Barangay No. 53, Rioeng||53||Rioeng||–|
|Barangay No. 54-A, Camangaan||54-A||Camangaan||–|
|Barangay No. 54-B, Lagui-Sail||54-B||Lagui-Sail||–|
|Barangay No. 55-A, Barit-Pandan||55-A||Barit-Pandan||–|
|Barangay No. 55-B, Salet-Bulangon||55-B||Salet-Bulangon||–|
|Barangay No. 55-C, Vira||55-C||Vira||–|
|Barangay No. 56-A, Bacsil North||56-A||Bacsil North||–|
|Barangay No. 56-B, Bacsil South||56-B||Bacsil South||–|
|Barangay No. 57, Pila||57||Pila||–|
|Barangay No. 58, Casili||58||Casili||–|
|Barangay No. 59-A, Dibua South||59-A||Dibua South||–|
|Barangay No. 59-B, Dibua North||59-B||Dibua North||–|
|Barangay No. 60-A, Caaoacan||60-A||Caaoacan||–|
|Barangay No. 60-B, Madiladig||60-B||Madiladig||–|
|Barangay No. 61, Cataban||61||Cataban||–|
|Barangay No. 62-A, Navotas North||62-A||Navotas North||–|
|Barangay No. 62-B, Navotas South||62-B||Navotas South||–|
*Note: Italicized names are former names/territories.
Laoag has a tropical savanna climate with warm to hot temperatures year round. Temperatures dips sightly during the winter months between December to February.
|Climate data for Laoag City|
|Average high °C (°F)||30.0
|Daily mean °C (°F)||24.4
|Average low °C (°F)||18.8
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||11.8
|Average rainy days||1||1||1||2||8||15||17||20||15||8||5||2||95|
|Population census of Laoag City|
|Source: National Statistics Office|
Laoag City has a total population of 94,466 for the year 2000 as per NSO official report. In 1995, the total inhabitants of the city was 88,336, an increase of 6,130. Based on the 1995 and 2000 intercensal periods, the Average Annual Growth Rate of the city is 1.35%.
The number of households is 19,751 and the average household size is five (5) persons per household. Male-female ratio is 1:1; Birth rate is 26.44% while Death rate is 4.28%.
In the city of Laoag as of year 2000, Urban barangay San Lorenzo had the largest number of population at 2,883, followed by Rural barangay Buttong at 2,277, and then by Barangay 2 Sta. Joaquina at 2,048. With the least inhabitants was Rural Barangay 39 Sta. Rosa, 592, and then Brgy. 52-A San Mateo, 594. Noticeably, the residents of Brgy. 23 San Matias decreased by 740.
Its ethnic population is overwhelmingly Ilocano. Unlike the rest of the region, however, the Roman Catholic Church does not predominate. The Aglipayan Church which is the majority's religion, Iglesia ni Cristo, and other Protestant groups have strong followings.
Laoag City elected officials, term of office June 30, 2013 - June 30, 2016:
- Mayor: Chevylle V. Fariñas
- Vice-Mayor: Michael V. Fariñas
- Jeff Ericson P. Fariñas
- Donald G. Nicolas
- Sonia B. Siazon
- Franklin Dante A. Respicio
- Derick B. Lao
- Shirley M. Ong Sin
- Joseph H. Tamayo
- Edison H. Bonoan
- Ferdinand L. Domingo
- Edison U. Chua
- "ABC President:" Mary Michelle Louise "Mikee" V. Fariñas
- "City Administrator" Perry Martinez
Apart from being the provincial capital, Laoag City is also the center of the fast developing North Luzon Growth Quadrangle http://www.northquad.gov.ph/. The city is situated in a strategic area close to the economic centers of East Asia and is reachable in 45 minutes by plane from Manila. Having critical infrastructure such as the Laoag International Airport at Gabu and the Currimao Port makes Laoag the port of entry of goods and services complemented by an extensive road and highway system that connects it to other cities. An extensive banking system is also found in the city with an impressive number of twenty-five different local, domestic, and foreign banks ready to serve any financial needs.
With a 12,747.35m total land area, Laoag City provides a large opportunity for economic expansion. The historic scenic tourist spots, availability of internationally competitive accommodations and facilities, and the presence of supportive national government agencies, makes Laoag an ecotourism center, as classified by the Department of Tourism. The Northwestern Luzon Growth Quadrangle, fondly called the NORTH QUAD, also aims to develop rural areas through an integrated countryside agri-industrial development approach with emphasis/focus in attaining sustainable and equitable growth; increase the productivity of agriculture and fisheries; encourage industrial competitiveness in the local and foreign markets like Taiwan, Japan, South Korea, and Hong Kong. Plans are also being undertaken for the establishment of an ECO-TOURISM village, which will showcase the rich cultural heritage of the Ilokanos and the local industries.
Laoag and the surrounding municipalities also bolster a strong workforce. A proposed industrial park name "Laoag Ecozone" is set to rise within the city limits to host manufacturing companies. Opposite the industrial site will be housing projects and along the national highway going to the Laoag International Airport are rural barangays to become residential zones. At present, most industries in the city are small-scale consisting of small-scale food processing factories, rice mills, jewelry-making, hollow blocks factories, and metal crafts.
The city is also in the forefront of green-technology after Danish investors set-up the first wind-driven powerplant in Southeast Asia. The 25-megawatt plant cost $47.6 million US Dollars. An $11 million US Dollar expansion is concurrently under construction, which is set to quadruple the capacity.
As the provincial capital, Laoag is the center of social and economic activity with almost all major commercial and institutional establishments gravitating towards it. The importance of education in socializing its population is shared by both the local government and the private sector, which has invested heavily in the development of the academic infrastructure. The city is home to public and private schools offering elementary, secondary, and tertiary education programs. Current Philippine law requires free compulsory education to the general population from elementary to high school, as well as, subsidized tertiary education in state-ran institutions. Alternative private schools offering parallel programs to government schools are also found with additional programs to cater to students with various needs. These schools are an important component of the educational system and reflect the city's diversity as they include Chinese schools, Catholic schools, all-male and all-female boarding schools, and military schools.
Most of the lower-level schools are government-owned and are divided into three districts comprising a total of thirty three primary and elementary schools. Seven private elementary schools are also present, however, most are sectarian and run by religious organizations. In addition, there are eight private and three public high schools, although the latter has significantly higher number of attendees. The Department of Education, Division of Laoag City is currently supervised by Ms. Aracelli C. Pastor.
In order to provide continuing education to sustain the economic momentum of the region, the government has established tertiary public learning institutions in the city, the College of Teacher Education (CTE) and the College of Industrial Technology (CIT) of the Mariano Marcos State University.
In addition, private colleges and universities are also found in the city, each with their own specialization. Some of private higher education institutions in the city includes Northwestern University, Northern Christian College, and Divine Word College of Laoag.
Also found in Laoag are four private special vocational schools: STI Laoag, the Overseas Technical Institute, the Lazo Fashion School, and the Bel Arte School of Fine Arts. Slated for development in the government's educational plan (2018) is the building of Ateneo de Laoag, UST Up North and the Catholic University of Laoag.
Tourism has become a major economic driver of Laoag City, paving the way for new commercial investments and infrastructure development. A recent surge in Chinese and Taiwanese tourists have been flocking to splurge in the city's profitable casino located inside the only 5-star hotel in the northern Philippines, Fort Ilocandia Hotel and Resort. Other places of interest include a tour of heritage sites featuring Spanish colonial buildings, Philippine-baroque churches, white-sand beach resorts of Pagudpud, and Marcos-era mansions. The dramatic increase in tourist arrivals also prompted the establishment of a Chinese consulate to oversee the security of Chinese citizens living or visiting the city. A new immigration policy set to simplify entry of Chinese tourists into the country by issuing visitor visas in the airport after arrival is expected to entice more guests to come. To supplement the anticipated growth in tourist-related business activity, the government of Ilocos Norte has started construction on a multimillion dollar convention center and hotel to supply the demand and diversify services. Laoag City has been recently adjudged as the number one tourist destination in Region I and among the top ten in the whole archipelago.
List of Cultural Properties of the Philippines in Laoag
|Laoag Cathedral||Also known as the Cathedral of Saint William of the Diocese of Laoag, the foundations of the current church were laid in 1612.||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Brgy. 14, Poblacion||)||
|Laoag City Hall||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Tupas St., Brgy. 14, Poblacion,||
|Anastacia Giron Tupas Marker||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||PhilHealth Office, Tupas St., Brgy. 14, Poblacion||
|Rizal Monument||Built in 1922 in front of the Ilocos Norte Capitol||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Ilocos Norte Provincial Capitol Grounds, Brgy. 13, Poblacion||
|Abolition of Tobacco Monopoly Monument||Built in 1881 as a way of thanking King Alfonso XII of Spain by the people of Laoag for abolishing the tobacco monopoly.||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Aurora Park, Brgy. 14, Poblacion||
|Marcos Hall of Justice||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||F.R. Castro, Street, Pan-Philippine Highway, Brgy. 11, Poblacion||
|Laoag City Fountain||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Aurora Park, Brgy. 14, Poblacion||
|To Thee I Give Monument||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Aurora Park, Brgy. 14, Poblacion||
|Ilocos Norte Capitol||Seat of the Provincial Government of Ilocos Norte built in Neo-classical style from 1918 to 1924.||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Ilocos Norte Provincial Capitol Grounds, Brgy. 14, Poblacion||
|Museo Ilocos Norte (also Museo Gameng)||A museum that showcases the cultural heritage of Ilocos Norte.||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||V. Llanes corner Gen. Antonio Luna St||
|Ligot House||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||#11 Gen. A. Luna corner Segundo Ave|
|DWC High School Laoag||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Gen. A Luna Street,||
|Peralta Building||Built in 1957, Currently used as Laoag Rural Bank||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Gen. A Luna Street,||
|I. Dithas House||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Lagasca corner Gen. A Luna Street,||
|Balay Niblas||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Paco Roman corner Gen. A Luna Street,||
|Ermita Hill||Site of the first mass in Ilocos||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Ilocos Norte Water District Site, Brgy 23, San Andres, Laoag City||
|Governor Roque Ablan Sr. Shrine||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Bonifacio Street||
|San Nicolas de Tolentino Chapel||Chapel of San Nicolas de Tolentino inside Laoag Catholic Cemetery.||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Gomburza Street, Laoag City Cemetery||
|Laoag Catholic Cemetery Cross||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Brgy. 1||
|Gabaldon Building||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Laoag Central Elementary School, Brgy. 16||
|Laoag Sinking Bell Tower||Ilocos Norte||Laoag||Paco Roman corner A. Bonifacio Street, Brgy. 14||
Laoag International Airport services flights to and from Hong Kong and mainland China, as well as, domestic flights by Philippine Airlines and Cebu Pacific. Foreign airlines offer direct charter flights to Laoag as part of travel packages with optional excursions to tourist sites outside of the city. Once in the city, tourists can find travel agencies all over including ticket offices of several airlines in the airport terminal.
Several large bus companies serve Laoag City making connections to major and minor Philippines destinations. These transportation services are provided by GV Florida Transport, Maria de Leon Bus Lines, RCJ Lines, RCJ Trans, Dominion Bus Lines, Partas, Philippine Rabbit, Sta. Lucia Express and Farinas Transit Company. Partas is also a major national bus line and also Autobus Busline. Laoag is a 10-14 hour drive from Manila.
A South Korean airline has recently unveiled plans to open direct flights to Laoag.[when?]
- TV5 - DWTE-TV - Channel 2
- PTV - DWZV-TV - Channel 4
- GMA Network - DWAS-TV - Channel 5
- ABS-CBN - DWRD-TV - Channel 7
- IBC - DWCS-TV - Channel 13
- ETC - Channel 21
- ABS-CBN Sports+Action - Channel 23
- Net 25 - Channel 25
- GMA News TV - Channel 29
- CNN Philippines - Channel 9
- TV Natin: Channel 10
- AksyonTV: Channel 39
- BEAM: Channel 31
- RAMS TV - DWYG-TV - Channel 32
- SMNI: Channel 35
- 2nd Avenue: Channel 41
- MYX Channel Laoag: Channel 64
- DWLW: Radyo Budyong 675
- DZVR: Bombo Radyo 711
- DZJC: Aksyon Radyo 747
- DWAR: Sonshine Radio 819
- DZVI: Radyo Iloko 864
- DZEA: Radyo Totoo 909
- DWFB: Radyo ng Bayan 954
- DZMT: DZRH Nationwide 990
- DZLO: DZLO 1233
- DWRC: Super Radyo 1269
- DWIL: 90.7 Love Radio
- DWNA: 93.1 Hot FM
- DWJO: 93.9 Energy FM
- DWEL: MOR 95.5 My Only Radio For Life!
- DZMN: MNYEE 96.3 For Life!
- DZLS: Barangay 97.1
- DWSN: DWSN 97.9
- DWHP: 99.5 i FM
- DWPL: 103.5 The Beat
- DWTE: 106.7 Dream FM
- "Official City/Municipal 2013 Election Results". Intramuros, Manila, Philippines: Commission on Elections (COMELEC). 11 September 2013. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Province: ILOCOS NORTE". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay: as of May 1, 2010" (PDF). 2010 Census of Population and Housing. National Statistics Office. Retrieved 26 September 2013.
- "2010 Census of Population and Housing: Total Population by Province, City, Municipality and Barangay:as of May 1, 2010" (PDF). National Statistics Office (Philippines). Retrieved 18 October 2014.
- "Climatic Normals of the Philippines (1951-1985) (PAGASA 1987)" (PDF). PAGASSA. Retrieved 25 October 2014.
- "Province of Ilocos Norte". Municipality Population Data. LWUA Research Division. Retrieved 25 September 2013.
- Bangui windmills
- National Historical Institute 1993
- Dela Torre 2006, p. 248
- Dela Torre 2006, p. 256
- Dela Torre 2006, p. 251
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Laoag City.|
- Official Site
- Travel Guide: Laoag
- Ilocos Times
- Article about some of the sites in Laoag
- Ilocos Sentinel
- Pasyalan Ilocos Norte
- Photos and information on Laoag City
- Philippine Standard Geographic Code
- Philippine Census Information
- Local Governance Performance Management System
|South China Sea||Piddig|
|Paoay / San Nicolas||Sarrat|