List of bicycle-sharing systems

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This is a list of bicycle-sharing systems, both docked and dockless. As of December 2016, roughly 1000 cities worldwide have a bike-sharing program.[1][2][3][4]

Contents

Bicycle sharing systems[edit]

The following table lists more than 330 active bicycle-sharing systems across the world. Most systems listed allow users to pick up and drop off bicycles at any of the abudautomated stations within the network.

City Country Name System Operator Launched Discontinued Stations Bicycles Daily ridership Website
Barton-upon-Humber United Kingdom (England) Factory Bikes WhiteBikes Elswick Hopper 19?? 19??
Amsterdam Netherlands WhiteBikes WhiteBikes Provo 1965 1966 50
Cambridge United Kingdom (England) GreenBike WhiteBikes 1993 1995 300
Portland, Oregon United States of America Yellow Bike Project WhiteBikes Yellow Bike Project 1994[5] 1997[6] 1000 [1]
Copenhagen Denmark Bycykler København Bycykler 1995 October 2012 initially 800 (later 2500)
Portsmouth United Kingdom (England) Bikeabout Public Velo University of Portsmouth 1996 1998
Sandnes Norway WhiteBikes volunteers and city council 1996 2002 225
Austin United States of America Yellow Bike Project WhiteBikes Austin YBP and city council January 1997 200 [2]
St. Paul United States of America Yellow Bike Project WhiteBikes w/ BikeCard volunteers and city council 1997 [3]
Trondheim Norway Trondheim City Bikes Bycykler 1998 2005 200
Rennes[7] France LE vélo STAR Clear CC June 1998 82 800 [4]
Aveiro[8] Portugal Buga 2000 1 300 [5]
Cologne Germany Call a Bike Call a Bike flex March 2000 dockless [6]
Frankfurt am Main Germany Call a Bike Call a Bike flex March 2000 dockless [7]
Munich Germany Call a Bike Call a Bike flex March 2000 dockless [8]
Drammen Norway Drammen City Bikes Clear CC 2001 [9]
Sandnes Norway Clear CC 2002
Vienna Austria Viennabike Bycykler Association and city council April 2002 November 2002 200 1500
Aarhus Denmark Aarhus City Bikes Bycykler (CIOS ApS) Aarhus Municipality March 2004 52 450 [10]
Towns and cities in the Netherlands: all over the country, mainly at railway stations Netherlands OV-fiets OV-Fiets/Nederlandse Spoorwegen 2003 230 5000+ [11]
Oslo Norway Oslo Bysykkel Clear CC 2003 106 [12]
Gijón Spain Gijon-Bici Cyclocity 2003 8 64
Córdoba[9] Spain Eco-bici Cyclocity JCDecaux 2003 4 35 [13]
Berlin Germany Call a Bike Call a Bike flex March 2003 dockless [14]
Vienna[10] Austria Citybike Cyclocity JCDecaux June 2003 121 1500 [15]
Angers[11] France VéloCité Cyclocity 2004 [16]
Towns and cities in the Netherlands: several locations Netherlands Bikedispenser 2005 5 500 [17] [18] [19] [20]
Trondheim Norway Trondheim City Bikes Clear CC 2005 10 125 [21]
Lyon[12] France Vélo'v Cyclocity 19 May 2005 348 4000 22725[13] [22]
Grenoble France Métrovélo Smoove 2006 16 1250 [23]
Stockholm Sweden Stockholm City bikes Clear CC April 2006 67 1000 [24]
Marseille[14] France Le vélo Cyclocity 2007 122 672 2484[13] [25]
Toulouse[15] France VélôToulouse Cyclocity 16 November 2007 280 2465 11802[13] [26]
Rouen[16] France Cy'clic Cyclocity December 2007 21 190 419[13] [27]
Chalon-sur-Saône France Réflex Smoove Transdev December 2007 14 100 [28]
Barcelona Spain Bicing Clear CC 22 March 2007 424 6000 28093[17] [29]
Seville[18] Spain Sevici Cyclocity April 2007 259 2100 [30]
Århus Denmark Bycyklen May 2007 57 400 [31]
Montpellier France Vélomagg' Smoove June 2007 52 2414 [32]
Orléans France Vélo'+ EFFIA June 2007 33 300 [33]
Stuttgart Germany Call a Bike Call a Bike fix June 2007 64 400 [34]
Pamplona Spain n'bici July 2007 5 101 [35]
Paris[19] France Vélib' Cyclocity 15 July 2007 1229 14500 108,09 [36]
Besançon[20] France VéloCité Cyclocity September 2007 30 200 380[13] [37]
Poitiers France Cap'Vélo September 2007 360 [38]
Mulhouse[21] France VéloCité Cyclocity 15 September 2007 40 240 486[13] [39]
New Delhi India Greenolution 2007 7 [40]
Magdeburg Germany nextbike nextbike 2008 21 100 [41]
Hamburg[22] Germany nextbike nextbike 2008 30 250 [42]
Düsseldorf[23] Germany nextbike nextbike 2008 45 400 [43]
Leipzig[24] Germany nextbike nextbike 2008 60 500 [44]
Luzern Switzerland nextbike nextbike 2008 30 280 [45]
Hangzhou[25][26] China Hangzhou Public Bicycle October 2008 2965 78000 [46]
Kraków Poland Wavelo BikeU October 2008 157 1500 [47]
Changwon[27][28] South Korea NUBIJA October 2008 235 2348[29] [48]
Jiangyin China November 2008 23 700
Milan Italy BikeMi Clear CC 3 December 2008 323 5300 19000 [49]
Perpignan France BIP! Clear CC February 2008 15 150 [50]
Dijon France Velodi Clear CC February 2008 39 400 [51]
Amiens[30] France Vélam Cyclocity February 2008 26 250 376[13] [52]
Caen France V'eol Clear CC March 2008 40 350 [53]
Luxembourg City[31] Luxembourg Vel'oh Cyclocity March 2008 73 680 [54]
Nantes[32] France Bicloo Cyclocity May 2008 103 885 3640[13] [55]
Zaragoza Spain Bizi Clear CC 28 May 2008 130 1000 [56]
Bucharest[33] Romania Cicloteque Proprietary 31 July 2008 6 400 [57]
Santander[34][35] Spain Tusbic Cyclocity September 2008 15 180 [58]
Lower Austria[36] Austria LEIHRADL nextbike nextbike 2009 295 1300 [59]
Vorarlberg Austria nextbike 2009 14 70 [60]
Burgenland Austria LEIHRADL nextbike nextbike 2009 40 [61]
Montreal[37] Canada BIXI Montréal PBSC & 8D 2009 540 6200 8,808 [62]
Erfurt Germany nextbike nextbike 2009 10 30 [63]
Flensburg Germany nextbike nextbike 2009 10 30 [64]
Tübingen Germany nextbike nextbike 2009 9 50 [65]
Tübingen Germany nextbike nextbike 2009 9 50 [66]
Dresden Germany nextbike nextbike 2009 30+ 200 [67]
Frankfurt am Main Germany nextbike nextbike 2009 30 300 [68]
Berlin Germany nextbike nextbike 2009 50+ 300 [69]
Coburg Germany nextbike nextbike 2009 5 [70]
Bielefeld Germany nextbike nextbike 2009 10 [71]
Vevey Switzerland PubliBike PubliBike 2009 5 41 [72]
Blackpool[38] United Kingdom (England) Hire-a-Bike Hourbike 2009 60 400 [73]
Taipei[39][40] Taiwan YouBike November 2009 196 6046 [74]
Shanghai[41][42][43][44] China Forever Bicycle March 2009 596 19165 [75]
Cergy-Pontoise[45] France VélO2 Cyclocity JCDecaux March 2009 42 320 184[13] [76]
Brussels[46] Belgium Villo! Cyclocity JCDecaux 19 May 2009 (earlier system since 2006) 346 4115 [77]
Lausanne Switzerland velopass (in French) June 2009 April 2013
Vannes France Vélocéa OYBike June 2009 20 174 [78]
Nice France Vélo Bleu OYBike July 2009 175 1750 [79]
Avignon[47] France Vélopop' Smoove July 2009 17 200 [80]
Hamburg Germany StadtRAD Hamburg Call a Bike Deutsche Bahn July 2009 200 2450 [81]
Dublin[48][49] Ireland Dublin Bikes Cyclocity JCDecaux September 2009 102 950 [82]
Girona[50][51] Spain Girocleta 25 September 2009 10 260 [83]
Nancy[52] France VélOstan Cyclocity JCDecaux 27 September 2009 29 250 675[13] [84]
Mysuru India Embarq, India 2009 52 [85]
Buenos Aires[53][54] Argentina Ecobici Serttel Brasil[55] Bike In Baires Consortium.[56] 2010 150 1800 [86]
Qingzhou China 2010 550 10300 [87]
Bochum Germany metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 6 30 [88]
Oberhausen Germany metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 8 40 [89]
Herne Germany metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 7 45 [90]
Hamm Germany metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 10 50 [91]
Mülheim a. Ruhr Germany metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 13 65 [92]
Offenburg Germany nextbike nextbike 2010 13 86 [93]
Potsdam Germany nextbike nextbike 2010 20 150 [94]
Gelsenkirchen Germany metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 4 [95]
Duisburg Germany metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 14 [96]
Bottrop Germany metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 15 [97]
Essen Germany metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 25 [98]
Dortmund Germany metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 27 [99]
Mexico City[57] Mexico Ecobici Clear CC 2010 452 6500 31000 [100]
Rzeszów Poland RoweRes 2010 16 [101]
Sion Switzerland PubliBike PubliBike 2010 7 69 [102]
Lugano Switzerland PubliBike PubliBike 2010 9 88 [103]
Freiburg Switzerland PubliBike PubliBike 2010 8 94 [104]
Aigle, Monthey Switzerland PubliBike PubliBike 2010 10 99 [105]
Newcastle United Kingdom (England) ScratchBikes
(known as WhipBikes until 2011)
ScratchBikes 2010 12 60 [106]
Nottingham United Kingdom (England) Ucycle Sustrans & Evans Cycles 2010 0 460 [107]
Des Moines, Iowa[58][59] United States of America Des Moines B-cycle B-Cycle 2010 4 18 [108]
Denver, Colorado[60] United States of America Denver B-cycle B-Cycle 2010 89 737 [109]
Eugene, Oregon[61] United States of America PeaceHealth Rides PeaceHealth Rides 2018 36 300 [110]
Minneapolis, Minnesota and Saint Paul, Minnesota[62][63] United States of America Nice Ride PBSC & 8D 2010 171 1833 [111]
Washington, D.C. area[64] United States of America Capital Bikeshare PBSC & 8D Motivate 2010 406 4457 [112]
Taizhou, Zhejiang China 2010 200 13000 [113]
Suzhou China 2010 976 22940 [114]
Zhongshan China 2010 527 11180 [115]
Wuxi China Wuxibike January 2010 27 1500 [116]
Strasbourg France Vélhop Smoove October 2010 4 1852 [117]
Chengdu (Gaoxin District [zh])[65] China December 2010 72 1200
Bordeaux France VCUB Keolis February 2010 139 1545 [118]
La Rochelle France Yélo February 2010 (earlier system since 1974) 63 300 [119]
Valence, Drôme[66] France Libélo Smoove Transdev March 2010 20 380 [120]
Fargo, ND[67][68] United States of America GreatRides B-Cycle 15 March 2010 11 101 [121]
Meridian, Colorado United States of America M-Bike Zagster 15 March 2010 11 [122]
Toyama, Toyama[69] Japan Cyclocity Toyama Cyclocity JCDecaux 22 March 2010 17 130
Créteil[70] France Cristolib Cyclocity JCDecaux April 2010 10 75 12[13] [123]
Chengdu (Jinniu District)[71] China Shanghai Forever Bicycle Co. June 2010 156 1500
Melbourne[72] Australia Melbourne Bike Share PBSC & 8D Motivate June 2010 53 676 [124]
Zhangjiagang China Forever Bicycle Forever Bicycle June 2010 152 3200
Guangzhou[73][74] China GZ-Public Bicycle June 2010 50 4840 [125]
Elche (Elx) Spain bicielx 14 June 2010 14 200 [126]
Valencia[75] Spain ValenbiSi! Cyclocity JCDecaux 22 June 2010 276 2400 [127]
St. Etienne France Vélivert
formerly Vélo Vert
Smoove 26 June 2010 30 700 [128]
Calais France Vel'in OYBike July 2010 37 160 [129]
London[76][77] United Kingdom (England) Santander Cycles (formerly Barclays Cycle Hire) PBSC Serco 30 July 2010 839 1 [130]
Yantai China August 2010 110 6000 [131]
Foshan China August 2010 208 11694 [132]
Gothenburg[78] Sweden Styr & Ställ Cyclocity JCDecaux 10 August 2010 60 1000 [133]
Brisbane[79][80] Australia CityCycle Cyclocity JCDecaux September 2010 150 2000 [134]
Kunshan[81] China Forever Bicycle September 2010 745 20000 [135]
Shenzhen / Shekou / Xiaomeisha China Shenzhen City Bicycle Public Forever Bicycle September 2010 16 350 [136]
Salzburg Austria nextbike nextbike 2011 [137]
Rio de Janeiro[82] Brazil Bike Rio Mobilicidade 2011 60 300 [138]
(Pedro de) Toledo[83] Brazil Toopedalando Toopedalando 2011 6 60
Toronto[84] Canada Bike Share Toronto (formerly Bixi Toronto) PBSC Motivate 2011 360 3750 6200 [139]
Medellin[85] Colombia EnCicla EnCicla The Metropolitan Area of Aburra Valley[86] 2011 50 1400 [140]
Lille France V'Lille Keolis 2011 215 1100 [141]
Munich Germany nextbike nextbike 2011 30 3000 [142]
Novi Sad Serbia NS Bike Parking Servis 2011 5 70 [143]
Bern Switzerland PubliBike PubliBike 2011 8 54 [144]
Nyon, Gland Switzerland PubliBike PubliBike 2011 13 167 [145]
Kailua, Hawaii[87][88] United States of America Hawaii B-cycle B-Cycle 2011 2 12 [146]
Spartanburg, South Carolina[89] United States of America Spartanburg B-Cycle B-Cycle 2011 5 40 [147]
Omaha, Nebraska[90] United States of America Omaha B-Cycle B-Cycle 2011 5 35 [148]
Boulder, Colorado[91][92] United States of America Boulder B-Cycle B-Cycle 2011 23 120 [149]
Madison, Wisconsin[93] United States of America Madison B-Cycle B-Cycle 2011 39 350 [150]
San Antonio, Texas[94] United States of America San Antonio B-Cycle B-Cycle 2011 68 600 [151]
Broward County, Florida United States of America Broward B-Cycle B-Cycle 2011 35 [152]
Boston, Massachusetts[95] United States of America Hubway PBSC & 8D Motivate 2011 158 1461 3268 [153]
Miami Beach, Florida[96] United States of America Decobike SandVault 2011 100 1000 [154]
Kitchener, Ontario[97][98] Canada Community Access Bicycles Community Access Bicycles 2011, relaunched 21 August 2013 7 65 [155]
Kaixian China January 2011 58 1600
Nicosia[99] Cyprus EasyBike Smoove Brainbox October 2011 27 315 [156]
Jiaxing China Jiaxing Public Bicycle December 2011 334 7800 [157]
Tirana[100] Albania Ecovolis March 2011 8 200 [158]
Palma Spain Bicipalma 28 March 2011 28 336 [159]
Turin Italy ToBike 4 March 2011 184 [160]
Xi'an China Xianbicycle April 2011 900 20000 [161]
Yokohama Japan Baybike April 2011 15 300 [162]
Zhuzhou China Foshan Tianzhou May 2011 1005 20000 [163]
Ljubljana[101] Slovenia Bicike(lj) Cyclocity JCDecaux 12 May 2011 33 215 [164]
Fuzhou China Fuzhou Public Bicycle June 2011 59 1400 [165]
Linhai China June 2011 82 2700 [166]
Wrocław[102] Poland Wrocławski Rower Miejski nextbike June 2011 76 760 [167]
Shaoxing[103] China Shaoxing Public Bicycle 15 June 2011 204 9000 [168]
Antwerp Belgium Velo Clear CC 9 June 2011 302 3600 [169]
Mainz Germany MVGmeinRad July 2011 120 1000 [170]
Sorocaba[104] Brazil Integrabike Mobilicidade 2012 15 120
São Paulo[105] Brazil Bikesampa Mobilicidade 2012 241 600 [171]
Quito Ecuador BiciQ BiciQ 2012 25 425 [172]
Charlotte, North Carolina[106] United States of America Charlotte B-Cycle B-Cycle 2012 21 200 [173]
Kansas City, Missouri[107] United States of America Kansas City B-cycle B-Cycle 2012 30 300 [174]
Houston, Texas[108][109] United States of America Houston B-cycle B-Cycle 2012 51[110] 400 [175]
Chattanooga, Tennessee[111] United States of America Bike Chattanooga Bicycle Transit System PBSC 2012 37 334 [176]
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma[112] United States of America Spokies Spokies 2012 7 100 [177]
Wuhu China 2012 553 12000
Beijing China 2012 508 16000 [178]
Bangkok[113] Thailand CU Bike Smoove 2012 5 125 [179]
Bangkok[114][115] Thailand Pun Pun Bike Share 2012 50 500 [180]
Limassol[116] Cyprus nextbike Cyprus Nextbike May 2012 13 170 [181]
Huangyan China Huangyan Public Bicycle January 2012 93 2500 [182]
Haining China Haining Public Bicycle October 2012 100 2200 [183]
Keratsini-Drapetsóna[117][118] Greece EasyBike Smoove EasyBike November 2012 6 70 [184]
Zhuhai China December 2012 195 5000 [185]
Yixing China Yixing Public Bicycle December 2012 148 3600 [186]
Huizhou China Guangzhou Huimin April 2012 100 10000 [187]
Poznań[119] Poland Poznański Rower Miejski nextbike April 2012 89 973 [188]
Warsaw Poland Bemowo Bike nextbike 1 April 2012 15 140 [189]
Namur[120] Belgium Libiavelo Cyclocity JCDecaux 21 April 2012 24 200 [190]
Heihe China May 2012 62 2230 [191]
Pioltello[121] Italy Meglio in Bici 5 May 2012 2 20 [192]
Carugate[121] Italy Meglio in Bici 5 May 2012 3 30 [193]
Cernusco sul Naviglio[121] Italy Meglio in Bici 5 May 2012 3 40 [194]
Opole Poland Opole Bike nextbike 15 June 2012 16 164 [195]
Warsaw[122] Poland Veturilo nextbike 1 August 2012 351 5100 [196]
Xuzhou China September 2012 480 18000 [197]
Taiyuan China September 2012 1262 41000 [198]
Ioannina[123] Greece EasyBike Smoove EasyBike September 2012 2 10 [199]
Velenje Slovenia BICY MICikel 18 September 2012 9 40 [200]
Mumbai India FreMo, Cycle Chalao 2012 [201]
Salvador[124] Brazil Bike Salvador Mobilicidade 2013 23 [202]
Santiago Chile Bikesantiago B-Cycle 2013 53 [203]
Dunkirk France Dk'vélo Veolia 2013 20 200 [204]
Sykiona[117][125] Greece Cyclopolis Cyclopolis 2013 4 24 [205]
Nea Smyrni[125] Greece Cyclopolis Cyclopolis 2013 3 40 [206]
Ancient Olympia[117][126] Greece Cyclopolis Cyclopolis 2013 4 60 [207]
Aktio-Vonitsa[117][125] Greece Cyclopolis Cyclopolis 2013 3 35 [208]
Aigialeia[117] Greece Cyclopolis Cyclopolis 2013 3 45 [209]
Marathónas[125] Greece Cyclopolis Cyclopolis 2013 4 50 [210]
Kavala[117][127] Greece EasyBike Smoove EasyBike 2013 4 52 [211]
East Mani[117][125] Greece EasyBike Smoove EasyBike 2013 6 100 [212]
Komotini[117][128] Greece EasyBike Smoove EasyBike 2013 6 100 [213]
Esztergom Hungary EBI 2013 9 93 [214]
Vilnius[129] Lithuania CycloCity Cyclocity JCDecaux 2013 33 300 [215]
Málaga, Andalucía Spain MálagaBici Cemusa 2013 20 400 [216]
Salt Lake City, Utah[130] United States of America SLC Bike Share B-Cycle 2013 12 100 [217]
Chicago, Illinois[131][132] United States of America Divvy PBSC Motivate 2013 576 5837 13000 [218]
Szeged Hungary CityBike Szeged CityBike Szeged 2013 12 100 [219]
Kazan Russia Veli'k Cyclocity JCDecaux May 2013 7 100 [220]
Belfort France Optymo Smoove May 2013 21 200 [221]
Batumi Georgia BatumVelo Smoove Batumi Avtotransporti May 2013 22 200 [222]
Clermont-Ferrand France C.Vélo Smoove SMTC June 2013 10 (22) 100 (220) [223]
Columbus, Ohio United States of America CoGo PBSC Motivate July 2013 41 335 [224]
Battle Creek[133] United States of America Battle Creek BCycle B-Cycle 19 August 2013 3 21 [225]
Moscháto-Távros[134] Greece Cyclopolis Cyclopolis January 2013 5 60 [226]
Naupactus[117][135] Greece EasyBike Smoove EasyBike January 2013 4 60 [227]
Nantong[136] China Nantong Economic and Technological Development Area Public Bicycle Forever Publicbike Intelligent Systems 1 January 2013 182 3800 [228]
Yiwu China October 2013 52 1000 [229]
Jinhua China Jinhua Orange Public Bicycle Service October 2013 100 3000 [230]
Huaian[137] China Huaian Public Bicycle October 2013 335 7000 [231]
Weifang China Weifang Public Bicycle October 2013 735 20000 [232]
Hohhot China October 2013 112 5100
Lhasa China November 2013 15 242
Slough United Kingdom (England) Smoove Smoove November 2013 4 60 [233]
Nanning China December 2013 50 1000
Anqiu China Anqiu Public Bicycle December 2013 95 2280 [234]
Huzhou China Huzhou Public Bicycle December 2013 85 [235]
Austin, Texas[138] United States of America Bike Share of Austin B-Cycle December 2013 46 375 [236]
Lishui China February 2013 26 800 [237]
Maroussi[117][139] Greece Cyclopolis Cyclopolis February 2013 6 70 [238]
Karditsa[140] Greece EasyBike Smoove EasyBike March 2013 10 60 [239]
Lausanne Switzerland PubliBike PubliBike April 2013 23 251 [240]
Haikou China April 2013 105 3000 [241]
Zhenjiang[141] China Zhenjiang Public Bicycle 1 April 2013 80 2000 [242]
Fort Worth, Texas[142] United States of America Fort Worth B-Cycle B-Cycle 22 April 2013 32 300 [243]
Moscow Russia Smoove May 2013 150 2750 [244]
Zagreb[143] Croatia nextbike nextbike May 2013 21 100 [245]
Didymóteicho[117][144] Greece EasyBike Smoove EasyBike May 2013 8 100 [246]
Luoyang China Luoyang Public Bicycle 25 May 2013 35 1000
New York City[145][146][147][148][149] United States of America Citi Bike PBSC & 8D Motivate 27 May 2013 739 10494 65000 [247]
Pisa[121] Italy Ciclopi May 2013 15 200 [248]
Náfplion[117][150] Greece Cyclopolis Cyclopolis June 2013 4 60 [249]
Aspen, Colorado United States of America WE-cycle PBSC June 2013 16 200 [250]
Copenhagen Denmark Bycyklen Gobike 16 August 2013 17 250 [251]
Baoji China Baoji Public Bicycle Service September 2013 100 2000 [252]
Ningbo China Ningbo Public Bicycle September 2013 600 15000 [253]
Jiyuan China September 2013 32 500
Sopot[119] Poland Rower Trójmiejski nextbike 5 September 2013 8 80 [254]
Bengaluru India Namma Cycle 2013 150 [255]
Ahmedabad India MyByk 2013 8 [256]
Mendoza[151] Argentina Metrobici 2014 2 40
Belo Horizonte[152] Brazil Bikebh Mobilicidade 2014 40 400 [257]
Guadalajara Mexico MIBICI PBSC 2014 242 2116
Lansing, MI United States of America Capital Community Bikeshare A2B Bikeshare 2014 8 20 Closed[153]
Milwaukee, Wisconsin[154][155] United States of America Bublr Bikes B-Cycle 2014 87 400+ [258]
Ann Arbor, Michigan[156] United States of America ArborBike B-Cycle 2014 14 125 [259]
Taizhou, Jiangsu[157] China 2014 80 2000 [260]
Budapest Hungary MOL BuBi nextbike April 2014 126 1526 [261]
Izmir, Karşıyaka Turkey Karbis nextbike January 2014 6 [262]
Izmir Turkey Bisim January 2014 29 [263]
Savannah, Georgia[158] United States of America CAT Bike B-Cycle 24 January 2014 2 16 [264]
Fullerton, California United States of America OCTA BikeShare Bike Nation 6 January 2014 10 75 [265]
Seattle, Washington[159] United States of America Pronto Cycle Share 8D Motivate 13 October 2014 50 500 [266]
Galway Ireland Coca-Cola Zero Bikes NTA & An Rothar Nua 24 November 2014 19 205 [267]
Phoenix, Arizona United States of America Grid Bike Share CycleHop and Social Bicycles 25 November 2014 40 500 [268]
Abu Dhabi[160] United Arab Emirates ADCB Bikeshare 8D Cyacle December 2014 11 75 [269]
Limerick Ireland Coca-Cola Zero Bikes NTA & An Rothar Nua 8 December 2014 23 215 [270]
Fortaleza Brazil Bicicletar Mobilicidade 15 December 2014 80 800 [271][permanent dead link]
Cork Ireland Coca-Cola Zero Bikes NTA & An Rothar Nua 18 December 2014 31 320 [272]
Tampa, Florida[161] United States of America Coast Bike Share CycleHop and Social Bicycles 7 December 2014 30 300 [273]
Jiujiang China February 2014 6 120
Yangzhou China March 2014 140 5000 [274]
Heze China April 2014 100 2000 [275]
Huaibei China Huaibei Public Bicycle April 2014 100 3000 [276]
Yueyang China April 2014 210 5000
Toruń Poland Toruński Rower Miejski April 2014 12 120 [277]
Madrid[162] Spain BiciMAD May 2014 123 1580 [278]
Bratislava Slovakia Whitebikes Open Source Bike Share May 2014 50 100 [279]
Changhua Taiwan YouBike May 2014 24 [280]
Liverpool United Kingdom (England) City Bike May 2014 130 1000[163] [281]
Indianapolis, Indiana[164] United States of America Indiana Pacers Bikeshare B-Cycle May 2014 25 300 [282]
Białystok Poland BiKeR nextbike 31 May 2014 46 460 [283]
Zhijin China June 2014 30 1000
Lanzhou China Lanzhou Public Bicycle June 2014 111 2000 [284]
Konstancin Poland Konstanciński Rower Miejski nextbike 14 June 2014 5 55 [285]
Glasgow United Kingdom (Scotland) Mass Automated Cycle Hire (MACH) nextbike 24 June 2014 31 400[165] [286]
Vila do Conde Portugal biConde 5 June 2014 10 60 [287]
Saint-Petersburg Russia Velororod July 2014 96 800 1400 [288]
Lanxi China July 2014 50 1500 [289]
Astana Kazakhstan Astana-Bike Smoove July 2014 150 1000 [290]
Orania, Northern Cape[166] South Africa Orania Openbare Fietsprojek 16 July 2014 3 30
Lund Sweden Lundahoj Cyclocity JCDecaux 20 August 2014 17 250 [291]
Cincinnati, Ohio[167] United States of America Red Bike B-Cycle 15 September 2014 50 [292]
Lublin Poland Lubelski Rower Miejski nextbike 19 September 2014 90 891 [293]
Grodzisk Mazowiecki Poland Grodziski Rower Miejski nextbike 27 September 2014 9 60 [294]
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania United States of America Healthy Ride PGH nextbike 2015 50 500 [295]
Szczecin[168] Poland Bike S nextbike 2015 85 724 [296]
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania[169][170] United States of America Indego B-Cycle 23 April 2015 105 1000 [297]
Belfast United Kingdom (Northern Ireland) Coca-Cola Zero Belfast Bikes nextbike NSL 27 April 2015 30 300 [298]
Seoul[171] South Korea Ddareungi 15 October 2015 300 3000 [299]
Kaposvár[172] Hungary Kapsvári Tekergő 27 October 2015 4 32 (including 6 rollers) [300]
Rosario Argentina MI BICI TU BICI [173] 2 December 2015 47 480 [301]
San Diego[174] United States of America DecoBike DecoBike JCDecaux February 2015 180 1800 [302]
Hamilton[175] Canada Hamilton Bike Share Social Bicycles 20 March 2015 100 750 [303]
Boise, Idaho[176] United States of America Boise Bike Share Social Bicycle 16 April 2015 15 117 [304]
Katowice[177] Poland City by bike nextbike May 2015 3 40 [305]
Juchnowiec Kościelny[178] Poland Rower Gminny nextbike July 2015 2 20 [306]
Santa Monica, California[179] United States of America Breeze CycleHop and Social Bicycles 13 August 2015 80 500 [307]
Hoboken, New Jersey[180] United States of America Hudson Bike Share nextbike September 2015 29 250 [308]
Jersey City[181] United States of America Citi Bike 8D Motivate September 2015 35 350 [309]
El Paso, Texas[182] United States of America El Paso BCycle B-Cycle 14 September 2015 8 80 [310]
Fairbanks, Alaska United States of America Fairbikes A2B Bikeshare 24 September 2015 [311]
Győr Hungary GyőrBike 7 September 2015 23 180 [312]
Kona District, Hawaii United States of America PBSC 2016 3 30
Urmia Iran U Bike U Bike 10 June 2016 20 250 [313]
Milton Keynes United Kingdom (England) SantanderCyclesMK nextbike CycleSaviours 17 June 2016 42 300 [314]
Portland, Oregon United States of America Biketown 19 July 2016 100 1000 [315]
Vancouver Canada Mobi CycleHop 20 July 2016 150 1500 [316]
San Lorenzo, Santa Fe Argentina Biciudad Biciudad 27 November 2016 8 80 [317]
Tel Aviv[183] Israel Tel-O-Fun April 2016 200+ 2000 [318]
Łódź Poland Łódzki Rower Publiczny nextbike 30 April 2016 148 1490 [319]
Atlanta United States of America Relay Bike Share May 2016 65 500 [320]
Malmö Sweden Malmö By Bike Clear CC 14 May 2016 50 500 [321]
Los Angeles United States of America Metro Bike Share B-Cycle 7 July 2016 65 1000 [322]
Hannover Germany oBike oBike 2017 500 [323]
Bristol United Kingdom (England) YoBike YoBike May 2017 [324]
Milan Italy Mobike Mobike 30 August 2017 dockless 8000 [325]
Southampton United Kingdom (England) YoBike YoBike September 2017 [326]
Milan Italy Ofo Ofo 20 September 2017 dockless 4000 [327]
Sydney Australia Ofo Ofo October 2017 dockless 600 [328]
San Francisco Bay Area[184] United States of America Ford GoBike Motivate June 2017 550 7000 [329]
Melbourne Australia oBike oBike July 2017 dockless 1250 [330]
Sydney Australia oBike oBike July 2017 dockless 1250 [331]
Sydney Australia Reddy Go Reddy Go July 2017 2000 [332]
Bandung[185] Indonesia Boseh Banopolis July 2017 30 350 [333]
Cardiff United Kingdom (Wales) Nextbike nextbike March 2018 5 50 [334]
Corfu[186] Greece EasyBike Smoove Brainbox November 2010 8 100 [335]
San Francisco Bay Area United States of America 2013
George Town Malaysia LinkBike Fast Rent Bike (PG) December 2016 25 250 [99]
João Pessoa[187] Brazil SAMBA Mobilicidade 3 20 [336]
Maanshan China Maanshan Public Bicycle [337]
Changzhou China Changzhou Public Bicycle [338]
Pau France IDEcycle 20 220 [339]
Padua Italy GoodBike Padova 28 [340]
Brescia Italy Bicimia 65 395 [341]
Druento Italy ToBike 1 5 [342]
Alpignano Italy ToBike 2 8 [343]
Grugliasco Italy ToBike 9 30 [344]
Collegno Italy ToBike 10 35 [345]
Venaria Reale Italy ToBike 10 35 [346]
Rome Italy Roma'n'Bike 19 200 [347]
Rimini[188] Italy Rimini in Bici 16 [348]
Kyoto[189] Japan Community Cycle 5 [349]
Riga, Jurmala Latvia BalticBike 20 [350]
Toluca Mexico PBSC [351]
Daejeon South Korea Ta-shu 145 [352]
Kaohsiung Taiwan C-bike 119 1275 [dead link]
Konya Turkey nextbike nextbike 40 [353]
Black Rock City[190] United States of America Yellow Bikes Yellow Bikes [354]
Victoria[191] Canada U-Bicycle September 2017 initially 150 [355]

Europe[edit]

Advertising company JCDecaux launched its "Cyclocity" programs initially in Vienna,[192] Austria in 2003 and in Lyon, France in 2005. The company also started programs in other cities in Europe such as Paris, Córdoba, and Kazan, as well as cities outside of Europe, such as Brisbane, Australia. Payment for using the bikes is done with smart cards.

Competitor Clear Channel, then operating as Adshel, opened the first example of this in Rennes in 1997, and has several other sites including Oslo, Stockholm, Sandnes and Trondheim, most generally similar to that offered by their competitor.

A different financial model called bicing is used in Barcelona, which is paid for by car owners parking on public streets and not by advertising – which is contracted to JCDecaux in some places.[193]

Austria[edit]

In 2001, the city of Vienna implemented a first version of a bike sharing system following the example of Copenhagen. Unfortunately, Viennabike failed and its shortcomings were fixed in the second implementation called Citybike Wien, which started 2003. It is operated by Gewista and comprises 1500 bikes distributed to 121 stations with 3097 slots.[194] In 2015, more than 1 million trips and more than 100,000 new registrations were recorded. There is no fee for the first rental hour, additional hours are charged starting with €1.[195]

Belgium[edit]

Line of bikes at a Villo! station

The Villo! system was launched in Brussels in 2009, and is operated by JCDecaux. It's the company's second biggest bicycle rental system after Paris in terms of quantity.[clarification needed] At the beginning of April 2015, it had 4115 bikes across 346 stations.[196]

In Antwerp, a bike system called Velo went public in 2011. It is operated by Clear Channel and registered 2558657 journeys in 2013.[197]

Bulgaria[edit]

Burgas is the first Bulgarian city to introduce a public rent-a-bike system. The scheme is called VeloBurgas and has 10 access points with 120 bikes in operation. The rent-a-bike system works with cards, SMS, and POS. Prices range from 0.50 to 1 lev per hour.[198]

Cyprus[edit]

Public bicycles in Nicosia, Cyprus

Bike in Action operates in the greater Nicosia area, similar to programmes employed in various cities of Cyprus. Bicycles can be found at stations in all participating municipalities (Agios Dometios, Aglandjia, Dali, Engomi, Latsia, Pallouriotissa, Strovolos) and returned after their use at any station. Bike in Action includes more than 310 bikes distributed in 27 full automated Smoove stations, which cover the wide Nicosia area. All the rental stations are connected with the banking system and access to the bikes can be obtained with the use of a credit card.[199]

Denmark[edit]

Following earlier bike-sharing systems, Denmark introduced the first next generation bike-sharing system in 1991 in Farsø.[200] This small-scale scheme paved the way for the Copenhagen's ByCyklen programme, which was introduced in 1995 and was the first large-scale urban bike-sharing programme to feature specially designed bicycles with parts which could not be used on other bikes. Riders paid a refundable deposit at one of 110 special locking bike stands, and the riders then had unlimited use of the bike within a specified 'city bike zone'.[citation needed] The fine for not returning a bicycle or leaving the bike-sharing zone was strictly enforced by the police. The founders hoped to completely finance the programme by selling advertising space on the bicycles. This funding source quickly proved to be insufficient, and the city of Copenhagen took over the administration of the programme, funding most of the programme costs through appropriations from city revenues. Since it was free to the user, there is no return on the capital invested by the municipality, and a considerable amount of public funds was constantly used to keep the system in service. In 2013 a new version was expected to be introduced but the municipality of Copenhagen temporarily withdrew its support and there were no free bicycles for most of 2013.[201][202][203] Copenhagen municipality changed its mind and a new version was introduced in late 2013.[204]

Copenhagen was among the first cities in the world to have a free bike scheme called City Bikes,[205] which was paid by advertising on the bikes.

In late 2013, Copenhagen started a new program with electric bikes. The first phase of this program, with 1860 bikes and 105 docking stations, is to be completed in early 2016.[206]

Finland[edit]

Old defunct (2000 - 2010) Helsinki city bikes

City Bikes scheme in Helsinki launched in 2016, run by Helsinki City Transport (HKL), in collaboration with Moventia and Smoove. In the summer of 2017, City Bikes had 1500 bikes in 150 locations.[207][208][209]

France[edit]

Velib' bicycle station in Paris

In 1974, the French city of La Rochelle launched a free bike-sharing programme, Vélos Jaunes (Yellow Bikes), featuring unisex bicycles which were free to take and use. In terms of public usage and acceptance, it is regarded today as one of the first truly successful bike-sharing programmes. The programme continues today, albeit in modified form (rental charges apply after the first two hours, and personal identification is required for all bike rentals).

The Vélib' in Paris is the largest system outside China[citation needed]

French cities offering a bicycle sharing system include Marseille, Lyon, Bordeaux, Nice, Toulouse, Rennes, Rouen, La Rochelle, Orléans, Montpellier, Nantes, Lille, Dunkirk, Strasbourg, Clermont-Ferrand, Avignon, Saint-Étienne, Chalon sur Saône, Belfort, Lorient, Annemasse, Valence, and Aix-en-Provence.

The launch of Velo'v in Lyon, France in 2005 was an effort to improve on the disappointing performance of the traditional municipal public bike-sharing model. In an attempt to improve upon the results of the discontinued Bikeabout program at the University of Portsmouth, Velo'v utilised "smart" technology to reduce theft, user damage, and vandalism. Considered to be a city less than friendly to cyclists prior to 2005, the Velo'v programme is credited with stimulating an increase of 500% in bicycle trips within the city, a quarter of which used the bike sharing system.[210][211]

A resurgence in bike sharing programmes is attributed by many to the launching in 2007 of Paris's Vélib', a network of 18,000 specially designed bicycles distributed among 1,230 stations throughout Paris. Vélib', inspired by Lyon's seminal Vélo'v project, is now considered the second largest bike-sharing system of its kind in the world. 80 percent of Vélib's original 20,600 bicycles have been destroyed or stolen.[212] Some Vélib' cycles have been found in Eastern Europe and North Africa, while others have been dumped in the Seine River, hung from lampposts, or abandoned on the roadside in various states of disrepair, forcing the City of Paris to reimburse the programme operator an estimated $2 million per year for excess costs under its contractual agreement.[213]

Germany[edit]

Germany has bike-sharing programmes in many cities, including Aachen, Berlin, Cologne, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg (StadtRAD Hamburg), Karlsruhe, Kassel (Konrad), Mainz (MVGmeinRad), Munich and Stuttgart. The station-based system Metropolradruhr is located in the Ruhr Area. Bike-sharing stations are also located in over 50 ICE railway stations.[214][215]

Greece[edit]

In November 2010, Corfu launched EasyBike, which includes one hundred bicycles that are distributed in eight rental stations throughout the town. The method of operation is similar to other such systems in Europe. Residents can obtain a special electronic subscriber card from the Municipality, which gives them access to bicycles and occasional users can use their credit card to rent a bicycle.[186] The system also gives users the ability to obtain a code and gain access to bicycles through an IVR automated system by using their credit card. EasyBike bike sharing system is developed by Brainbox under a Smoove license, which is the first Greek company to implement a bike sharing project in Greece.[216]

There are also other programmes similar to bicycle sharing systems, which are not automated. The first, running from early 2010, is in the northern suburb of Nea Erithréa, in Attica, while the second is that of the Municipality of Nafpaktos, which has been in operation since mid June 2010. In these programmes, the residents rent the bike directly from the municipality. In the programme implemented in Nea Erithréa, bicycles are rented for one week to six months, on condition that the user must submit to the municipality 75 euros as a guarantee. In Nafpaktos, bicycles are rented for up to two months for free.[217] In 2011, the municipality of Heraklion in Crete purchased 100 bicycles from the bike-sharing company Brainbox, the developer of EasyBike[218] system while free distribution of bicycles from the municipality had already started from April 2010.[219]

In May 2012, a non-automated system was introduced at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, in Salonica, Northern Greece. It presents 60 public bikes available for the University community. The system has no electronic rental stations and the delivery and return of the bikes is made by students working part-time on the project.[220]

Hungary[edit]

Esztergom[edit]

The EBI in Esztergom, Hungary

The first public bicycle sharing service in Hungary was implemented in Esztergom on 20 September 2013. The Esztergom Bicycle or EBI was developed by Neuzer, a local bicycle manufacturing company.[221]

Szeged[edit]

The country's second bike sharing system in Szeged is CityBike Szeged. It has been in operation since 1 October 2013.[222][223]

Győr[edit]

GyőrBike opened on 7 September 2015 in Győr with 23 docks and 180 bicycles.[224]

Kaposvár[edit]

The Kaposvári Tekergő opened on 27 October 2015 in Kaposvár with 4 docking stations, 26 e-bikes and 6 e-rollers.[172]

Budapest[edit]

Budapest has the largest bicycle sharing system in Hungary. Operated jointly by BKK and MOL, the BuBi system was launched in September 2014[225] and has over 1500 bicycles and 120 docking stations as of November 2018.[226]

Ireland[edit]

In September 2009, Dublin launched a bike-share scheme known as dublinbikes operated by JCDecaux. With an initial 450 bicycles, the plan reached 1 million uses in less than a year.[227] As of June 2013, the scheme has had fewer than 12 bikes stolen or damaged.[228]

Italy[edit]

BikeMi, Milan, Italy

Milan has the largest bike sharing system in Italy, BikeMi, which was launched on 8 December 2008. It is contracted to and operated by Clear Channel on the basis of its SmartBike system.[229] The scheme encompasses 4,650 bicycles, which includes 1,000 electric bicycles and bikes for children.[230] and 280 stations.[231] Another large system exists in Turin. Since 2017, Mobike and OFO dockless systems also operate in Milan and Florence.[232] Several other cities, especially in the north, have smaller bike sharing systems.[233]

Netherlands[edit]

In 1965, the group Provo painted fifty bicycles white and scattered them unlocked in downtown Amsterdam for everyone to use freely.[4] The bicycles were both taken by people, and impounded by the authorities, as a city ordinance forbade leaving unlocked bikes in public places.[234][235]

In September 1997, a pilot project for a public share system, based on the UK's Grippa racks was established in Rotterdam, for use by commuters, but it was terminated the following year due to poor functionality of the electronic bike racks.[236]

The Netherlands: OV-fiets

The Netherlands has a single nationwide bike sharing program, called "OV-fiets", which means 'public transport bike'.[237] The system has 8500 bikes in 252 locations, mainly train stations, all over the country. Membership is required (annual fee €0.01, €3.85 per rental day) and can be combined with an OV-chipkaart. The program, which started on a small scale in 2003, has enjoyed a steadily increasing popularity with over 1.53 million rides registered in 2014. The nature of the Dutch bike sharing program differs from that of programs in other countries partly because the already high bike ownership of the population. Its interconnection with the public transport network allows it to fill the need of people who also want to continue traveling by bike from the station of their destination.[238]

Norway[edit]

The first Norwegian bicycle sharing system was introduced in Sandnes[239] in 1996.[240] It consisted of 225 green DBS bikes that were free to use in the fashion of a 1st generation bicycle sharing system. The Sandnes system was converted to a 3rd generation system in 2002.[241] In 1998, Trondheim introduced a 2nd generation system with 200 bicycles modeled after that of Copenhagen's. The Trondheim system was converted into a 3rd generation system in 2005. The following cities are known to have city bike arrangements. Some are prepaid automatic (example Oslo), some are manual (like in Tønsberg). In 2001, Drammen introduced a 3rd generation system together with the Clear Channel.[240]

Poland[edit]

The first bike-sharing program was launched in Kraków (Cracow) on 16 September 2008. As of 2016, 12 cities and towns in Poland have bike-sharing programs, most of them operated by nextbike.[243]

Portugal[edit]

Portugal has 13 bike-sharing programs functioning year-round as of October 2016, namely in the cities of Águeda (1 station/ 10 pedelecs), Anadia (10 stations), Aveiro (33 stations/350 bicycles), Cascais (October 2017: 19 stations inaugurated; 120 stations and 1200 bicycles by December, 2017), Lisbon (October, 2017: 10 stations inaugurated/100 bicycles; 140 stations and 1410 bicycles by December, 2017 of which 920 will be pedelecs), Oliveira de Azemeis (3 stations/20 pedelecs), Ovar (12 stations/130 bicycles), Paredes (5 stations/80 bicycles), Santarém (4 stations/40 bicycles), Serpa (2 stations/30 bicycles), Torres Vedras (11 stations/260 bicycles), Vilamoura (32 stations/200 bicycles), and Vila do Conde (12 stations/60 bicycles).

Romania[edit]

Timișoara is the first Romanian city to introduce a public rent-a-bike system. The scheme is called VeloTM and has 25 stations and 300 bikes. The rent-a-bike system works with the RATT card. Renting a bike is free however, the card costs.[244]

The Russian Federation[edit]

VeloBike bicycles in Moscow

Automated public bicycle sharing services in Russia operate in Moscow, Sankt-Petersburg, and Kazan.

On 1 July 2013, the Bank of Moscow started the system called Velobike, which was replaced in 2014 by Smoove-based solution using B’TWIN bicycles.[245][246] The VeloBike program has 2500 bicycles and 150 stations. It is sponsored by the Bank of Moscow and Sberbank of Russia. It is compatible with Troika, the Moscow public transportation system and accessible to occasional users as well.[247]

Slovakia[edit]

There is a community-run bike-sharing program in Bratislava called White Bikes with about 100 bikes (donated by local Rotary Club[248]) and over 60 stations (as of December 2017).[249] It is built on the open source Open Source Bike Share system[250] based on an SMS and a web app. It was started in 2013 by BikeKitchen initiative and cycling advocacy NGO Cyklokoalicia. There is no fee to use bikes, membership is granted after initial personal introduction and training. Bikes are available all year long.

Official Bratislava city bike sharing Slovnaft Bajk was launched on September 7, 2018[251] in cooperation with Slovnaft company. It offered only under 100 bicycles initially at around 80 stations (based on the public stats). Number of bicycles increased to around 190 later, but users complained about the UX and broken bicycles / rental process. Estimated 23%[252] of bicycles were not working or rendered inaccessible for rental.

The first commercial bike sharing in Slovakia was launched in 2016 in the city of Prievidza. Zelený bicykel (translates as Green bicycle) has 19 stations and is expected to add 10 more in 2018.[253] Bikes are not available during winter season.[254]

Public transportation company Arriva launched a bike sharing in Nitra in 2017. It is a complementary service for its bus service. It only features 7 docking stations, the price is €25 per year, €3 per day or €0.50 per hour.[255][256] Bikes are not available during winter season.

Spain[edit]

Bicing in Barcelona

The Ayuntamiento de Burgos[257] runs a bike-sharing program in BiciBur,[258] with 23 locations, most with positions for ten bikes. Membership is €15 per year.[258]

Sweden[edit]

The Stockholm City Bikes system has more than 80 stands and 1,000 bikes, functioning from April to October.[259]

The bike sharing system in Gothenburg, known as Styr & ställ, was launched in August 2010. The system has 60 stations and 1,000 bikes.[260]

Switzerland[edit]

A station in Lausanne (Switzerland).

Switzerland possesses several bicycle sharing systems including Publibike, Smide, and oBike which was launched in Zurich on 5 July 2017.[261] The Publibike network consists of one hundred stations throughout the country.[262] It includes nine stations on the Lausanne campus.[263] oBike is said to have deployed 350 bikes in the city of Zurich with bike hire being CHF 1.50 for 30 minutes, with a CHF 129 deposit being required.[264] The city of Zürich also has a free bike-rental program, "Züri rollt", with several pick-up and drop-off locations.[265]

United Kingdom[edit]

England[edit]

In 1993, a Green Bike Scheme bike sharing programme was initiated in Cambridge, United Kingdom, using a fleet of some 300 bicycles. The overwhelming majority of the fleet were stolen or missing within a year of the programme's introduction, and the Green Bike Scheme was abandoned.[266]

In an attempt to overcome losses from theft, the next innovation adopted by bike sharing programmes was the use of so-called 'smart technology'. One of the first 'smart bike' programmes was the Grippa™ bike storage rack system used in Portsmouth's Bikeabout scheme.[267][268][236] The Bikeabout scheme was launched in October 1995 by the University of Portsmouth, UK as part of its Green Transport Plan in an effort to cut car travel by staff and students between campus sites.[268] Funded in part by the EU's ENTRANCE[269] programme, the Bikeabout scheme was a "smart card" fully automated system.[268][236][270] For a small fee, users were issued 'smart cards' with magnetic stripes to be swiped through an electronic card reader at a covered 'bike store' kiosk, unlocking the bike from its storage rack.[268] CCTV camera surveillance was installed at all bike stations in an effort to limit vandalism.[268] Upon arriving at the destination station, the smart card was used to open a cycle rack and record the bike's safe return.[268] A charge was automatically registered on the user's card if the bike was returned with damage or if the time exceeded the three-hour maximum.[268] Implemented with an original budget of approximately £200,000, the Portsmouth Bikeabout scheme was never very successful in terms of rider usage,[a] in part due to the limited number of bike kiosks and hours of operation.[268][270] Seasonal weather restrictions and concerns over unjustified charges for bike damage also imposed barriers to usage.[268] The Bikeabout program was discontinued by the University in 1998 in favour of expanded minibus service; the total costs of the Bikeabout programme were never disclosed.[271][272] Following the discontinuation of the University of Portsmouth's Bikeabout programme in 1998[273] (it had been launched in 1996),[274][275] the introduction of new bicycle share systems proceeded more slowly in the United Kingdom than in the rest of Europe. With sponsorship from first Barclays and later Santander, Transport for London launched a cycle hire scheme in London, where hire under 30 minutes is free from special bicycle stands across the city, after a daily, monthly or annual charge has been paid.[276]

Barclays Cycle Hire, London, UK started in 2010

Outside of London (see below), the largest is the hire-a-bike operation in Blackpool, operated by Hourbike,[277] with 60 stations and 500 bikes in the scheme. This scheme uses both RFID membership cards and instant point-of-sale memberships to cater for both residential users and the very many visitors that go to the resort every year. Hourbike also has schemes in Lincoln, Reading, Liverpool, Nottingham and Southport in England as well as Dumfries, Scotland.

In May 2017, Bristol became the first European city to have a hire-a-bike system operated by YoBike.[278][279]

Some bike-sharing schemes use mobile phone apps to reserve or sign out bikes. In the UK, OYBike delivered small-scale operations at 2 universities, 3 business parks, 3 London boroughs, and a private hotel chain in London until 2011. Like Munich's Call-a-Bike, OYBike used mobile phone technology to log use and charge for hires and can set up hire points in as little as 10 minutes.[280]

Brompton Bike Hire has 40 docks across 25 major locations in the UK, starting at £2.50 for 24 hours and is using the same hardware as BIXI Montréal, members can rent a folding Brompton bike. The locations of the docks include London, Birmingham, Manchester, Bristol, Reading, Southampton and Oxford.[281]

in 2007,[282] (another source gives early 2008) London mayor Ken Livingstone promised that an extensive bicycle sharing system modelled on the Paris Vélib' system would be introduced in London during his final term in office.[283] The scheme was not completed until Boris Johnson was in office, and consequently became known informally as "Boris Bikes".[284] The system, provided by PBSC Urban Solutions, was initially sponsored by Barclays Bank and subsequently by Santander UK, and is now known as Santander Cycles.

In 2018 the Singaporean-based company oBike launched in London, with 400 dockless bikes and is anticipated to soon spread to other cities in the UK.[285][286] In the UK, oBike's bike hire is 50p for 30 minutes, with a £49 deposit being required.[285][287]

Northern Ireland[edit]

Belfast launched a public bike hire scheme on 27 April 2015. The scheme was sponsored by Coca-Cola HBC Northern Ireland and is called Coca-Cola Zero Belfast Bikes. The Department for Regional Development (DRD) provided initial capital funding for the scheme as part of their Active Travel Demonstration Projects budget. NSL is looking after the daily operation of the scheme, while Nextbike is responsible for the bikes.[288] There are 33 docking stations with options for expansion depending on securing additional resources and council approval.[289][290]

Scotland[edit]

Recent expansions to cities in Scotland piggy-backing on the Commonwealth Games 2014 in Glasgow included Glasgow and Stirling.[291][292][293] Stirling's scheme was named "Pedalforth" following a competition in the community and comprises 100 bikes and 11 stations. Glasgow provided 400 bikes across 31 stations in 2014.[294] A system operated by JCDecaux is proposed for Edinburgh.[295]

Wales[edit]

Nextbike started a public bike hire scheme operating in Cardiff on 26 March 2018, with five docking stations and 50 bicycles.[296] The original plan had been to have the public bike hire scheme operating in Cardiff by Autumn 2017.[297] The plan is still to reach 500 cycles over 50 docking stations in the city.[296] It came 6 years after OYBike ended a smaller scheme (with 10 stations), following the council's withdrawal of funding in 2011.[297]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

Montréal, QC[edit]

BIXI Montreal, Quebec, Canada

The first widely deployed bicycle sharing system was BIXI Montréal. BIXI Montréal launched in 2009.[298] It has since expanded to 6200 bicycles at 540 stations,[299] making it by far the largest bicycle sharing system in Canada. Although initial program costs were $15 million for planning and implementation of the Bixi project, subsequent additional costs incurred in expanding the program have driven costs upwards of $23 million.[300][301][302] Started in May 2009, it has expanded to over 5000 bicycles at 450 stations.[303] The system was developed by PBSC Urban Solutions along with a consortium of vendors. The BIXI technology was then used in numerous bike sharing systems in North America, Europe and Australia. The Montreal system was ranked by Time Magazine as the 19th best invention of 2008.[304]

Hamilton, ON[edit]

Sobi Hamilton launched in March 2015 with 750 bicycles at over 100 stations.[305]

Ottawa, ON[edit]

The Bixi system was implemented in June 2009 in Ottawa/Gatineau as Capital Bixi. Capital Bixi launched in 2009 as a pilot program with 100 bicycles and 10 stations. In 2012, it was expanded to 250 bicycles and 25 stations. Its owner, the NCC, sold it to US-based CycleHop in April 2014 when its operator, Montreal-based Public Bike System Company, filed for bankruptcy protection in January 2014.[306][307] CycleHop renamed the service to VeloGo and replaced the fleet with all-new 'smart' bicycles, where intelligence (i.e. GPS tracking, etc.) is built into each bicycle, instead of relying on base stations, as with Bixi system. VeloGo began its service in the summer of 2015.[308]

Toronto, ON[edit]

From 2001 to 2006, BikeShare, operated by the Community Bicycle Network (CBN) in Toronto, was for a time the most popular community bicycle sharing program in North America. BikeShare was intended to overcome some of the theft issues by requiring yearly memberships to sign out any of the 150 refurbished yellow bikes locked up at 16 hubs throughout central Toronto. At its height, over 400 members could sign out a bike from any hub for up to three days. The hubs were located at stores, cafes and community centres where the staff would volunteer their time to sign bikes out and in.[309] Despite steadily increasing administrative, implementation, and maintenance costs, CBN could only charge users around 20 percent of actual costs, as users were unlikely to spend more than $50 per year for a membership. Without sufficient funds in the form of private and government grants, CBN was forced to discontinue BikeShare in 2006.[310]

Bixi Toronto launched in 2011 with 800 bicycles at 80 stations.[311] In 2013, when Public Bike System Company acknowledged that it could not repay its $3.9 million loan to the city, the system was taken over by the Toronto Parking Authority and renamed Bike Share Toronto.[312] In 2016, the city of Toronto signed a contract with PBSC to expand their system. Its network hosts 2,750 bicycles spread among 270 stations.[313][314] The Bixi system was introduced in Toronto in May 2011 as Bixi Toronto.

Vancouver[edit]

In 2016, Vancouver installed a bike sharing system, Mobi (bike share), operated by CycleHop Corp.[315]

Mobi (bike share) launched in July 2016 with 1500 bicycles at 150 stations.[316]

Victoria[edit]

In September 2017 a dockless bike share became available in the city of Victoria, starting with 150 bicycles.[191] The dockless bike share is operated by U-Bicycle.

Edmonton[edit]

From 2005 to 2008, a largely unregulated bike sharing program was operated by the Peoples' Pedal organisation in Edmonton, Alberta. The program suffered from high theft and vandalism rates, with 95% of the bikes that had been placed into service stolen or missing by 2008.[317]

Costa Rica[edit]

Cartago east of San José, Costa Rica started a bikeshare program.[318][319]

Mexico[edit]

EcoBici bicycles in Mexico City

Mexico City: EcoBici is one of the world's largest programs, with 452 stations covering a 35-square-kilometre (14 sq mi) area.[320]

Mexico City[edit]

In February 2010, the government of Mexico City inaugurated a new bicycle sharing network called EcoBici.[321] With distinctive red and white liveried bicycles, the network as of February 2015 consists of 444 stations with 6,500 bicycles.[322] With more than 240,000 registered users, it has been argued that Ecobici is the largest bicycle-sharing program in North America.[323] The system is run by a private company, Clear Channel México, but[324] funded by the government with an initial investment of 75 million pesos. Users of the system are required to purchase an RFID card at a cost of 400 pesos which will provide them with access to the bicycles for one year. Use of a bicycle is free for the first 45 minutes; extra charges are applied for use beyond this time limit.

Guadalajara[edit]

In December 2014, the government of the State of Jalisco implemented a bicycle sharing system called MiBici with 86 stations and 860 bicycles.[325] As of October 2016, it has 236 stations with 2 thousand bicycles.[326] This system uses the technology and the hardware of PBSC.[327]

Toluca[edit]

In November 2015, the Municipality of Toluca inaugurated a bicycle sharing system called Huitzi with 26 stations and 300 bicycles, using PBSC as a provider.[328][329]

Pachuca[edit]

In February 2016, the Municipality of Pachuca inaugurated a bicycle sharing system called Bici Capital with 6 stations and 140 bicycles.[330]

Puebla[edit]

From January 2017, the Puebla will have a system called Bici Puebla with 139 stations and 2,100 bicycles.[331]

United States[edit]

In the United States, public bicycle share programs have largely centered around major cities and universities.[332] Some corporate campuses have private systems.[333] According to a report by the National Association of City Transportation Officials, a total of 35 million bike-share trips took place within the United States in 2017 across 100 bike-share systems across the country, operated by eight companies.[334] With Seattle leading the way on dockless bike sharing in the U.S. in summer 2017, but other cities soon joining the ranks, nine months later, about 44% of rides were dockless.[334] As elsewhere, the bikes became controversial in various cities;[335] Dallas reportedly had 20,000 bikes on the streets,[336] they were essentially banned in New York City and San Francisco,[337] with Austin, Texas issuing emergency rules for their implementation.[338]

Bikes Belong (Dem/Rep Conventions), 2008[edit]

In 2007, Bikes Belong (now known as PeopleForBikes), an advocacy group financed by major bicycle manufacturers worked with city officials, local advocates, and the healthcare firm Humana to bring bikesharing to the Republican and Democratic 2008 conventions. Called "Freewheelin!" the program offered 1,000 bicycles at 12 stations throughout the downtowns of the host cities, Denver and Minneapolis/St. Paul, over the five days of each convention. Bikes Belong's stated goal was to provide a proof-of-concept that large-scale bicycle sharing that was exploding in European cities could work in U.S. cities and provide a valuable addition to the transportation mix. The program was popular among conventioneers, and helped the city of Denver to create a narrative around the "green" attributes of the convention. Both Denver and Minneapolis successfully pursued permanent bikesharing systems, with Denver B-cycle launching on 22 April 2010 as the first of its scale in the U.S., followed by Minneapolis' NiceRide system launching on 10 June 2010.[339]

Aspen/Basalt, CO[edit]

The system was launched in 2013 with 16 stations and 200 bikes, with provider PBSC.[340][341]

Albany, NY[edit]

In Fall of 2012, the University at Albany (SUNY) launched a campus bike share which allows students, faculty and staff to take out bike from one of three residential hall locations on campus. With over 30 bikes in the program and still growing the program experienced rapid growth with 381 sign out in Fall 2013 and 1620 sign outs in Fall 2014. The University is currently looking to expand its program by adding more bikes and locations.[342]

Alpharetta, GA[edit]

Alpharetta offers a bike share program operated by Zagster. Trips under 3 hours are free, and annual memberships are $20. Bikes can be rented from 4 stations throughout Alpharetta.[343] Bikes can be taken anywhere, including Alpharetta's Big Creek Greenway – a 12 foot wide concrete path that stretches 8 scenic miles terminating in Big Creek park.[344]

Atlanta, GA[edit]

In June 2016, Relay Bike Share launched as the bike share system for the City of Atlanta. The program—operated by Cyclehop, LLC and Social Bicycles, LLC—launched with 100 bicycles at 10 stations throughout the downtown area. The program aims to offer 500 bicycles across the city by the end of 2016.[345]

Austin, TX[edit]

In December 2013, Austin B-cycle launched as the bike share system for the City of Austin with 11 stations.[346] It is operated as a public-private partnership between the City of Austin and the non-profit Bike Share of Austin. The current system operates 46 bike share stations 24/7 in the downtown Austin area. Austin B-cycle set a national bike share record for the most checkouts per bicycle in a single day, 10.1 checkouts per bike, on 14 March 2015 during the SXSW festival.[347]

Baltimore, MD[edit]

In May 2014, over 40 bicycles were stolen from Baltimore Recreation and Parks department's bike-share program. The bikes were stolen during the city's Ride Around Reservoir program in Druid Hill Park. The bikes were set up to be lent out when a group of youths took them. The cost of replacing the stolen bikes is devastating to the program, which operates completely on donations.[348][349]

Birmingham, AL[edit]

Birmingham launched Zyp Bikeshare in October, 2015. Annual memberships are $75, with monthly passes for $20, 3-day passes for $12, and daily passes for $6.[350] Zyp also offers discounted annual memberships to individuals who qualify. Zyp operates 400 bikes at 40 kiosks. Bikes can be ridden anywhere in the downtown Birmingham area. Once a bike is unlocked, riders have 45 minutes to ride before incurring additional fees if they have not docked at another station. As well as traditional bikes, Zyp was the first bikeshare in North America to have electric pedal-assist bikes to help riders cover distances or mount hills faster.[351]

Boston, MA[edit]

In 2007, Boston Mayor Thomas M. Menino and Director of Bicycle Programs, Nicole Freedman, decided to bring bike sharing to the Boston area. The Metropolitan Area Planning Council, the regional planning agency for the metro-Boston region of 101 cities and towns, joined the effort. Brookline, Cambridge, and Somerville also participated.

On 28 July 2011, Boston launched its 60-station, 600-bike Hubway system, sponsored by the shoe manufacturer New Balance and funded in part by a $3 million grant from the Federal Transit Administration. The contract to operate was awarded to Alta Bicycle Share and the equipment provider was PBSC Urban Solutions. Bicycle-sharing was greeted with a mix of excitement and skepticism. In its first two and a half months, Hubway recorded 100,000 station-to-station rides. After recording 140,000 trips in four months, Boston's European-style bicycle-sharing system expanded outside city limits, planting stations across Cambridge, Somerville, and Brookline. Hubway has over 100 stations throughout the Greater Boston area.

In spring of 2018 Motivate the operator of Hubway changed sponsors from Hubway to the Blue Cross Blue Shield Association and officially changed the name of the bike share program to Blue Bikes Boston.[352]

Boulder, CO[edit]

Solar powered Boulder B-cycle station with double sided docks. The system was launched in April 2010.

In May 2011, Boulder, Colorado launched a bicycle sharing system, Boulder B-Cycle, with 100 bicycles and 15 stations. This system, like many in northern latitude cities, closes down during winter months to help preserve the life of the equipment.[353]

Broward County, FL[edit]

Broward B-Cycle launched in December 2011 as the country's first county-wide bike share program, with 200 bikes and 20 stations located in several cities within Broward County, including Fort Lauderdale. This system was funded through a public-private partnership with the Florida Department of Transportation providing a $311,000 grant through Broward County, and B-Cycle's sponsors providing the remainder of the initial capital and operating costs.[354]

Buffalo, NY[edit]

Reddy Bikeshare launched in 2016 with 200 bicycles at 35 stations around the city.[355]

Charleston, SC[edit]

In August 2013, the College of Charleston's Office of Sustainability began a bike sharing program.[356] This program's 16 bicycles are free to use for all full-time students, faculty, and staff members.[357]

Charlotte, NC[edit]

A system of B-Cycle stands are installed downtown and a few places nearby.[106]

Chattanooga, TN[edit]

In July 2012, the Bike Chattanooga Bicycle Transit System launched in Chattanooga, Tennessee with 300 bikes and 28 solar-powered stations by PBSC.[358] It was the first large scale bicycle transit system in the Southeast. The system has expanded to 33 stations and had recorded over 78,000 trips by its second anniversary.[359]

Chicago, IL[edit]

Launched in 2013, Divvy is the bike sharing program for Chicago and the largest in North America.

On 28 June 2013, Chicago launched Divvy, a bike share system with 750 bikes at 75 stations.[360] As of December 2016, the system operates over 5800 bikes at 580 stations,[361] using both PBSC's hardware and software.[362]

Cincinnati, OH[edit]

In September 2014, Cincinnati Red Bike started operation. It opened with 35 docking stations in downtown, Over the Rhine, University of Cincinnati's main campus and surrounding areas. In 2015 Red Bike expanded to 50 stations with over 300 bikes and has a ridership of 100,000+ per year.[363]

Cleveland, OH[edit]

On 21 September 2016, Cleveland launched its UH Bike system, with 250 bicycles and 22 stations distributed around the city.[364][365]

Columbus, OH[edit]

On 30 July 2013, CoGo Bike Share started in Columbus, Ohio. It opened with 300 bikes and 30 docking stations in downtown and surrounding areas,[366] all provided by PBSC and operated by Motivate.[367] In summer 2015, Zagster launched a 115 bicycle, 15 station system on the Ohio State University campus. The university decided not to integrate with the city's CoGo system.[368] The Ohio State University announced plans to integrate electric assist bicycles as part of its bicycle share program launching in 2015.[369]

Denver, CO[edit]

On 22 April 2010, Denver became the first U.S. city with a large-scale smart-technology enabled bicycle sharing system with the launch of Denver B-cycle. The system launched with 45 stations and 450 bicycles throughout downtown, downtown-adjacent neighborhoods, and on higher-education campuses. Denver B-cycle's roots came from the "Freewheelin" bikesharing program which operated for 6 days during the 2008 DNC convention in Denver. In Denver, several B-cycle rental stations are located at RTD Light Rail Platforms. The Denver B-cycle program varies in cost depending on use. Fees range from $8 per day to $80 per year.[370]

Denver's B-cycle needed 7 1/2 months to reach 100,000 station-to-station rides.[371]

Des Moines, IA[edit]

B-Cycle has partnered with the Des Moines Bicycle Collective, operating bike-sharing stations throughout the downtown core, East Village, Ingersoll, Sherman Hill, and Drake University neighborhoods. The system is in operation from 1 March - November 30 each year.[372]

Detroit, MI[edit]

Mogo, a nonprofit affiliate of the Downtown Detroit Partnership launched MoGo Bike Share in the Greater Downtown area with 430 bicycles across 43 stations on 23 May 2017.[373]

Eugene, OR[edit]

PeaceHealth Rides is administered by JUMP Bikes (formerly Social Bicycles, and now owned by Uber) and is a partnership of the City of Eugene, Lane Transit District, and the University of Oregon. The system launched in downtown Eugene, the Whiteaker neighborhood, and the area around the University of Oregon with 300 bicycles across 36 stations in April 2018. PeaceHealth, a not-for-profit Catholic health system with 10 hospitals in three states including one hospital in Eugene, is the sponsor.[374]

Fargo, ND[edit]

In March 2015, bicycle advocacy nonprofit Great Rides Fargo launched Great Rides Bike Share, a system with 101 bicycles at 11 stations.[67] The system was launched in partnership with North Dakota State University, where students are enrolled at no additional cost. It was the first system to include integrated card access for enrolled students.[375][376][68]

Fort Wayne, IN[edit]

In April 2016, The city of Fort Wayne announced a small system in its downtown area.[377]

Fort Worth, TX[edit]

On 22 April 2013, Fort Worth Bike Sharing, a 501(c)3 non-profit organization, launched a B-cycle system consisting of 300 bikes and 30 stations serving Downtown, Near Southside, and Cultural District in Fort Worth, Texas.[378][379] Fort Worth B-cycle is included in a program called "B-connected" which allows members of over 15 participating B-cycle cities to use their annual memberships for free in other cities.[380]

Greenville, NC[edit]

The City of Greenville and nearby Farmville, NC launched the Bikeshare system LimeBike in early 2018. The service serves the citizens of Greenville and Farmville along with the students of East Carolina University.

Honolulu, HI[edit]

The City and County of Honolulu passed Bikeshare Resolution 14–35 on 14 March 2014. Bikeshare Hawaii, which will operate as Biki, chose PBSC as the system provider. The extensive bikeshare program envisioned for Honolulu includes a network installation of 200 bicycle docking stations containing a total of at 2,000 program-owned bikes. The stations will extend from Chinatown to Diamond Head. Additionally, there is currently a small pilot program in Kailua (Honolulu County) with 2 stations.[381]

Houston, TX[edit]

In May 2012, Houston Bike Share, a 501(c)(3) nonprofit that administers bike sharing for the City of Houston, launched Houston BCycle. The system started with 18 bikes and 3 stations, and has since grown to 475 bikes and 72 stations located in Downtown, Midtown, Montrose, Third Ward, Woodland Heights East End, Heights and Museum District among other neighborhoods. Houston BCycle aims to expand to 1,000 bikes and 100 stations by 2020.

Indianapolis, IN[edit]

In May 2014, Indianapolis launched the bike share program called Indiana Pacers Bikeshare with 25 stations and 250 bikes.[382]

Zotwheels Bike Share at the University of California Irvine

Jersey City, NJ[edit]

On 21 September 2015, the Citi Bike system that started in New York City in 2013 expanded across the Hudson River to Jersey City, New Jersey with 35 stations and 350 bikes. Even though Citi Bike Jersey City is independent of Citi Bike New York, one membership works for both systems.[383] The system experienced its first wave of expansion in July 2016 with 15 new stations and 150 additional bikes. The system currently boasts 50 stations with 500 bicycles throughout Jersey City.[384]

Kansas City, MO[edit]

In 2012, Kansas City, Missouri launched Kansas City B-cycle in partnership with Blue Cross Blue Shield.[385] The system currently has 30 stations and over 200 bicycles reaching downtown, Union Hill, Westport, Plaza and as of Summer 2015, Brookside Trolley Trail. North Kansas City will be adding 3 more stations in spring 2017 as well as several more coming to Midtown KCMO.[386]

Los Angeles, CA[edit]

On 7 July 2016, Los Angeles County launched Metro Bike Share,[387] a 1,400-bike system with equipment by B-Cycle, operated by Bicycle Transit Systems. It was the first North American system to be both branded as part of the public transit agency and accessible using the regional TAP card, though at the time of launch users were required to maintain separate accounts for each transit mode and pay separate fares.[388]

Madison, WI[edit]

In 1996, Madison, Wisconsin, instituted its Red Bikes Project, a public bike sharing program. These red-painted bicycles were available for the use of the general public, primarily in the student areas of State Street between the University of Wisconsin campus and the Wisconsin State Capitol. Initially, the only rule regarding the use of a Red Bikes Project bicycle was that it was required to remain outside and unlocked, and thus available for any passerby. After a surge in bicycle thefts and vandalism, the program was modified to require a valid credit card and $80 in security deposits for both the bicycle and the now-mandatory bicycle lock.[389] The program is now only available seasonally, from spring (when all snow has melted) to 30 November.[390]

Manhattan, KS[edit]

In 2015, the Green Apple Bikes bike-share system started in Manhattan, Kansas that makes single-speed cruisers available free for 4-hour periods. The program is funded by a consortium of businesses, and bicycles are maintained by volunteers.[391][392]

Memphis, TN[edit]

On 23 May 2018, Explore Bike Share launched in Memphis, TN, and West Memphis, AR.[393][394] The system was launched with 60 stations and 600 bicycles serving portions of West Memphis, Downtown Memphis, Uptown Memphis, Midtown Memphis, South Memphis, and Orange Mound, with a plan to add another 30 stations and 300 bicycles in 2019. The system uses B-Cycle equipment.

Miami & Miami Beach, FL[edit]

In March 2011, DecoBike launched in Miami Beach, Florida.[395] The initial rollout of the program included "approximately 100 solar-powered stations and 1,000 custom-designed bikes available to residents and visitors."[396] This public bicycle sharing and rental program is owned and operated by DecoBike, LLC, a Miami-based company, and operates under a long-term agreement with the City of Miami Beach. The service is available to both residents and visitors: any adult with a major credit card can check out a bike to pedal to their next location. An iPhone app and an interactive map on the DecoBike website allows one to locate the nearest "station" and displays the number of bikes available and the number of free docking spaces in real-time.[397]

Milwaukee, WI[edit]

In August 2014, the City of Milwaukee in partnership with a local non-profit organization, Midwest Bike Share, launched Bublr Bikes[398] with 10 stations in downtown Milwaukee.[399] The system grew to 17 stations by Fall 2015, and now there are 50 stations in the City of Milwaukee[400] plus another 7 stations in the adjacent suburb of Wauwatosa[401](as of December 2016). Planning for additional stations within the City of Milwaukee is underway. Additionally, the adjacent communities of Shorewood and West Allis are expected to add around 7 stations each to the system in 2017.[402]

Minneapolis, MN[edit]

In June 2010, Minneapolis initiated operation of Nice Ride, one of the first examples of a large-scale municipal bike sharing program in the United States. Phase 1 included 700 bikes and 65 stations throughout Minneapolis[403] Due to popularity, the system was aggressively expanded into neighboring Saint Paul in 2011. As of 29 April 2012, Nice Ride had recorded a total of 330,000 trips, and a systemwide total of 1,330 bikes at 146 stations.[404] The system is provided by PBSC.[405] Minneapolis, Nice Ride needed six months to reach 100,000 station-to-station rides.[371]

New Paltz, NY[edit]

The village of New Paltz, New York, home of SUNY New Paltz, has a bicycle lending program.[406]

New York City, NY[edit]

Citi Bike opened in New York City in May 2013.

On Memorial Day, 27 May 2013, New York City started its privately funded Citi Bike program. It was the nation's largest when it began operation, but Washington, D.C.'s system has grown faster. It began with 6,000 bikes at 330 docking stations in Manhattan and parts of Brooklyn. According to the city vision OneNYC the city wants to expand it to 12,000 bikes and 750 docking stations in Manhattan, all of Brooklyn and Queens[citation needed] . By 29 May, in its third day of operation, the program had 21,300 individuals signed on as annual members.[407] As of June 2013 Citi Bike is the largest bike sharing program in the United States.[408] In August 2015, Citi Bike once again became the largest system in the United States with 400 stations.[409] Jump Bikes, a dockless electric bicycle sharing system launched in the city during September 2017.[410]

Oklahoma City, OK[edit]

On 18 May 2012, the City of Oklahoma City launched its bike share program known as Spokies. On 1 August 2014, Spokies became part of EMBARK, Oklahoma City's transit agency. The system has eight docking stations and 145 bikes throughout downtown Oklahoma City.[112]

Philadelphia, PA[edit]

The Indego system in Philadelphia

On 23 April 2015 the City of Philadelphia launched its privately funded Indego bike share program with 60 docking stations and 600 bikes, located in Center City, South Philadelphia, Northern Liberties, and University City.[411] It used equipment by B-Cycle and was operated by Bicycle Transit Systems with a naming sponsorship from locally based health insurer Independence.[412]

Phoenix, AZ[edit]

On 25 November 2014, Phoenix launched Grid Bike Share with 100 bikes at 27 stations.[413] It has since expanded to nearly 500 bikes at 48 stations, and has plans to add another 200 bikes and 20 stations.[414] Mesa, AZ, joined the system in March 2016, with 100 bikes at 14 stations, with plans to add another 200 bikes and 10–14 stations. Tempe, AZ, intends to join the three-city system in early 2017 with 300 bikes at 31 stations.[415]

Pittsburgh, PA[edit]

On 31 May 2015 Pittsburgh, during an Open Streets day, launched its Healthy Ride bike share program. The system launched with 50 docking stations and 500 bikes located in Downtown Pittsburgh, South Side Flats, North Shore, Strip District, Lawrenceville (Pittsburgh), Oakland (Pittsburgh), Bloomfield (Pittsburgh), and Shadyside (Pittsburgh).[416][417]

Portland, OR[edit]

One of the first community bicycle projects in the United States was started in Portland, Oregon in 1994 by civic and environmental activists Tom O'Keefe, Joe Keating and Steve Gunther. It took the approach of simply releasing a number of bicycles to the streets for unrestricted use. While Portland's Yellow Bike Project was successful in terms of publicity, it proved unsustainable due to theft and vandalism of the bicycles. The Yellow Bike Project was eventually terminated, and replaced with the Create A Commuter (CAC) program, which provides free secondhand bicycles to certain preselected low-income and disadvantaged people who need a bicycle to get to work or attend job training courses,[418]

On 19 July 2016 Portland launched Biketown,[419] a system with 1,000 GPS-enabled smart bikes sold by Social Bicycles and operated by Motivate with a $10 million, five-year naming sponsorship by Nike.[420] It was the continent's largest smart-bike system at the time of launch. The 100 stations covered 8.1 square miles but were concentrated most densely in downtown Portland and the Pearl and Northwest Districts.[421] Funding came entirely from a $2 million allocation of federal dollars approved by the Metro regional government, from Nike, and from ongoing user fees and smaller sponsorships.[422]

Salem, MA[edit]

In 2011, the city of Salem, Massachusetts launched a bike share program called Salem Spins offering use of bicycles free of charge, for use around the city. The seasonal program was financed in part with a $25,000 grant for a fleet of 20 bicycles.[423] The program is offered from April to October.

Salt Lake City, UT[edit]

On 8 April 2013, Salt Lake City launched GREENbike as the region's Bike Share brand. The program launched in downtown Salt Lake City with 10 stations and added two new stations less than four months later. The program will be expanding to 20 stations by 2014 with the goal of 100 stations in downtown Salt Lake City. Satellite GREENbike systems in cities such as Ogden are in the works and will be connected by the state transit authority's Frontrunner light rail train.[424]

San Francisco / Bay Area, CA[edit]

The Bay Area Bike Share system began operating in the San Francisco Bay Area in August 2013.

In August 2013 the Bay Area Bike Share system began operating in the San Francisco Bay Area of California. The system allocated half of its 700 bicycle fleet in San Francisco, and the rest along the Caltrain corridor in Redwood City, Palo Alto, Mountain View and San Jose.[425] In 2015, it was announced that the scheme would expand to 7,000 bikes, over 2016-2017, and would include the East Bay Area communities of Berkeley, Emeryville, and Oakland.[426]

San Diego, CA[edit]

The City of San Diego has a contract with Discover (formerly DECO) Bike, a docked bike-share, but in January 2018 the city attorney Mara Elliot opined that the city could still allow dockless bike sharing. Ofo and LimeBike began operating on 15 February 2018.[427] As of March 2018, Ofo, LimeBike, and Mobike offer dockless bike rentals within the city. LimeBike and Bird offer electric scooters, and LimeBike offers electric pedal-assist bikes as well.[428][429][430][431] However, there have been some concerns in high-pedestrian corridors.[432]

Seattle, WA[edit]

On 13 October 2014, Pronto Cycle Share launched with 500 bicycles and 50 stations. Pronto uses Motivate of New York City as the operator.[433] In January 2017, Seattle's mayor announced the system would be permanently shut down at the end of March 2017 due to funding shortfalls.[434] Dockless systems by LimeBike and Spin were introduced in July 2017 as their first large-city systems in the US.[435][436]

Stony Brook, NY[edit]

In April 2013, Stony Brook University launched the Wolf Ride Bike Share system with 4 stations and 48 bicycles. As of November 2015, the system consists of 12 stations and 78 bicycles using software and hardware provided by PBSC.[437][438]

Topeka, KS[edit]

On 15 April 2015, Topeka Metro Bikes launched with 100 smart bikes and 10 stations.[439] An additional 100 bikes were added to the system in April 2016.[440]

Tucson, AZ[edit]

In 1996, a pilot bicycle share project known as the Orange Bike Project was organised in Tucson, Arizona by Bootstraps to Share, a homeless advocacy organisation inspired by the Bikes Not Bombs movement.[441] Using funds from a taxpayer-funded government grant to obtain, recondition, and maintain 30 bicycles, project organisers announced plans to station the bicycles in downtown Tucson and areas adjacent to the University of Arizona.[441] The publicly shared bicycles, painted bright orange by Earl Scheib to identify them, were primarily intended for use by the homeless or those without means of affordable transportation.[441] The initial 30 bicycles placed into service for the Orange Bike Project were all stolen within a few weeks.[442] A total of 80 bicycles were eventually used in the Orange Bike Project, all of which were either stolen or vandalised beyond repair.[442] In one case, an Orange Bike Project bicycle was thrown in front of a freight train, in others, bikes were found with major frame damage consistent with deliberate vandalism.[442] The program was terminated after only five months of operation.[441][442]

Tulsa, OK[edit]

The Tulsa Townies bicycle project was launched in August 2007 by Saint Francis Health System to promote an active and healthy lifestyle in the community. This project is the first bicycle program of its kind in northeastern Oklahoma. The bicycle rental stations are located at the Tulsa River Parks trail along Riverside Drive at 19th and 41st streets and in Jenks at the 96th street Arkansas River pedestrian bridge.[443]

Washington, D.C. & Northern Virginia[edit]

In Washington, D.C., a privately operated bike-sharing project known as SmartBike DC opened for service in 2008 for the District of Columbia with 10 stations and 120 bikes. Operated by an advertising firm, Clear Channel Outdoor, the system was funded by advertising revenues from bus shelters on public streets, along with revenues from user membership and usage fees.[444] The program suffered from perennially low membership and rider usage rates, as well as a limited number of bike rental stations.[445] It was officially terminated in January 2011.[446]

Capital Bikeshare was launched in Washington, D.C. and Arlington County, Virginia in 2010.

On 20 September 2010, Arlington County, Virginia and the District of Columbia launched the U.S.'s first public-private partnership bikeshare system, Capital Bikeshare (CaBi) which replaced SmartBike DC. Unlike SmartBike, CaBi is a public taxpayer-supported (local government and federal funds) bicycle sharing program. The initial scheme involved some 1,100 bicycles at 100 stations located throughout the District of Columbia and parts of Arlington County, Virginia. The cost of planning, implementation and administration for Capital Bikeshare totaled US$5.0 million, with first-year operating costs of US$2.3 million for 100 stations.[447] CaBi was operated by Alta Bicycle Share (now Motivate International) with equipment from Montreal-based PBSC Urban Solutions. For a time, Capital Bike Share was the largest bike sharing system in the United States until May 2013.[448] The system expanded into Alexandria, Virginia in 2012, and Montgomery County, Maryland in 2013. Thus Capital Bike Share expanded to become the largest bike sharing system in the United States again with 344 stations again, before losing that title again in 2015.

As of 2017 Washington, D.C. has four dockless bike-share systems.[449][450][451][452]

Wauwatosa, WI[edit]

In June 2017, the city of Wauwatosa, Wisconsin partnered with Zagster to incorporate an adaptive bike-share station into their existing Bublr network. It is thought to be the first adaptive bike-share station in Wisconsin, and the dual partnership is thought to be the first of its kind in the United States.(ride share programs existed in Madison Wisconsin for free)[453]

California[edit]

In California, many cities have launched or have stated plans to launch their own bike-sharing programs, including the cities of Anaheim (currently 10 bikes at 1 station, with plans for 100 bikes at 10 stations),[454] Los Angeles (plans for 4000 bikes at 400 stations),[455] Santa Monica (plans for 250 bikes at 25 locations),[456] and San Diego[457] The San Francisco Bay Area's Bay Area Air Quality Management District, in partnership with Alta Bike Share, city governments, and transportation authorities, have announced plans for a pilot regional sharing program in 2013 for the San Francisco Peninsula and San Jose.[458][459]

In the Fall of 2009, the University of California, Irvine introduced its Zotwheels automated bike share program. Students and university employees may sign up for a Zotwheels membership card at an annual cost of $40, which enables the user to check out a bike from any bike station located throughout campus for a maximum of three hours and drop it off at any other station. A$200 charge is imposed for a lost, stolen, or severely damaged bike. Bicycle availability and station operational status may be determined using an interactive map. Revenues from membership fees are sufficient to offset only a small fraction of the total operating costs of the program; all remaining manufacture, installation, maintenance, and implementation costs of the Zotwheels systems and the bicycles themselves are borne by UCI.[460] Zotwheels was developed as a collaboration between the UCI Parking and Transportation Services, The Collegiate Bicycle Company, CSL Ltd, and Miles Data Technologies.[461]

In January 2018, e-bike provider Jump Bikes officially launched in San Francisco, becoming the first dockless bicycle-sharing system to launch in the city.[462]

ofo offers a partnership program with universities to provide sustainable campus transportation.[463] On 21 February 2018, ofo and Pomona College in Claremont, California launched the first college pilot program in California.[464] The collaboration will benefit not only the Pomona College community, but also the other Claremont Colleges in the Claremont Consortium.

South America[edit]

Bike Rio rental station located near Posto 9, Ipanema, in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil.
Bici Q station in Quito, Ecuador

Argentina[edit]

Buenos Aires[edit]

The bike sharing system, EcoBici, is free upon registration and has 1800 bicycles available at 150 rental stations throughout Buenos Aires, with 181 km of lanes, as of 2017. The system was deployed by the City of Buenos Aires and is owned by the city and implemented by Bike In Baires Consortium, with technology from Serttel Brasil in partnership with Argentina's local company.[55] Upon completion, it will have 3,000 bicycles and 200 stations with 200 km of lanes.[56]

Rosario[edit]

On 2 December 2015 Rosario launched Mi bici tu bici and has 200 bicycles available at 18 rental stations in the downtown.[465]

San Lorenzo[edit]

On November 2016 San Lorenzo launched Biciudad, a free-to-use Bike Sharing System of the city of San Lorenzo. This is a system of Free Public Transport launched by the San Lorenzo Government to achieve the reduction of the use of motor vehicles and enhance other means of non-motorized transport such as walking, or the bike itself.

The Biciudad Bike Sharing System is expanding along with the construction of a circuit of exclusive lanes for bicycles across the city.[466]

Brazil[edit]

Bike Rio opened to the public in October 2011. The bike sharing system has 2600 bicycles available at 260 rental stations located in 20 neighbourhoods throughout Rio de Janeiro. The system was deployed by the municipal government of Rio de Janeiro in partnership with Banco Itaú, and operated by Serttel, a private concessionaire.[467]

A similar scheme was implemented in the city of São Paulo on 24 May 2012, called Bike Sampa. It is free up to the first hour of use, after which users are charged R$5 every 30 minutes.[468] There are about 140,000 registered users and, as of 6 May 2013, there had been 220,000 bicycle trips in the city. Serttel is also the concessionaire for this scheme, and the website of Bike Sampa is hosted by Mobilicidade. Other cities with similar bike sharing systems are operated by Serttel (www.serttel.com.br): Brasília, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Porto Alegre, Santos, Recife, Belém, Manaus, Fortaleza, Vitória and Aracaju. Fortaleza deserves a highlight because its bike sharing system, named Bicicletar, has the highest relative use in Brazil. With 800 bikes and 80 stations the system register 6,4 trips per bike in workdays.[469]

Chile[edit]

There are two working bike-share systems in the metropolitan area of Santiago, capital city of Chile, Bikesantiago and Bici Las Condes.[470]

History[edit]

The commune of Providencia, part of the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area, implemented a public bike-share system in Latin America, named B'easy and starting services in August 2008 with a monthly membership of 1000 Chilean Pesos (USD 2) and 4 stations.[471]

Santiago Metropolitan Area[edit]

Bikesantiago started its services in October 2013 in the metropolitan commune of Vitacura with 30 stations, 300 bicycles and a monthly membership of 4990 Chilean pesos (USD 8). By November 2015, it had 25000 subscribers, 132 stations and 1882 bicycles on the communes of Lo Barnechea, Vitacura, Providencia (Replacing the original B'easy system), Santiago, Ñuñoa, Recoleta and Independencia and has contracts for a programmed expansion in a total of 14 communes, 200 stations and 2100 bikes in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago.[472][473]

Las Condes[edit]

Bici Las Condes is the communal bike-share system of Las Condes, part of the Metropolitan Area of Santiago. It started services in March 2015 with a total of 50 stations and 500 bikes and has a planned expansion to a total of 100 stations and 1000 bikes.[474] The decision of the Las Condes municipal council of not joining the Metropolitan area tender for an bike-sharing metropolitan interconected system was very controversial.[475]

Colombia[edit]

The EnCicla Bike Share System in Medellín is operated by the metropolitan area of Aburrá Valley. EnCicla is integrated with the city's existing infrastructure of cycle routes, mass transit and public transport systems.[476]

Ecuador[edit]

In August 2012 the Municipality of Quito government established a municipal bicycle sharing system called Bici Q.[477][478][479] The Municipality of Cuenca implemented a public bicycle sharing system in 2013.[480][481] Bici Q is completely free and is available for anyone to users with membership cards, which can be obtained online or in person.[482][483]

Uruguay[edit]

The Movete Bike Share System in Montevideo. Montevideo is integrated with the city's existing infrastructure of cycle routes, mass transit and public transport systems.[484]

Asia[edit]

China[edit]

Initially, a number of traditional (third generation) docked public bike systems operated by local municipal governments opened across China, with the largest ones being in Wuhan and Hangzhou. The first was introduced in Beijing in 2007. However, third generation bike sharing is not considered successful for the majority cities in China. Bike sharing in Beijing virtually stopped and it also has encountered difficulties in Shanghai and Wuhan.[485]

In 2014, students from Peking University created a company called ofo and initialize the fourth generation bike sharing system in their campus. In 2017, a number of private competing app-based dockless bike-sharing programs have started to appear in numerous cities across China. The two largest dockless operators are Mobike and Ofo, others include Bluegogo and Xiaoming.[486][487] Many Chinese cities have experienced massive growth in the number and use these dockless bikeshare programs, clogging sidewalks around major commercial hubs and subway stations with parked bikes.[488] Given the speed of growth with these services, local governments did not have any regulations or planning to accommodate these systems.[489] However the Chinese government encourages the development of dockless bikes to reduce urban pollution. Early studies in Beijing and Shanghai have linked the massive increase of dockless bike shares to the decrease in the number of private automobile trips that are less than five kilometres.[490] In Guangzhou, the arrival of dockless bike shares had a positive impact in the growth of cycling modeshare.[491] The Transport Commission of Shenzhen noted a 10% decrease in private car trips after the introduction of dockless bike shares.[citation needed]

Beijing[edit]

A rack of red-and-white bicycles, locked into place
Shared bike rack in Beijing

A municipal scheme in Beijing launched in 2012 with the stationing of 2,000 bikes in Chaoyang district.[492] The scheme is scheduled to consist of 20,000 rental bikes and 500 kiosks, according to the Beijing Municipal Commission of Development and Reform. The main operating area will be in business districts and near subway stations and major public venues. By 2015, authorities intend to have 50,000 bikes available, similar to the Hangzhou scheme that is their model.[493][494] This follows the failure of a scheme launched in 2005–2006 (ahead of Velib) and in the light of a 2011 announcement by the Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport that it expects to raise the bike share of urban commuter journeys from 20 to 23 per cent by 2015.[493]

Ofo bikes randomly parked on the pavement (sidewalk) in Beijing

In March 2017, Beijing saw over 200,000 dockless shared bikes from various companies entered service. Near the end of 2017 it has grown to 2.35 million for-hire bikes from 15 companies.[citation needed] The bikes are accessible via an app, and cost 1 RMB per hour plus a refundable damage deposit of 299 RMB. This is on top of the existing municipal run dock based bike network with 86,000 bikes. The Beijing municipal government has pledged to improve management and parking availability in response to the rapidly growing fleets of dockless bikes shares.[495] Beijing cycling mode share increased from 5.5% to 11.6% after the arrival of these dockless bike systems.[496]

Shanghai[edit]

In preparation for the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai, China, Shanghai launched a limited bike share programme which are accessible by RFID cards. Users could purchase 100-ride credits for about $30. Short rides are rewarded credits and longer rides subtract credits once the bikes have been re-docked. Shanghai planned to expand to 3,500 Bicycle Hot Spots throughout the entire city by 2010. Two years after the World Expo, Shanghai's bicycle sharing programme has been mostly limited to the Minhang District.[497][498]

Bikes from various bike-share companies in Shanghai

The Shanghai Bike Authority estimated that there are 280,000 shared bikes in Shanghai by March 2017, with a projected increase of 220,000 bikes by June.[499] In March 2017, the government in Shanghai is requesting a temporary ban on the introduction of new private "dockless" shared bikes. [500] Shanghai has prepared new regulations that will restrict rider ages to between 12 and 70 and bikes in service for more than three years in a row must be permanently removed.[501] Mobike alone operates 100,000 bikes in Shanghai and has claimed to have made Shanghai into the city with the world's largest bike share network.[502]

Haikou[edit]

Starting from around the beginning of 2017, Haikou, the capital of Hainan province, experienced a massive increase in the number of dockless bikes by Ofo, Mobike, and Quick To which and cost 2 RMB per hour. The fourth is the Haikou Public Bike System which is a traditional municipal run docked system.

Wenzhou[edit]

Wenzhou has multiple bike share programs serving different districts of the city. The first one opened in 2012 serving Lucheng District with about 5,000 bikes and 180 stations.[503] Next year, a bike share with 2,200 bikes and 66 stations opened in Longwan District. At the same time, a separate bike share program with 1,040 bikes and 32 stations opened in Ouhai District. The latter of the two is being expanded to 3,250 bikes and 109 stations.[504] According to local government records, more than 20,000 dockless bikes from various private bike share companies have entered service in Wenzhou recently.[505]

Guangzhou[edit]

The Guangzhou BRT has a bike share program integrated around its BRT stations. According to the local government, in 2017, Guangzhou has a fleet of over 700,000 bikes in various public and private bike share programs. On average 4 million trips each day were made using share bikes.[506] The local government is reviewing traffic management strategies and road design standards to accommodate the increase in cycling traffic.[507][508]

Guilin[edit]

In 2014, Guilin City opened docked bike share with 3,000 bikes spread out over 100 stations.[509]

Hangzhou[edit]

The Hangzhou Public Bicycle bike-sharing system has 60,600 bikes and started in 2008. Bike-sharing stations can be found in Hangzhou every 100 metres. The first hour of use is free, followed by 1 yuan ($0.15) for the first hour, 2 yuan the second hour, and 3 yuan each subsequent hour.[510] In 2013 USA Today called the Hangzhou bike-sharing system the 'best in the world'.[511] From a March 2010 survey of Hangzhou Public Bicycle members and non-members it was found that 30% of Hangzhou Bike-Sharing users incorporated bicycle sharing into their most common commute. Furthermore, the bicycle sharing system captured modal share from bus transit, walking, autos and taxis. Another key finding in this study suggests that car ownership may not reduce the likelihood of bikesharing use. In fact, members of the Hangzhou system exhibited a higher rate of auto ownership in comparison to non-members.[512] Before the arrival of private dockless systems, Hangzhou was the largest bike share system in the world until it was overtaken by Wuhan. In 2011, the system had 2,050 bike-share stations with a fleet of over 50,000 bikes and serving 240,000 trips per day.[513] By 2015, it was expanded to over 84,000 bikes and 3,354 stations.[514]

Nanning[edit]

Since December 2013, Nanning has a bicycle sharing system with 1000 bicycles and 50 stations. The first hour of usage is free, after it costs 2RMB/h.[515] By 2014, it was expanded to about 25,000 bikes and 896 stations.[516]

Ningbo[edit]

A municipal docked bike share program opened in 2013 with 7,500 bikes and 300 stations.[517] By 2015, it has been expanded to 30,000 bikes spread over 1,240 stations across the city.[518]

Quanzhou[edit]

A municipal docked bike share program, operated by Taiwan-based YouBike, opened in 2016 with over 200 stations and a fleet of 6,000 bikes.[519] In 2017, it is being expanded to 410 stations with over 18,000 bikes.[520][521]

Shaoxing[edit]

In 2011, a 1,500 bike, 26 station bike share opened in Shaoxing.[522] In 2012, it was expanded by 2,000 bikes and 50 stations.[523]

Suzhou

The Suzhou Industrial Park has a bicycle sharing system (苏州工业园区公共自行车) with 1,880 bicycles and 72 stations, which launched in January 2012.[524]

Xi'an

Since 2011, Xi'an has a bicycle sharing system with 8,000 bicycles and 375 stations.[525] By 2016, it was expanded to 52,000 public bicycles and 1,800 stations.[526]

Lanzhou

In 2014, a bike sharing system was created around downtown Lanzhou with 377 stations.[527][528]

Kunming

A municipal docked bike share program opened in 2015 with 5,000 bikes and over 700 stations.[529][530] In 2017, the system will consist of 2,500 bike stations as far south as Chenggong District and approximately 45,000 bicycles. Kunming expects to expand its bicycle-sharing system to 6,500 stations by 2019. Bicycles are free for the first hour, cost 0.5 yuan for each additional half hour and 15 yuan for an entire day.[531]

Hong Kong[edit]

"Gobee.bike" launched in April 2017, becoming the first dockless bike sharing provider in Hong Kong.[532] Another Hong Kong local Dockless bike company is called HobaBike.com[533] which was founded by a British educated Hong Kong engineer, Joseph Sung who formally was a Ford of Europe and Jaguar LandRover UK HQ Product engineer.[citation needed] Meanwhile, plans have been announced by Cleantech Solutions to enable users to rent bikes from multiple providers, by providing an app with a centralised list of available bicycles across all providers.[534]

In July 2018, Gobee.bike announced to terminate their operation in Hong Kong.[535] Current major bicycle-sharing operations includes ofo, Hoba Bike, Ketch'Up Bike, LocoBike, and oBike.[536][537]

Iran[edit]

In July 2016, first Iranian modern public bike system was designed and established in Urmia city with 250 bikes in 20 stations by ASI company by the brand name of "U Bike" .[538]

India[edit]

Mumbai[edit]

Mumbai operates two schemes,[48] and the Ministry of Urban Development is preparing to launch a 10-city public bike scheme as part of its "Mission for Sustainable Habitat".[539]

Ahmedabad[edit]

MyByk cycle sharing program in Ahmedabad started with eight stations within the city in 2013. Subscribers can keep bicycles as long as required without having to return them to the stations.[540][541] MyByk cycle sharing program in Ahmedabad started with eight stations within the city in 2013. Subscribers can keep bicycles as long as required without having to return them to the stations.[542][541]

Mysuru (Mysore)[edit]

Mysore is the first Indian city to initiate cycle sharing in 2009[543] with 28 locations as of 2009 and 52 planned locations.[544][545] Mysore is the first Indian city to initiate cycle sharing in 2009[543] with 28 locations as of 2009 and 52 planned locations.[544][546]

New Delhi[edit]

The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) launched the first software based ‘Public Bicycle Sharing scheme (PBS)’ as per which commuters can rent cycles from a residential area and travel to the nearest Metro station and then again rent a cycle from a departing Metro station to the nearby localities.[547] The Delhi Metro Rail Corporation (DMRC) launched the first software based ‘Public Bicycle Sharing scheme (PBS)’ as per which commuters can rent cycles from a residential area and travel to the nearest Metro station and then again rent a cycle from a departing Metro station to the nearby localities.[547]

Pune[edit]

A lot of IT companies in Pune has been taking the initiative of promoting cycle to work.[548] There are lot of bicycle sharing system started in Pune itself. One of the bicycle renting system has been initiated by PedalSaddle in Pune providing cycles on rent for cost cheaper than public transportation.[549] Pune has India's first and biggest bicycle mall ever with a total investment of Rs 5 crore.[550] One of the bicycle renting system has been initiated by PedalSaddle in Pune providing cycles on rent for cost cheaper than public transportation.[551] Pune has India's first and biggest bicycle mall ever with a total investment of Rs 5 crore.[552] In January 2018, One of China’s leading bicycle-sharing companies Ofo launched its dockless bicycle-sharing services in Pune.[553] In 2017, ENPRO Industries, Pune took the initiative of promoting cycle to work.[554]

Other cities[edit]

The trend is catching on in some other cities including Rajkot,[555] Bhubaneswar.[556] and Vadodara (Baroda)[557]

Indonesia[edit]

Bandung

Bandung municipal government operates 30 stations with 270 bikes, called Boseh Bikesharing.[558]

Israel[edit]

Tel-Aviv

Tel-O-Fun, started in 2011, is a bicycle sharing program in Tel-Aviv with 2,000 bicycles and 200 stations throughout the city and in some surrounding towns.[559]

Japan[edit]

According to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism as of 2012 there were a number of city-level pilot schemes in operation in Japan, the largest of which was Edogawa City in Tokyo with 500 cycles available for hire.[560] Toyama also has a bicycle sharing system, that takes the region's public transit IC card Passca.[561]

Kazakhstan[edit]

Astana-Bike[562] in the capital Astana, 200 bikes in 40 stations, 1000 bikes for Expo 2017.[563]

Shymkent-bike[564] in Shymkent, 200 bikes in 44 stations.[565]

Almaty-bike[566] in Almaty, September 2016.[567][568]

Malaysia[edit]

George Town[edit]

A LinkBike station in George Town, Penang.

LinkBike in George Town, Penang commenced operations in December 2016 with 60 bicycles, making it the first city in Malaysia to introduce a public bicycle-sharing system. This service has since been expanded to 250 bicycles and 25 stations throughout George Town, covering destinations between Gurney Drive to the north and Queensbay Mall to the south.[569][570][571]

Kota Kinabalu[edit]

In March 2017, the Kota Kinabalu City Hall begin to implemented its bicycles sharing service with 20 bicycles made available for the first stage. Those who want to use the service need to have the City Hall 'touch and go' card with RM200 (U$45) as deposit to use the bicycle for 24 hours with the money is refundable when the bicycle is returned. Its stations available in major hotels in the city as well as in Tanjung Lipat and in front of the Grace Court apartment in Sembulan with another 150 bicycles available in stores.[572]

Klang Valley[edit]

The Subang Jaya LRT/KTM station has been selected as the first pioneer for bicycle sharing system brought by Singaporean company into Malaysia. oBike rider will be charged RM1.00 per 15 minutes usage.[573][574]

South Korea[edit]

Seoul

Following trials, a bike-sharing system named Ddareungi was introduced in Seoul in October 2015 in select areas of the right bank of the Han River.[575] After a few months, the number of stations reached 150 and 1500 bikes were made available.[576] In 2016, the number of stations has increased steadily to cover new districts.[577] As of July 2016, there were about 300 stations and 3000 bikes available, and Seoul mayor Park Won-sun has confirmed his intention to increase the number of bikes available to 20,000.[578]

Taiwan[edit]

National systems[edit]

A YouBike station in Hsinchu City, Taiwan.

Launched in Taipei City in 2009 and expanded through cooperation between the Taipei City Government and Taiwanese bike manufacturer Giant, YouBike is the largest bicycle-sharing service in the country; the system saw 22 million rentals in 2014, double the 11 million rentals in the previous year.[39]

As of July 2018, YouBike had expanded from Northern Taiwan to Central Taiwan, with services in Taipei, New Taipei, Hsinchu City, Hsinchu County, Changhua County, Taoyuan City and Taichung City.

Singaporean dockless bicycle-sharing platform oBike launched in Taiwan in April 2017 under the management of Taiwan's Aozhi Network Technology Co., Ltd.[579] The parking of the bikes in public areas such as sidewalks and motorcycle parking spaces caused controversy.[580][581] As of 20 June 2017, oBike was present in the cities of Keelung, New Taipei, Taipei, Hsinchu, Tainan and Kaohsiung as well as the counties of Nantou, Yilan, Hualien and Taitung.

Kaohsiung[edit]

A CityBike station in Kaohsiung, Taiwan.

The southern city of Kaohsiung launched the country's first bicycle-sharing service, CityBike, on March 1, 2009 with 20 stations and 1,500 Merida bikes.[582] In 2011, CityBike's original operator, Tongli Development, transferred it to Kaohsiung Rapid Transit Corporation. As of September 30, 2017, the service comprised 283 stations with approximately 3,000 bikes.

Thailand[edit]

Launched in Bangkok in 2017.

Turkey[edit]

Public bike sharing services in Turkey use Baksi system.[583] In Istanbul, the system called İsbike started in 2012 with 10 stations and 100 bikes along the Marmara coast on the Asian side of the city.[584]

Similar systems are operational in Kayseri, Izmir, Antalya, Kocaeli and Eskişehir.[583]

United Arab Emirates[edit]

8D Technologies bike station for ADBC Bikeshare in Abu Dhabi.

ADCB Bikeshare is the first and only bike sharing scheme in the United Arab Emirates. The scheme operates in the nation's capital city of Abu Dhabi, and is sponsored by Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank. ADCB Bikeshare launched December 2015. Run by Cyacle, the programme operates on Yas Island and Al Raha Beach, where there are 11 stations with 75 bicycles available for hire. In the first eight months of operation, 5,641 people became members of the scheme and rode 78,689 kilometres (48,895 miles) on 8,536 trips.[585]

Australasia[edit]

Australia[edit]

A number of Australian cities have had docking shared bike systems since 2010. In 2017 dockless bike sharing commenced in all the capital cities. The dockless systems experienced a higher degree of vandalism, including bikes dumped in rivers, than has been seen in other countries.[586] The dockless services all provided helmets with the bikes.

Docked systems[edit]

Melbourne Bike Share (MBS), the first municipal bicycle share system in Australia, was launched in Melbourne in June 2010. It started with 10 stations. Usage has been lower than expected and has required ongoing public subsidy. Take-up has been affected by the location of docking stations and the legal requirement for riders wear helmets, which are not provided with the bikes. Ridership doubled when $5 helmets were offered for sale from vending machines. Currently the MBS uses 500 cycles at about 50 stations around Melbourne's central business district.[587]

One of nineteen E-bike docking stations across Newcastle CBD, NSW, Australia.

Newcastle's central business district launched an e-bike share scheme on 21 May 2018, including 19 docking stations with 100 electric bikes.[588] The bike scheme was launched as a partnership between the operator BYKKO, and Transport for NSW. An initial pilot program funded with $2000AUD[589] of council grant money was conducted,[590] though evidence of the evaluation does not appear to be posted publicly. After speaking with the local newspaper, BYKKO said the aim of the project is to complement the existing public transport system.[591]

The Brisbane CityCycle, operated by JCDecaux, started on 1 September 2010 and has grown to include 2000 bikes in 150 stations.[587][592] Its operation has depended on public subsidy. Initially, helmets were not provided with the bikes, but this was later changed. After only achieving 80,000 trips in its first twelve months[citation needed], this increased to 522,388 in the 2016-17 financial year.[593]

Dockless Systems[edit]

In 2017 dockless systems were launched in a number of Australia cities.

Sydney
  • oBike has placed 1,000 bikes since July 2017.[586]
  • Reddy Go started with 1,500 bikes, also in July 2017, and has expanded to over 2,000 bikes.[586] The company quit Sydney in July 2018, citing "red tape".[594]
  • Ofo launched with 600 bikes in October 2017.[595] In July 2018 Ofo announced it was leaving Australia.[596]
  • Mobike distributed up to 500 bikes in November 2017.[597]
Melbourne
  • oBike placed 1,250 bikes in Melbourne since July 2017. There has been notable vandalism of the bikes in the first few months, including being dumping in the Yarra River.[586]
Perth
Adelaide

Ofo launched distributed 50 bikes through North Adelaide in October 2017.[599] In July 2018 Ofo announced it was leaving Australia.[596]

Brisbane
A bicycle sharing station in Newstead, Brisbane

Subscriptions for CityCycle, a Vélib-style community bike hire scheme by JCDecaux for Brisbane started on 1 September 2010 and has grown to include 2000 bikes in 150 stations from the University of Queensland to Tenerife.[587][592] Its operation has depended on public subsidy. Initially helmets were not provided with the bikes but this was later changed. After only achieving 80,000 trips in its first twelve months, by 2016-17 this had increase to 522,388.[593]

The bikes were linked to the public transport go card – a single card covering all buses, trains, ferries and the Gold Coast light rail system. In 2017 it was announced new bank card facilities would be added to the stations.[592]

Gold Coast

Mobike started with 200 bikes around Surfers Paradise and Broadbeach in February 2018 with the number expected to grow to 2,000 by the time of the Commonwealth Games in April.[600] Mobike has been granted exclusive rights to operate bike sharing by the local council and will partner with Transit Australia Group and Good Cycles.[601]

New Zealand[edit]

In both Auckland and Christchurch, Nextbike provide some limited cycle sharing facilities; plans are in hand to expand these. The New Zealand Transport Agency is working with Auckland Transport and the Christchurch City Council respectively to investigate cycle sharing schemes for each city, and independently a private consortium proposes to have a scheme in place in Auckland during 2017.[602]

OnzO was the first dockless bike share to launch in New Zealand, arriving in Auckland in late 2017,[603] and in Wellington in 2018.[604]

Universities[edit]

Canada[edit]

India[edit]

Mexico[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

Several cycle hire schemes in UK towns and cities overlap their university areas, e.g. the one at Stirling.[610] Others, e.g. Leeds,[611] offer longer-term cycle hire. Kingston University are reported to have a scheme called KU Bikes due to begin in early 2018,[612] while Derby anticipates that Hourbike will run a scheme in Derby operating electric bikes, around the same time.[613]

United States[edit]

Zotwheels Bike Share at the University of California Irvine.
Zotwheels Bike Share at the University of California Irvine.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Portsmouth Bikeabout programme never exceeded 500 users at any time during its operational existence.

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