List of bicycle-sharing systems

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This is a list of bicycle-sharing systems. As of August 2014, more than 600 cities worldwide had a bike-sharing program.[1][2][3]

Europe[edit]

Biking in Barcelona

Advertising company JCDecaux launched its "Cyclocity" programs initially in Lyon, France, and subsequently in Paris and many other cities such as Brisbane, Córdoba, Vienna and Kazan. Payment for using the bikes is done with special smart cards.

With financial aid from Barclays, Transport for London launched a Cycle Hire scheme in London, where hire under 30 minutes is free from special bicycle stands across the city, after a daily, monthly or annual charge has been paid.[4]

Competitor Clear Channel, then operating as Adshel, opened the first example of this in Rennes in 1997, and has several other sites including Oslo, Stockholm, Sandnes and Trondheim, most generally similar to that offered by their competitor.

A different financial model called bicing is used in Barcelona, which is paid for by car owners parking on public streets and not by advertising – which is contracted to JCDecaux in some places.[5]

Austria[edit]

In 2001 the city of Vienna implemented a first version of a bike sharing system following the example of Copenhagen. Unfortunately, Viennabike failed and its shortcomings were fixed in the second implementation called Citybike Wien which started 2003 and became a huge success. It is operated by Gewista and comprises 1500 bikes distributed to 121 stations with 3097 slots.[6] In 2015 more than 1 million trips and more than 100 000 new registrations were recorded. Registration is possible using credit cards, too. There is no fee for the first rental hour, additional hours are charged starting with 1€.[7]

Belgium[edit]

Line of bikes at a Villo! station

The Villo! system was launched in Brussels in 2009, and is operated by JCDecaux. It's the company's second biggest bicycle rental system after Paris in terms of quantity. At the beginning of April 2015, it had 4115 bikes across 346 stations.[8]

In Antwerp, a bike system called Velo went public in 2011. It's operated by Clear Channel and registered 2558657 journeys in 2013.[9]

Bulgaria[edit]

Burgas is the first Bulgarian city to introduce a public rent-a-bike system. The scheme is called VeloBurgas and has 10 access points with 120 bikes in operation. The rent-a-bike system works with cards, SMS, and POS. Prices range from 0.50 to 1 lev per hour.[10]

Cyprus[edit]

Public bicycles in Nicosia, Cyprus

Bike in Action operates in the greater Nicosia area, similar to programmes employed in various cities of Cyprus. Bicycles can be found at stations in all participating municipalities (Agios Dometios, Aglandjia, Dali, Engomi, Latsia, Pallouriotissa, Strovolos) and returned after their use at any station. Bike in Action includes more than 310 bikes distributed in 27 full automated Smoove stations which cover the wide Nicosia area. All the rental stations are connected with the banking system and access to the bikes can be obtained with the use of a credit card.[11]

Denmark[edit]

Copenhagen was among the first cities in the world to have a free bike scheme called City Bikes,[12] which was paid by advertising on the bikes.

In late 2013, Copenhagen started a new program with electric bikes. The first phase of this program, with 1860 bikes and 105 docking stations, is to be completed in early 2016.[13]

Finland[edit]

Since the demise of CityBikes in 2010, HKL is negotiating with JCDecaux Finland for a new bike share system. The system will include 500 bikes and 34 stands in downtown Helsinki, modeled after the Paris Velib program, with part of the program costs to be paid by commercial businesses in exchange for 45 double-sided advertisement boards inside the city centre.[14] A competition of branding and name of the system took place in early 2012.[15]

France[edit]

Velib' bicycle station in Paris

French cities offering a bicycle sharing system include Marseille, Lyon, Bordeaux, Nice, Toulouse, Rennes, Rouen, La Rochelle, Orléans, Montpellier, Nantes, Lille, Strasbourg, Clermont-Ferrand, Avignon, Saint-Étienne, Chalon sur Saône, Belfort, Lorient, Annemasse, Valence, and Aix-en-Provence.

The launch of Velo'v in Lyon, France in 2005 was an effort to improve on the disappointing performance of the traditional municipal public bike-sharing model. In an attempt to improve upon the results of the discontinued Bikeabout program at the University of Portsmouth, Velo'v utilised "smart" technology to reduce theft, user damage, and vandalism. Considered to be a city less than friendly to cyclists prior to 2005, the Velo'v programme is credited with stimulating an increase of 500% in bicycle trips within the city, a quarter of which used the bike sharing system.[16][17]

A resurgence in bike sharing programmes is attributed by many to the launching in 2007 of Paris's Vélib', a network of 18,000 specially designed bicycles distributed among 1,230 stations throughout Paris. Vélib', inspired by Lyon's seminal Vélo'v project, is now considered the second largest bike-sharing system of its kind in the world. 80 percent of Vélib's original 20,600 bicycles have been destroyed or stolen.[18] Some Vélib' cycles have been found in Eastern Europe and North Africa, while others have been dumped in the Seine River, hung from lampposts, or abandoned on the roadside in various states of disrepair, forcing the City of Paris to reimburse the programme operator an estimated $2 million per year for excess costs under its contractual agreement.[19]

Germany[edit]

Germany has bike-sharing programmes in many cities, including Aachen, Berlin, Cologne, Düsseldorf, Frankfurt, Hamburg (StadtRAD Hamburg), Karlsruhe, Kassel (Konrad), Mainz (MVGmeinRad), Munich and Stuttgart. Station based System Metropolradruhr is located in the Ruhr Area. Bike-sharing stations are also located in over 50 ICE railway stations.[20][21]

Greece[edit]

The only city with automated bicycle rental for public use implemented in Greece is Corfu, the capital of the Ionian Islands. It was installed in the middle of November 2010 and operates under the auspices of the Municipality of Corfu. The program is called EasyBike, is fully automated and includes one hundred bicycles which are distributed in eight rental stations throughout the town. The method of operation is similar to other such systems in Europe. Residents can obtain from the Municipality a special electronic subscriber card, which gives them access to bicycles and occasional users and visitors can use their credit card at the rental stations to rent a bicycle.[22] The system also gives the ability to occasional users to obtain a code and gain access to bicycles through an IVR automated system by using their credit card. EasyBike bike sharing system is developed by Brainbox under a Smoove license, which is the first Greek company to implement a bike sharing project in Greece.[23]

In Greece, there are also other programmes similar to bicycle sharing systems, which however are not automated. The first, running from early 2010, is in the northern suburb of Nea Erithréa, in Attica, while the second is that of the Municipality of Nafpaktos, which has been in operation since mid June 2010. In these programmes, the residents rent the bike directly from the municipality. Specifically, in the programme implemented in Nea Erithréa bicycles are rented for one week to six months, on condition that the person concerned must submit to the Municipality the sum of 75 euros as a guarantee. In Nafpaktos, bicycles are rented for up to two months for free.[24] In 2011, the municipality of Heraklion in Crete purchased 100 bicycles from the bike-sharing company Brainbox, the developer of EasyBike[25] system while free distribution of bicycles from the municipality had already started from April 2010.[26]

The latest non-automated system to be introduced in Greece (May 2012) is that of the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, in Salonica, Northern Greece. It presents 60 public bikes available for the University community. The system has no electronic rental stations and the delivery and return of the bikes is made by students working part-time on the project.[27]

Hungary[edit]

The EBI in Esztergom, Hungary
Kaposvári Tekergő in Kaposvár, Hungary

The first public bicycle sharing service in Hungary was implemented in Esztergom on 20 September 2013. The Esztergom Bicycle or EBI was developed by Neuzer, a local bicycle manufacturing company.[28] The system operates with 93 bikes and 9 docking stations.[29]

The country's second bike sharing system in Szeged is CityBike Szeged. It has been in operation since 1 October 2013.[30][31] The BuBi system, with 76 docks and 1,100 bicycles, opened in 2014 in Budapest.[32]

GyőrBike opened on 7 September 2015 in Győr with 23 docks and 180 bicycles.[33]

The Kaposvári Tekergő opened on 27 October 2015 in Kaposvár with 4 docking stations, 26 e-bikes and 6 e-rollers[34]

Ireland[edit]

In September 2009 Dublin launched a bike-share scheme known as dublinbikes operated by JCDecaux. It is considered one of the most successful bike sharing schemes in the world. With an initial 450 bicycles, the plan reached 1 million uses in less than a year.[35] As of June 2013 the scheme has had fewer than 12 bikes stolen or damaged.[36]

Italy[edit]

Milan has the largest and oldest bike sharing system in Italy, BikeMi, opened in 2008. Another large system exists in Turin since 2011. Several other cities, especially in the north, have smaller bike sharing systems.

Netherlands[edit]

The Netherlands: OV-fiets

The Netherlands has a single nationwide bike sharing program.[37] It's called "OV-fiets", which means 'public transport bike'. 6000 bikes in 252 locations, mainly train stations, all over the country. Membership is required (annual fee €10, €3.15 per rental day) and can be combined with public transport card. The program, which started on a small scale in 2003, has enjoyed a steadily increasing popularity with over 1.53 million rides registered in 2014. The nature of the Dutch bike sharing program differs from that of programs in other countries partly because the already high bike ownership of the population. Its interconnection with the public transport network allows it to fill the need of people who also want to continue traveling by bike from the station of their destination.[38]

Poland[edit]

First bike-sharing program was launched in Kraków (Cracow) on 16 September 2008. As of 2016, 12 cities and towns in Poland have bike-sharing programs, all operated by nextbike.[39]

Russia[edit]

VeloBike bicycles in Moscow, September 2013

Automated public bicycle sharing services in Russia operate in Moscow, in Sankt-Petersburg and in Kazan. On 1 July 2013, the Bank of Moscow started the system called Velobike, which was replaced on 9 June 2014[40][41] The VeloBike program has 2500 bicycles and 150 stations. It is sponsored by the Bank of Moscow and Sberbank of Russia. It is compatible with Troika, the Moscow public transportation system and accessible to occasional users as well.[42]

Slovakia[edit]

There is a community-run bike-sharing program in Bratislava called Whitebikes. It uses the open source Open Source Bike Share system based on an SMS and a web app. It started in 2013 by BikeKitchen initiative and NGO Cyklokoalicia. There are several test-run systems around Slovakia based on this one.

Sweden[edit]

The Stockholm City Bikes system has more than 80 stands and 1,000 bikes, functioning from April to October.[43]

In Gothenburg, the bike sharing system is known as Styr & ställ, it was launched in August 2010. The system has 60 stations and 1,000 bikes. Styr & Ställ works as a great complement to the public transportation in Gothenburg.[44]

Switzerland[edit]

A station in Lausanne (Switzerland).

Switzerland possesses a bicycle sharing system managed by Publibike. The network consists of one hundred stations throughout the country.[45]

It includes nine stations on the Lausanne campus.[46]

Turkey[edit]

Public bike sharing services in Turkey use Baksi system.[47] In Istanbul, the system called İsbike started in 2012 with 10 stations and 100 bikes along the Marmara coast on the Asian side of the city.[48]

Similar systems are operational in Kayseri, Izmir, Antalya, Kocaeli and Eskişehir.[47]

United Kingdom[edit]

Barclays Cycle Hire, London, UK started in 2010

Following the failure of the University of Portsmouth's Bikeabout programme in 1998, the introduction of new bicycle share systems proceeded more slowly in the United Kingdom than in the rest of Europe. Outside of London (see below), the largest is the hire-a-bike operation in Blackpool, operated by Hourbike,[49] with 60 stations and 500 bikes in the scheme. This scheme uses both RFID membership cards and instant point of sale memberships to cater for both residential users and the very many visitors that go to the resort every year. Hourbike also has schemes in Lincoln, Reading, Liverpool, Nottingham and Southport in England as well as Dumfries, Scotland.

Some bike-sharing schemes now use mobile phones to reserve or sign out bikes. In the UK, OYBike is delivered small-scale operations at 2 Universities, 3 Business Parks, 3 London Boroughs, and a private hotel chain in London until 2011. Like Munich's Call-a-Bike, OYBike used mobile phone technology to log use and charge for hires and can set up hire points in as little as 10 minutes. Many of the business users can reclaim the cost of leasing bikes and hire points as part of a workplace cycling scheme or green travel plan. Research also reveals that for many major London railway stations an unknown number of the bikes parked are used only a couple of times per week, while the option of replacing these with publicly shared (hire) bikes has rarely been considered by UK rail administrators.

Brompton Bike Hire has 40 docks across 25 major locations in the UK, starting at £2.50 for 24 hours, members can rent a folding Brompton bike. The locations of the docks include London, Birmingham, Manchester, Bristol, Reading, Southampton and Oxford.[50]

London mayor Ken Livingstone promised that an extensive bicycle sharing system modelled on the Paris Vélib' system would be introduced in London during his final term in office.[51] The system is sponsored by Barclays Bank, and known as Barclays Cycle Hire (BCH). BCH is located mainly within the central zone, roughly bounded by the 'Zone 1' area of the Transport for London zoning system, and will comprise 400 docking stations when complete, at roughly 300-metre intervals.[52] BCH initial planning and implementation costs are expected to total more than £140 million over the first six years of the project, exclusive of operating costs. The program commenced operations on 30 June 2010. BCH has received some criticism for its use of commercial advertising and use of communal docking stations, as well as erroneous charges, bicycle and docking station issues, and lack of coverage for the suburbs.[53][54][55][56][57][58] Some users have also found the bikes too heavy and unwieldy, at 23 kilograms (51 lb).[59][60]

Northern Ireland[edit]

Coca Cola Zero Dublin Bikes

Belfast launched a public bike hire scheme on 27 April 2015. The scheme was sponsored by Coca-Cola HBC Northern Ireland and is called Coca-Cola Zero Belfast Bikes. The Department for Regional Development (DRD) is providing initial capital funding for the scheme as part of their Active Travel Demonstration Projects budget. NSL is looking after the daily operation of the scheme, while Nextbike is responsible for the bikes.[61]

There are 33 docking stations with options for expansion depending on securing additional resources and council approval[62][63]

Scotland[edit]

Recent expansions to cities in Scotland piggy-backing on the Commonwealth Games 2014 in Glasgow included Glasgow and Stirling.[64][65][66] Stirling's scheme was named "Pedalforth" following a competition in the community and comprises 100 bikes and 11 stations. Glasgow provided 400 bikes across 31 stations in 2014.[67] A system operated by JCDecaux is proposed for Edinburgh.[68]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

Bixi Montreal station

The first widely deployed bicycle sharing system in Canada was Bixi Montreal. The Bixi technology was then used in numerous bike sharing systems in North America. Bixi's modular bicycle sharing system was ranked by Time Magazine as the 19th best invention of 2008.[69]

Hamilton, ON: Sobi Hamilton launched in March 2015 with 750 bicycles at over 100 stations.[70]

Montreal, QC: Bixi Montreal began in fall 2008 as a limited-scale pilot project.[71] It has since expanded to 5000 bicycles at 400 stations, making it by far the largest bicycle sharing system in Canada. Although initial program costs were $15 million for planning and implementation of the Bixi project, subsequent additional costs incurred in expanding the program have driven costs upwards of $23 million.[72][73][74]

Ottawa, ON: Capital Bixi launched in 2009 as a pilot program with 100 bicycles and 10 stations. In 2012, it was expanded to 250 bicycles and 25 stations. Its owner, the NCC, sold it to US-based CycleHop in April 2014 when its operator, Montreal-based Bixi, filed for bankruptcy protection in January 2014.[75][76][better source needed] CycleHop renamed the service to VeloGo and replaced the fleet with all-new 'smart' bicycles, where intelligence (i.e. GPS tracking, etc.) is built into each bicycle, instead of relying on base stations, as with Bixi system. VeloGo began its service in the summer of 2015.[77]

Toronto, ON: Bixi Toronto launched in 2011 with 800 bicycles at 80 stations.[78] In 2013, when Bixi acknowledged that it could not repay its $3.9 million loan to the city, the system was taken over by the Toronto Parking Authority and renamed Bike Share Toronto.[79] Today, its network of 1000 bicycles spread among its 80 stations served commuters in and around downtown Toronto.[80]

Mexico[edit]

EcoBici bicycles in Mexico City

In February 2010, the government of Mexico City inaugurated a new bicycle sharing network called EcoBici.[81] With distinctive red and white liveried bicycles, the network as of July 2015 consists of 444 stations with 6,500 bicycles.[82] The system is run by a private company, Clear Channel México, but[83] funded by the government with an initial investment of 75 million pesos. Users of the system are required to purchase an RFID card at a cost of 400 pesos which will provide them with access to the bicycles for one year. Use of a bicycle is free for the first 45 minutes; extra charges are applied for use beyond this time limit. From September 2012 through December 2012, the system will expand from an area covering 6.8 square kilometres to one covering 21 square kilometres, with an increase on the estimated number of users from 30,000 to 100,000.[84] This would make the system the seventh largest in the world behind (not in order): Hangzhou, Paris, Montreal, Barcelona, Lyon and London.[85]

United States[edit]

In the United States, bicycle share programs have largely centered around major cities and universities.

Albany, NY: In Fall of 2012, the University at Albany (SUNY) launched a campus bike share which allows students, faculty and staff to take out bike from one of three residential hall locations on campus. With over 30 bikes in the program and still growing the program experienced rapid growth with 381 sign out in Fall 2013 and 1620 sign outs in Fall 2014. The University is currently looking to expand its program by adding more bikes and locations.[86]

Alpharetta, GA offers a bike share program operated by Zagster. Trips under 3 hours are free, and annual memberships are $20. Bikes can be rented from 4 stations throughout Alpharetta.[87] Bikes can be taken anywhere, including Alpharetta's Big Creek Greenway - a 12 foot wide concrete path that stretches 8 scenic miles terminating in Big Creek park.[88]

Atlanta, GA In June 2016, Relay Bike Share launched as the bike share system for the City of Atlanta. The program--operated by Cyclehop, LLC and Social Bicycles, LLC--launched with 100 bicycles at 10 stations throughout the downtown area. The program aims to offer 500 bicycles across the city by the end of 2016.[89]

Austin, TX: In December 2013, Austin B-cycle launched as the bike share system for the City of Austin with 11 stations.[90] It is operated as a public-private partnership between the City of Austin and the non-profit Bike Share of Austin. The current system operates 46 bike share stations 24/7 in the downtown Austin area. Austin B-cycle set a national bike share record for the most checkouts per bicycle in a single day, 10.1 checkouts per bike, on 14 March 2015 during the SXSW festival.[91]

Boston, MA: On 28 July 2011, Boston launched its 60-station, 600-bike Hubway system, sponsored by the shoe manufacturer New Balance and funded in part by a $3 million grant from the Federal Transit Administration. The contract to operate was awarded to Alta Bicycle Share. Bicycle-sharing was greeted with a mix of excitement and skepticism. In its first 2 1/2 months, Hubway recorded 100,000 station-to-station rides, significantly eclipsing the pace of similar systems in Minneapolis (where Nice Ride needed six months to reach that mark) and Denver (where B-cycle needed 7 1/2 months).[92]

Boulder, CO: In May 2011, Boulder, Colorado launched a bicycle sharing system, Boulder B-Cycle, with 100 bicycles and 15 stations. This system, like many in northern latitude cities, closes down during winter months to help preserve the life of the equipment.[93]

Broward County, FL: Broward B-Cycle launched in December 2011 as the country's first county-wide bike share program, with 200 bikes and 20 stations located in several cities within Broward County, including Fort Lauderdale. This system was funded through a public-private partnership with the Florida Department of Transportation providing a $311,000 grant through Broward County, and B-Cycle's sponsors providing the remainder of the initial capital and operating costs.[94]

California: In California, many cities have launched or have stated plans to launch their own bike-sharing programs, including the cities of Anaheim (currently 10 bikes at 1 station, with plans for 100 bikes at 10 stations),[95] Los Angeles (plans for 4000 bikes at 400 stations),[96] Santa Monica (plans for 250 bikes at 25 locations),[97] and San Diego[98] The San Francisco Bay Area's Bay Area Air Quality Management District, in partnership with Alta Bike Share, city governments, and transportation authorities, have announced plans for a pilot regional sharing program in 2013 for the San Francisco Peninsula and San Jose.[99][100]

In the Fall of 2009, the University of California, Irvine introduced its Zotwheels automated bike share program. Students and university employees may sign up for a Zotwheels membership card at an annual cost of $40, which enables the user to check out a bike from any bike station located throughout campus for a maximum of three hours and drop it off at any other station. A$200 charge is imposed for a lost, stolen, or severely damaged bike. Bicycle availability and station operational status may be determined using an interactive map. Revenues from membership fees are sufficient to offset only a small fraction of the total operating costs of the program; all remaining manufacture, installation, maintenance, and implementation costs of the Zotwheels systems and the bicycles themselves are borne by UCI.[101] Zotwheels was developed as a collaboration between the UCI Parking and Transportation Services, The Collegiate Bicycle Company, CSL Ltd, and Miles Data Technologies.[102]

Charleston, SC: In August 2013, the College of Charleston's Office of Sustainability began a bike sharing program.[103] This program's 16 bicycles are free to use for all full-time students, faculty, and staff members.[104]

Chattanooga, TN: In July 2012, the Bike Chattanooga Bicycle Transit System launched in Chattanooga, Tennessee with 300 bikes and 28 solar-powered stations.[105] It was the first large scale bicycle transit system in the Southeast. The system has expanded to 33 stations and had recorded over 78,000 trips by its second anniversary.[106]

Chicago, IL: On 28 June 2013, Chicago launched Divvy, a bike share system with 750 bikes at 75 stations, It has now increased to over 5000 bikes at 580 stations.[107] A much smaller project named Bike and Roll was launched in August 2015.[108]

Cincinnati, OH: In September 2014, Cincinnati Red Bike started operation. It opened with 35 docking stations in downtown, Over the Rhine, University of Cincinnati's main campus and surrounding areas. In 2015 Red Bike expanded to 50 stations with over 300 bikes and has a ridership of 100,000+ per year.[109]

Columbus, OH: On 30 July 2013, CoGo Bike Share started. It opened with 300 bikes and 30 docking stations in downtown and surrounding areas.[110]

Denver, CO: On 22 April 2010, Denver became the first U.S. city with a large-scale smart-technology enabled bicycle sharing system with the launch of Denver B-cycle. The system launched with 45 stations and 450 bicycles throughout downtown, downtown-adjacent neighborhoods, and on higher-education campuses. Denver B-cycle's roots came from the "Freewheelin" bikesharing program which operated for 6 days during the 2008 DNC convention in Denver. In Denver, several B-cycle rental stations are located at RTD Light Rail Platforms. The Denver B-cycle program varies in cost depending on use. Fees range from $8 per day to $80 per year.[111]

Fargo, ND: In March 2015, bicycle advocacy nonprofit Great Rides Fargo launched Great Rides Bike Share, a system with 101 bicycles at 11 stations.[112] The system was launched in partnership with North Dakota State University, where students are enrolled at no additional cost. It was the first system to include integrated card access for enrolled students.[113][114][115]

Honolulu, HI: The City and County of Honolulu supported Bikeshare passing Bikeshare Resolution 14–35 on 14 March 2014. The extensive bikeshare program envisioned for Honolulu includes an impressive network installation of 180 bicycle docking stations containing a total of at 1,700 program owned bikes. The stations will extend from China Town to Waikiki. The program is aimed to begin summer 2015. Additionally, there is currently a small pilot program in Kailua (Honolulu County) with 2 stations.[116]

Houston, TX: In May 2012, Houston launched Houston B-cycle owned and operated by Houston Bike Share a non-profit organization. The bike share system started with 18 bikes at 3 stations, currently 225 bikes at 29 stations located Downtown, Midtown, Montrose, East End, Heights and Museum District. The program is aimed to expand to 1,000 bikes at 100 stations by the end of 2017.[117]

Indianapolis, IN: In May 2014, Indianapolis launched the bike share program called Indiana Pacers Bikeshare with 25 stations and 250 bikes.[118]

Zotwheels Bike Share at the University of California Irvine

Kansas City, MO: In 2012, Kansas City, Missouri launched Kansas City B-cycle in partnership with Blue Cross Blue Shield.[119] The system currently has 27 stations and over 200 bicycles reaching downtown, Union Hill, Westport, Plaza and as of Summer 2015, Brookside Trolley Trail.[120]

Miami & Miami Beach, FL: In March 2011, DecoBike launched in Miami Beach, Florida.[121] The initial rollout of the program included "approximately 100 solar-powered stations and 1,000 custom-designed bikes available to residents and visitors."[122] This public bicycle sharing and rental program is owned and operated by DecoBike, LLC, a Miami-based company, and operates under a long-term agreement with the City of Miami Beach. The service is available to both residents and visitors: any adult with a major credit card can check out a bike to pedal to their next location. An iPhone app and an interactive map on the DecoBike website allows one to locate the nearest "station" and displays the number of bikes available and the number of free docking spaces in real-time.[123]

Minneapolis, MN: In June 2010, Minneapolis initiated operation of Nice Ride, one of the first examples of a large-scale municipal bike sharing program in the United States. Phase 1 included 700 bikes and 65 stations throughout Minneapolis[124] Due to popularity, the system was aggressively expanded into neighboring Saint Paul in 2011. As of 29 April 2012, Nice Ride had recorded a total of 330,000 trips, and a systemwide total of 1,330 bikes at 146 stations.[125]

New Paltz, NY: The village of New Paltz, New York, home of SUNY New Paltz, has a bicycle lending program.[126]

New York, NY: On Memorial Day, 27 May 2013, New York City started its privately funded Citi Bike program. It was the nation's largest when it began operation, but Washington, D.C.'s system has grown faster. It began with 6,000 bikes at 330 docking stations in Manhattan and parts of Brooklyn. It wants to expand it to 10,000 bikes and 600 docking stations in Manhattan, all of Brooklyn and Queens. By 29 May, in its third day of operation, the program had 21,300 individuals signed on as annual members.[127]

Philadelphia, PA On 23 April 2015 Philadelphia started its privately funded Indego bike share program with 60 docking stations and 600 bikes, located in Center City, South Philadelphia, Northern Liberties, and University City.[128]

Phoenix, AZ: On 25 November 2014, Phoenix launched Grid Bike Share with 100 bikes at 27 stations.[129] It has since expanded to nearly 500 bikes at 48 stations, and has plans to add another 200 bikes and 20 stations.[130] Mesa, AZ, joined the system in March 2016, with 100 bikes at 14 stations, with plans to add another 200 bikes and 10-14 stations. Tempe, AZ, intends to join the three-city system in early 2017 with 300 bikes at 31 stations.[131]

Pittsburgh, PA On 31 May 2015 Pittsburgh, during an Open Streets day, launched it's Healthy Ride bike share program. The system launched with 50 docking stations and 500 bikes located in Downtown Pittsburgh, South Side Flats, North Shore, Strip District, Lawrenceville (Pittsburgh), Oakland (Pittsburgh), Bloomfield (Pittsburgh), and Shadyside (Pittsburgh).[132][133]

Salem, MA: In 2011, the city of Salem, Massachusetts launched a bike share program called Salem Spins offering use of bicycles free of charge, for use around the city. The seasonal program was financed in part with a $25,000 grant for a fleet of 20 bicycles.[134] The program is offered from April to October.

Salt Lake City, UT: On 8 April 2013, Salt Lake City launched GREENbike as the region's Bike Share brand. The program launched in downtown Salt Lake City with 10 stations and added two new stations less than four months later. The program will be expanding to 20 stations by 2014 with the goal of 100 stations in downtown Salt Lake City. Satellite GREENbike systems in cities such as Ogden are in the works and will be connected by the state transit authority's Frontrunner light rail train.[135]

Seattle, WA: On 13 October 2014, Pronto Cycle Share launched with 500 bicycles and 50 stations. Pronto uses Motivate of New York City as the operator.[136]

Tulsa, OK: The Tulsa Townies bicycle project was launched in August 2007 by Saint Francis Health System to promote an active and healthy lifestyle in the community. This project is the first bicycle program of its kind in northeastern Oklahoma. The bicycle rental stations are located at the Tulsa River Parks trail along Riverside Drive at 19th and 41st streets and in Jenks at the 96th street Arkansas River pedestrian bridge.[137]

Washington, D.C.: In September 2010, the District of Columbia introduced its replacement for SmartBike DC, called Capital Bikeshare (CaBi). Unlike SmartBike, CaBi is a public taxpayer-supported bicycle sharing program involving both the District of Columbia and Arlington County. The initial scheme involved some 1,100 bicycles at 100 stations located throughout the District of Columbia and parts of Arlington County, Virginia. The cost of planning, implementation and administration for Capital Bikeshare totaled US$5.0 million, with first-year operating costs of US$2.3 million for 100 stations.[138] The District's share of planning, implementation and first-year operating costs was partially financed by a US$6.0 million grant by the United States Department of Transportation. Arlington County's operating cost share of the plan was US$835,000 for the first year,[139] funded by public contributions including a grant from the Virginia Department of Rail and Public Transportation as well as subsidies from Arlington County Transportation, Crystal City (Arlington) Business Improvement District, and the Potomac Yard Transportation Management Association.[140] In November 2010, Capital Bikeshare Director Chris Holben stated that administrators were hoping for future project revenues that would reach 50% of annual operating costs, exclusive of planning and implementation expenses.[141] CaBi recently announced plans to expand services with an additional 20 bike stations by spring of 2011. For a time, Capital Bike Share was the largest bike sharing system in the United States. Upon opening in May 2013, New York city's Citi Bike program was far larger, however Capital Bike Share expanded to become the largest bike sharing system in the United States again with 344 stations. In August 2015, Citi Bike once again became the largest system in the United States with 400 stations.[142]

South America[edit]

EcoBici station in Buenos Aires
Bike Rio rental station located near Posto 9, Ipanema, in Rio de Janeiro city, Brazil.
Bici Q station in Quito, Ecuador

Argentina[edit]

The bike sharing system is free upon registration and has 1250 bicycles available at 41 rental stations throughout Buenos Aires, as of 2014. The system was deployed by the City of Buenos Aires and is owned by the city.[143] Upon completion, it will have 3,000 bicycles and 200 stations with 200 km of lanes.[144]

Brazil[edit]

Bike Rio opened to the public in October 2011. The bike sharing system has 2600 bicycles available at 260 rental stations located in 20 neighbourhoods throughout Rio de Janeiro. The system was deployed by the municipal government of Rio de Janeiro in partnership with Banco Itaú, and operated by Serttel, a private concessionaire.[145]

A similar scheme was implemented in the city of São Paulo on 24 May 2012, called Bike Sampa. It is free up to the first hour of use, after which users are charged R$5 every 30 minutes.[146] There are about 140,000 registered users and, as of 6 May 2013, there had been 220,000 bicycle trips in the city. Serttel is also the concessionaire for this scheme, and the website of Bike Sampa is hosted by Mobilicidade. Other cities with similar bike sharing systems are: Brasília, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Porto Alegre, Santos, Recife and Aracaju.

Chile[edit]

There are two working bike-share systems in the metropolitan area of Santiago, capital city of Chile, Bikesantiago and Bici Las Condes.[147]

History[edit]

The commune of Providencia, part of the Santiago de Chile metropolitan area, implemented a public bike-share system in Latin America, named B'easy and starting services in August 2008 with a monthly membership of 1000 Chilean Pesos (USD 2) and 4 stations.[148]

Santiago Metropolitan Area[edit]

Bikesantiago started its services in October 2013 in the metropolitan commune of Vitacura with 30 stations, 300 bicycles and a monthy membership of 4990 Chilean pesos (USD 8). By November 2015, it had 25000 subscribers, 132 stations and 1882 bicycles on the communes of Lo Barnechea, Vitacura, Providencia (Replacing the original B'easy system), Santiago, Ñuñoa, Recoleta and Independencia and has contracts for a programmed expansion in a total of 14 communes, 200 stations and 2100 bikes in the Metropolitan Area of Santiago.[149][150]

Las Condes[edit]

Bici Las Condes is the communal bike-share system of Las Condes, part of the Metropolitan Area of Santiago. It started services in March 2015 with a total of 50 stations and 500 bikes and has a planned expansion to a total of 100 stations and 1000 bikes.[151] The decision of the Las Condes municipal council of not joining the Metropolitan area tender for an bike-sharing metropolitan interconected system was very controversial.[152]

Colombia[edit]

The EnCicla Bike Share System in Medellín is operated by the metropolitan area of Aburrá Valley. EnCicla is integrated with the city's existing infrastructure of cycle routes, mass transit and public transport systems.[153]

Ecuador[edit]

In August 2012 the Municipality of Quito government established a municipal bicycle sharing system called Bici Q.[154][155][156] The Municipality of Cuenca implemented a public bicycle sharing system in 2013.[157][158] Bici Q is completely free and is available for anyone to users with membership cards, which can be obtained online or in person.[159][160]

Asia[edit]

China[edit]

Beijing
A rack of red-and-white bicycles, locked into place
Shared bike rack in Beijing

A municipal scheme in Beijing launched in 2012 with the stationing of 2,000 bikes in Chaoyang district.[161] The scheme is scheduled to consist of 20,000 rental bikes and 500 kiosks, according to the Beijing Municipal Commission of Development and Reform. The main operating area will be in business districts and near subway stations and major public venues. By 2015, authorities intend to have 50,000 bikes available, similar to the Hangzhou scheme that is their model.[162][163] This follows the failure of a scheme launched in 2005–2006 (ahead of Velib) and in the light of a 2011 announcement by the Beijing Municipal Commission of Transport that it expects to raise the bike share of urban commuter journeys from 20 to 23 per cent by 2015.[162]

Hangzhou

The Hangzhou bike-sharing system has 60,600 bikes and started in 2008. Bike-sharing stations can be found in Hangzhou every 100 metres. The first hour of use is free, followed by 1 yuan ($0.15) for the first hour, 2 yuan the second hour, and 3 yuan each subsequent hour.[164] In 2013 USA Today called the Hangzhou bike-sharing system the 'best in the world'.[165] From a March 2010 survey of Hangzhou Public Bicycle members and non-members it was found that 30% of Hangzhou Bike-Sharing users incorporated bicycle sharing into their most common commute. Furthermore, the bicycle sharing system captured modal share from bus transit, walking, autos and taxis. Another key finding in this study suggests that car ownership may not reduce the likelihood of bikesharing use. In fact, members of the Hangzhou system exhibited a higher rate of auto ownership in comparison to non-members.[166]

Nanning

Since December 2013, Nanning has a bicycle sharing system with 1000 bicycles and 50 stations. The first hour of usage is free, after it costs 2RMB/h.[167]

Shanghai

In preparation for the 2010 World Expo in Shanghai, China, Shanghai launched a limited bike share programme which are accessible by RFID cards. Users could purchase 100-ride credits for about $30. Short rides are rewarded credits and longer rides subtract credits once the bikes have been re-docked. Shanghai planned to expand to 3,500 Bicycle Hot Spots throughout the entire city by 2010. Two years after the World Expo, Shanghai's bicycle sharing programme has been mostly limited to the Minhang District.[168][169]

Suzhou

The Suzhou Industrial Park has a bicycle sharing system (苏州工业园区公共自行车) with 1880 bicycles and 72 stations, which launched in January 2012.[170]

Xi'an

Since 2011, Xi'an has a bicycle sharing system with 8000 bicycles and 375 stations.[171]

Lanzhou

In 2014, a bike sharing system was created around downtown Lanzhou with 377 stations.[172][173]

Iran[edit]

In July 2016, first Iranian modern public bike system was designed and established in Urmia city with 250 bikes in 20 stations by ASI company by the brand name of «U Bike» .[174]

India[edit]

Mumbai

Mumbai operates two schemes,[175] and the Ministry of Urban Development is preparing to launch a 10-city public bike scheme as part of its "Mission for Sustainable Habitat".[176]

Bangalore

Namma Cycle is a bicycle sharing system being implemented in the Indian Institute of Science (IISc, Bangalore) campus and the surrounding neighborhood. Bicycles are made available at select locations in a community/city allowing people to have ready access to these public bicycles. The ATCAG system implements a bicycle sharing program aimed primarily to solve the last-mile problem for users of the Bangalore Metro.

It is also a trend in some other cities - Delhi,[177] Mysuru,[178] Rajkot,[179] Bhubanewar.[180]

Japan[edit]

According to the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism as of 2012 there were a number of city-level pilot schemes in operation in Japan, the largest of which was Edogawa City in Tokyo with 500 cycles available for hire.[181] Toyama also has a bicycle sharing system, that takes the region's public transit IC card Passca.[182]

Kazakhstan[edit]

Astana-bike 200 bikes in 40 stations, 1000 bikes for Expo 2017.[183]

South Korea[edit]

Seoul
Main article: YouBike

Following trials, a bike-sharing system named Ddareungi was introduced in Seoul in October 2015 in select areas of the right bank of the Han River.[184] After a few months, the number of stations reached 150 and 1500 bikes were made available.[185] In 2016, the number of stations has increased steadily to cover new districts.[186] As of July 2016, there were about 300 stations and 3000 bikes available, and Seoul mayor Park Won-sun has confirmed his intention to increase the number of bikes available to 20,000[187]

Taiwan[edit]

Main article: YouBike

Taipei City launched a public bicycle rental program in 2009, and expanded by working with leading Taiwanese bike manufacturer Giant. The system saw 22 million rentals in 2014, double the 11 million rentals in the previous year.[188]

Initially, an unexpectedly small number of daily users in the trial district of Xinyi (信義) prompted the city's Department of Transportation (zh) to install the "YouBike" system along Taipei Metro lines and to offer the service in several more districts.[189] The slow initial adoption of YouBike rentals was overcome through adapting the model, such as lowering rates (currently NT$5 for 30 minutes and progressing from NT$10 afterwards, without other fee such as membership fee, or periodic pass ), and increasing ways to open an account (online via the YouBike website or at the kiosks).[190][191]

YouBike also serves the New Taipei City, Taoyuan City, Hsinchu City, Taichung City and Chunghua County.

Tainan, Kaohsiung, Pingtung City also serves a standalone bicycle-sharing system.

United Arab Emirates[edit]

ADCB Bikeshare is the first and only bike sharing scheme in the United Arab Emirates. The scheme operates in the nation's capital city of Abu Dhabi, and is sponsored by Abu Dhabi Commercial Bank. ADCB Bikeshare launched December 2015. Run by Cyacle, the programme operates on Yas Island and Al Raha Beach, where there are 11 stations with 75 bicycles available for hire. In the first eight months of operation, 5,641 people became members of the scheme and rode 78,689 kilometres (48,895 miles) on 8,536 trips.[192]

Australia[edit]

A bicycle sharing station in Swanston Street, Melbourne.
A bicycle helmets vending machine in The University of Melbourne Parkville campus, Australia

The first municipal bicycle share system in Australia, Melbourne Bike Share (MBS), was launched in Melbourne in June 2010. Melbourne's MBS and CityCycle in Brisbane[193] are the only known bicycle share schemes in the world that attempt to operate under a mandatory helmet requirement.[194][195][196]

MBS is a publicly funded scheme based on Montreal's BIXI system and was launched initially with only 10 stations, with the aim of having 50 stations by July 2010. Implementation and planning costs totalled A$5.5 million over four years, which required a usage rate of 500 trips per day, or 15,000 per month, for the scheme to break-even.[197][198] During the first week of operation, the system was only used 253 times.[199] This use rate dropped to only 136 times per day by October 2010,[197] for a total of 20,700 trips, with nearly 650 subscribers. The low popularity of the scheme in comparison to other cities[200] has been attributed to Melbourne's mandatory helmet laws, acknowledged by the government, which recently began subsidising helmet purchases at $5 per helmet from local convenience stores and vending machines.[196][197][200] The helmet subsidy added an additional A$5 million to the cost of the bike share programme.[193] After the introduction of subsidised helmets, MBS bicycle usage rate increased to 183 trips per day.[197] This usage rate increased to 283 trips per day (8,500 trips per month) in December 2010, with another increase to 433 trips per day (13,000 per month) by May 2011.[198] Promotional efforts to advertise MBS have been limited, though mobile phone optimised websites have also been created, such as BikeShare.Tel, allowing users to locate stations and see bike availability.[201] Currently the MBS uses 500 cycles at about 50 stations around Melbourne's central business district.[193]

MELTours launched a bicycle tour based on the MBS within a month of launch as a way to enable tourists to see the city using the MBS and to learn how to use it. The tour was designed around the available MBS pods where each leg is no more than 30 minutes in duration. This means that the cost to the customer is as low as possible while a two-hour activity can still be taken.[202]

Brisbane
A bicycle sharing station in Newstead, Brisbane

Subscriptions for CityCycle, a Vélib-style community bike hire scheme by JCDecaux for Brisbane started on 1 September 2010 with bikes planned to available from 1 October 2010 at 150 stations from the University of Queensland to Tenerife. Currently CityCycle uses 1,060 cycles at 104 locations, with plans to expand to 2,000 cycles at 150 stations by mid-2012. Currently CityCycle has no plans to rent helmets to riders, who must carry their own helmets to the station for each journey.[193]

Brisbane City Council Mayor, Graham Quirk conceded the Citycycle service had "not got off to a flying start". By October 2011 there were 416 trips per day for 1060 bikes available for hire at 104 stations. In mid August 2011, Brisbane City Council cut the daily casual subscription from $11 to $2. There were only 200 $11 daily casual hires in July 2011 and 332 in August 2011. Casual hires jumped up to 1064 in September 2011 in response to the price reduction to $2 per day. Council has also attached 400 free helmets to bikes on an honesty basis. JCDecaux Australia chief executive said there was "no doubt" the mandatory use of helmets constrained the use of the scheme. An $8M investment to establish the Citycycle scheme resulted in 80,000 bike trips during the first 12 months. Council is proceeding with expanding to 150 stations and increasing bike numbers to 2000.[203]

The 200,000th trip was taken on Brisbane's CityCycle in April 2012, with over 600 cycle journeys every day. May 2012 was a new record month with 18,874 trips. 223,000 trips were taken during 2013.

The bikes are now linked to the public transport go card – a single card covering all busses, trains, ferries and the new light rail system to open in 2014 along southern beaches.

As part of the CityCycle contract, the French company JCDecaux collects all the advertising revenue from the 167 advertising panels and 25 advertising sign sites erected in Brisbane. However the bike hire scheme was operating at a loss of A$976,000 in the 2012–2013 financial year paid by the Brisbane ratepayers, and by December 2013 the scheme cost ratepayers A$14 million.[204]

Universities[edit]

Canada[edit]

India[edit]

Indonesia[edit]

Mexico[edit]

United Kingdom[edit]

United States[edit]

Zotwheels Bike Share at the University of California Irvine.
Zotwheels Bike Share at the University of California Irvine.

Other[edit]

  • Chicago, US: The Field Museum shared bikes., which was inaugurated for employees in April 2008.[217]
  • Detroit, US: Zagster – Quicken Loans[218]
  • In 2012 Spinster started as a peer share system, which users around the world pay local private owners for use of their bike, usually by the day.[219]

Cities[edit]

The following table lists more than 330 active bicycle sharing systems across the world. Most systems listed allow users to pick up and drop off bicycles at any of the automated stations within the network.

City Country Continent Name System Year inaugurated Stations Bicycles Daily ridership Website
Aigialeia[220] Greece Europe Cyclopolis Cyclopolis 2013 3 45 [20]
Aigle, Monthey Switzerland Europe PubliBike PubliBike 2010 10 99 [21]
Aktio-Vonitsa[220][221] Greece Europe Cyclopolis Cyclopolis 2013 3 35 [22]
Alpignano Italy Europe ToBike 2
Amiens[222] France Europe Vélam Cyclocity February 2008 26 250 376[223] [23]
Ancient Olympia[220][224] Greece Europe Cyclopolis Cyclopolis 2013 4 60 [24]
Angers[225] France Europe VéloCité Cyclocity 2004
Ann Arbor, Michigan[226] USA Americas ArborBike B-Cycle 2014 14 125 [25]
Anqiu China Asia Anqiu Public Bicycle December 2013 95 2,280 [26]
Antwerp Belgium Europe Velo Clear Channel 9 June 2011 144 1,800 [27]
Århus Denmark Europe Bycyklen May 2007 57 400 [28]
Aspen, Colorado USA Americas WE-cycle Bixi June 2013 13 100 [29]
Astana Kazakhstan Asia Astana-Bike Smoove July 2014 150 1000 [30]
Austin, Texas[227] USA Americas Bike Share of Austin B-Cycle December 2013 46 375 [31]
Aveiro[228] Portugal Europe Buga 2000 1 300
Avignon[229] France Europe Vélopop' Smoove July 2009 17 200 [32]
Bangkok[230][231] Thailand Asia Pun Pun Bike Share 2012 50 500 [33]
Bangkok[232] Thailand Asia CU Bike Smoove 2012 5 125 [34]
Baoji China Asia Baoji Public Bicycle Service September 2013 100 2,000 [35]
Barcelona Spain Europe Bicing Clear Channel 22 March 2007 424 6,000 28,093[233] [36]
Battle Creek[234] USA Americas Battle Creek BCycle BCycle 19 August 2013 3 21 [37]
Batumi Georgia Asia BatumVelo Batumi Avtotransporti Smoove May 2013 22 200 [38]
Beijing China Asia 2012 508 16,000 [39]
Belfast UK Europe Coca-Cola Zero Belfast Bikes NSL / nextbike 27 April 2015 30 300 [40]
Belfort France Europe Optymo Smoove May 2013 21 200 [41]
Belo Horizonte[235] Brazil Americas Bikebh Mobilicidade 2014 40 400 [42]
Berlin Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2009 50+ 300 [43]
Berlin Germany Europe Call a Bike Call a Bike flex March 2003 N/A
Bern Switzerland Europe PubliBike PubliBike 2011 8 54 [44]
Besançon[236] France Europe VéloCité Cyclocity September 2007 30 200 380[223] [45]
Białystok Poland Europe BiKeR nextbike 31 May 2014 46 460 [46]
Bielefeld Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2009 10 [47]
Blackpool[237] UK Europe Hire-a-Bike Hourbike 2009 60 400 [48]
Bochum Germany Europe metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 6 30 [49]
Boise, Idaho[238] USA Americas Boise Bike Share Social Bicycle 16 April 2015 15 117 [50]
Bordeaux France Europe VCUB Keolis February 2010 139 1,545 [51]
Boston, Massachusetts[239] USA Americas Hubway Bixi (operated by Motivate) 2011 140 1,300 3,268 [52]
Bottrop Germany Europe metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 15 [53]
Boulder, Colorado[240][241] USA Americas Boulder B-Cycle B-Cycle 2011 23 120 [54]
Bratislava Slovakia Europe Whitebikes Open Source Bike Share May 2014 35 100 [55]
Brescia Italy Europe Bicimia 65 395 [56]
Brisbane[242][243] Australia Asia Pacific CityCycle Cyclocity September 2010 150 2,000 [57]
Broward County, Florida USA Americas Broward B-Cycle B-Cycle 2011 35 [58]
Brussels[244] Belgium Europe Villo! Cyclocity 19 May 2009 (earlier system since 2006) 346 4,115 [59]
Bucharest[245] Romania Europe Cicloteque Proprietary 31 July 2008 6 400 [60]
Budapest Hungary Europe MOL BuBi Nextbike April 2014 75 1,100 [61]
Buenos Aires[246][247] Argentina Americas Ecobici 2010 32 750 [62]
Burgenland Austria Europe LEIHRADL nextbike nextbike 2009 40 [63]
Caen France Europe V'eol Clear Channel March 2008 40 350 [64]
Calais France Europe Vel'in OYBike July 2010 37 160 [65]
Carugate[248] Italy Europe Meglio in Bici 5 May 2012 3 30 [66]
Cergy-Pontoise[249] France Europe VélO2 Cyclocity March 2009 42 320 184[223] [67]
Cernusco sul Naviglio[248] Italy Europe Meglio in Bici 5 May 2012 3 40 [68]
Chalon-sur-Saône France Europe Réflex Transdev Smoove December 2007 14 100 [69]
Changhua Taiwan Asia YouBike May 2014 24 [70]
Changwon[250][251] South Korea Asia NUBIJA October 2008 235 2,348[252] [71]
Changzhou China Asia Changzhou Public Bicycle [72]
Charlotte, North Carolina[253] USA Americas Charlotte B-Cycle B-Cycle 2012 21 200 [73]
Chattanooga, Tennessee[254] USA Americas Bike Chattanooga Bicycle Transit System Bixi 2012 33 300 [74]
Chengdu (Gaoxin District[zh])[255] China Asia December 2010 72 1,200
Chengdu (Jinniu District) [256] China Asia Shanghai Forever Bicycle Co. June 2010 156 1,500
Chicago, Illinois[257][258] USA Americas Divvy Bixi (operated by Motivate) 2013 580 5,800 13,000 [75]
Cincinnati, Ohio[259] USA Americas Red Bike B-Cycle 15 September 2014 50 [76]
Clermont-Ferrand France Europe C.Vélo SMTC[disambiguation needed] Smoove June 2013 10 (22) 100 (220) [77]
Coburg Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2009 5 [78]
Collegno Italy Europe ToBike 10
Cologne Germany Europe Call a Bike Call a Bike flex March 2000 N/A
Columbus, Ohio USA Americas CoGo Motivate July 2013 30 300 [79]
Copenhagen Denmark Europe Bycyklen Gobike 16 August 2013 17 250 [80]
Cork Ireland Europe Coca-Cola Zero Bikes National Transport Authority 18 December 2014 31 330 [81]
Córdoba[260] Spain Europe Eco-bici Cyclocity 4 35
Corfu[22] Greece Europe EasyBike Brainbox Smoove November 2010 8 100 [82]
Créteil[261] France Europe Cristolib Cyclocity April 2010 10 75 12[223] [83]
Daejeon South Korea Asia Ta-shu 145 [84]
Denver, Colorado[262] USA Americas Denver B-cycle B-Cycle 2010 83 600 [85]
Des Moines, Iowa[263][264] USA Americas Des Moines B-cycle B-Cycle 2010 4 18 [86]
Didymóteicho[220][265] Greece Europe EasyBike EasyBike May 2013 8 100 [87]
Dijon France Europe Velodi Clear Channel February 2008 39 400 [88]
Dortmund Germany Europe metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 27 [89]
Drammen Norway Europe Drammen City Bikes Clear Channel [90]
Dresden Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2009 30+ 200 [91]
Druento Italy Europe ToBike 1
Dublin[175][266] Ireland Europe Dublin Bikes Cyclocity September 2009 102 950 [92]
Duisburg Germany Europe metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 14 [93]
Düsseldorf[267] Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2008 45 400 [94]
East Mani[220][221] Greece Europe EasyBike EasyBike 2013 6 100 [95]
El Paso, Texas[268] USA Americas El Paso BCycle B-Cycle 14 September 2015 8 80 [96]
Elche (Elx) Spain Europe bicielx 14 June 2010 14 200 [97]
Erfurt Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2009 10 30 [98]
Essen Germany Europe metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 25 [99]
Esztergom Hungary Europe EBI 2013 9 93 [100]
Fairbanks, Alaska USA Americas Fairbikes A2B Bikeshare 24 September 2015 [101]
Fargo, ND[112][115] USA Americas GreatRides B-Cycle 15 March 2015 11 101 [102]
Flensburg Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2009 10 30 [103]
Fort Worth, Texas[269] USA Americas Fort Worth B-Cycle B-Cycle 22 April 2013 32 300 [104]
Foshan China Asia August 2010 208 11,694 [105]
Frankfurt am Main Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2009 30 300 [106]
Frankfurt am Main Germany Europe Call a Bike Call a Bike flex March 2000 N/A
Freiburg Switzerland Europe PubliBike PubliBike 2010 8 94 [107]
Fullerton, California USA Americas OCTA BikeShare Bike Nation 6 January 2014 10 75 [108]
Fuzhou China Asia Fuzhou Public Bicycle June 2011 59 1,400 [109]
Galway Ireland Europe Coca-Cola Zero Bikes National Transport Authority 24 November 2014 15 195 [110]
Gelsenkirchen Germany Europe metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 4 [111]
Girona[270][271] Spain Europe Girocleta 25 September 2009 10 260 [112]
Glasgow UK Europe Mass Automated Cycle Hire (MACH) nextbike 24 June 2014 31 [113]
Gothenburg[272] Sweden Europe Styr & Ställ Cyclocity 10 August 2010 60 1,000 [114]
Grenoble France Europe Métrovélo Smoove 2006 16 1,250 [115]
Grodzisk Mazowiecki Poland Europe Grodziski Rower Miejski nextbike 27 September 2014 9 60 [116]
Grugliasco Italy Europe ToBike 9
Guangzhou[273][274] China Asia GZ-Public Bicycle June 2010 50 4,840 [117]
Győr Hungary Europe GyőrBike 7 September 2015 23 180 [118]
Haikou China Asia April 2013 105 3,000
Haining China Asia Haining Public Bicycle October 2012 100 2,200 [119]
Hamburg[275] Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2008 30 250 [120]
Hamburg Germany Europe StadtRAD Hamburg Call a Bike fix July 2009 72 1,000 [121]
Hamilton[276] Canada Americas Hamilton Bike Share Social Bicycles 20 March 2015 100 750 [122]
Hamm Germany Europe metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 10 50 [123]
Hangzhou[277][278] China Asia Hangzhou Public Bicycle October 2008 2,965 78,000 [124]
Hannover Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2008 20 80 [125]
Heihe China Asia May 2012 62 2,230 [126]
Herne Germany Europe metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 7 45 [127]
Heze China Asia April 2014 100 2,000 [128]
Hoboken, New Jersey[279] USA Americas Hudson Bike Share nextbike September 2015 29 250 [129]
Hohhot China Asia October 2013 112 5,100
Houston, Texas[280][281] USA Americas Houston B-cycle B-Cycle 2012 29 225 [130]
Huaian[282] China Asia Huaian Public Bicycle October 2013 335 7,000 [131]
Huaibei China Asia Huaibei Public Bicycle April 2014 100 3,000 [132]
Huangyan China Asia Huangyan Public Bicycle January 2012 93 2,500 [133]
Huizhou China Asia Guangzhou Huimin April 2012 100 10,000 [134]
Huzhou China Asia Huzhou Public Bicycle December 2013 85 2,000 [135]
Indianapolis, Indiana[283] USA Americas Indiana Pacers Bikeshare B-Cycle May 2014 25 300 [136]
Ioannina[284] Greece Europe EasyBike EasyBike September 2012 2 10 [137]
Izmir Turkey Middle East Bisim January 2014 29 [138]
Izmir, Karşıyaka Turkey Middle East Karbis January 2014 6 [139]
Jiangyin China Asia November 2008 23 700
Jiaxing China Asia Jiaxing Public Bicycle December 2011 334 7,800 [140]
Jinhua China Asia Jinhua Orange Public Bicycle Service October 2013 100 3,000 [141]
Jiujiang China Asia February 2014 6 120
Jiyuan China Asia September 2013 32 500
João Pessoa[285] Brazil Americas SAMBA Mobilicidade 3 20
Juchnowiec Kościelny[286] Poland Europe Rower Gminny nextbike July 2015 2 20 [142]
Kailua, Hawaii[287][288] USA Americas Hawaii B-cycle B-Cycle 2011 2 12
Kaixian China Asia January 2011 58 1,600
Kansas City, Missouri[289] USA Americas Kansas City B-cycle B-Cycle 2012 30 300 [143]
Kaohsiung Taiwan Asia C-bike 119 1,275 [144]
Kaposvár[34] Hungary Europe Kapsvári Tekergő 27 October 2015 4 32 (including 6 rollers) [145]
Karditsa[290] Greece Europe EasyBike EasyBike March 2013 10 60 [146]
Katowice[291] Poland Europe City by bike nextbike May 2015 3 40 [147]
Kavala[220][292] Greece Europe EasyBike EasyBike 2013 4 52 [148]
Kazan Russia Europe Veli'k May 2013 7 100 [149]
Keratsini-Drapetsóna[220][293] Greece Europe EasyBike EasyBike November 2012 6 70 [150]
Kitchener, Ontario[294][295] Canada Americas Community Access Bicycles Community Access Bicycles 2011, relaunched 21 August 2013 7 65 [151]
Komotini[220][296] Greece Europe EasyBike EasyBike 2013 6 100 [152]
Konstancin Poland Europe Konstanciński Rower Miejski nextbike 14 June 2014 5 55 [153]
Konya Turkey Middle East nextbike nextbike 40 [154]
Kraków Poland Europe KMK Bike SmartBikes Sp. z o.o. October 2008 34 230 [155]
Kunshan[297] China Asia Forever Bicycle September 2010 745 20,000 [156]
Kyoto[298] Japan Asia Community Cycle 5 [157]
Lansing, MI USA Americas Capital Community Bikeshare A2B Bikeshare 2014 8 20
Lanxi China Asia July 2014 50 1,500 [158]
Lanzhou China Asia Lanzhou Public Bicycle June 2014 111 2,000
La Rochelle France Europe Yélo February 2010 (earlier system since 1974) 63 300 [159]
Lausanne Switzerland Europe PubliBike PubliBike April 2013 (earlier system since 2009)[299] 23 251 [160]
Leipzig[300] Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2008 60 500 [161]
Lhasa China Asia November 2013 15 242
Lille France Europe V'Lille Keolis 2011 215 1,100 [162]
Limassol[301] Cyprus Europe nextbike Cyprus Nextbike May 2012 13 170 [163]
Limerick Ireland Europe Coca-Cola Zero Bikes National Transport Authority 8 December 2014 23 215 [164]
Linhai China Asia June 2011 82 2,700 [165]
Lishui China Asia February 2013 26 800 [166]
Liverpool UK Europe City Bike May 2014 130 [167]
Ljubljana[302] Slovenia Europe Bicike(lj) Cyclocity 12 May 2011 33 215 [168]
London[303][304] UK Europe Santander Cycles (formerly Barclays Cycle Hire) Bixi (operated by Serco) 30 July 2010 733 9,700 [169]
Los Angeles USA Americas Metro Bike Share B-Cycle 7 July 2016 65 1000 [170]
Lower Austria[305] Austria Europe LEIHRADL nextbike nextbike 2009 295 1,300 [171]
Lublin Poland Europe Lubelski Rower Miejski nextbike 19 September 2014 43 430 [172]
Lugano Switzerland Europe PubliBike PubliBike 2010 9 88 [173]
Luoyang China Asia Luoyang Public Bicycle 25 May 2013 35 1,000
Luxembourg City[306] Luxembourg Europe Vel'oh March 2008 73 680 [174]
Luzern Switzerland Europe nextbike nextbike 2008 30 280 [175]
Lyon[307] France Europe Vélo'v Cyclocity 19 May 2005 346 3,200 22,725[223] [176]
Maanshan China Asia Maanshan Public Bicycle [177]
Madison, Wisconsin[308] USA Americas Madison B-Cycle B-Cycle 2011 39 350 [178]
Madrid[309] Spain Europe BiciMAD May 2014 123 1580 [179]
Magdeburg Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2008 21 100 [180]
Mainz Germany Europe MVGmeinRad July 2011 120 1,000 [181]
Málaga, Andalucía Spain Europe MálagaBici Cemusa 2013 20 400 [182]
Marathónas[221] Greece Europe Cyclopolis Cyclopolis 2013 4 50 [183]
Maroussi[220][310] Greece Europe Cyclopolis Cyclopolis February 2013 6 70 [184]
Marseille[311] France Europe Le vélo Cyclocity 2007 122 672 2,484[223] [185]
Medellin[312] Colombia Americas EnCicla EnCicla (operated by The Metropolitan Area of Aburra Valley (http://www.metropol.gov.co) 2011 50 1,400 [186]
Melbourne[313] Australia Asia Pacific Melbourne Bike Share Bixi (operated by Motivate) June 2010 50 600 [187]
Mendoza[314] Argentina Americas Metrobici 2014 2 40
Mexico City[315] Mexico Americas Ecobici Clear Channel 2010 452 6,500 25,000 [188]
Miami Beach, Florida[316] USA Americas Decobike SandVault 2011 100 1,000 [189]
Milan Italy Europe BikeMi Clear Channel 3 December 2008 280 4,650 15,890 [190]
Milwaukee, Wisconsin[317][318] USA Americas Bublr Bikes B-Cycle 2014 28 200+ [191]
Minneapolis, Minnesota and Saint Paul, Minnesota [319][320] USA Americas Nice Ride Bixi 2010 170 1,550 [192]
Montpellier France Europe Vélomagg' Smoove June 2007 52 2,414 [193]
Montreal[321] Canada Americas Bixi Montreal Bixi 2009 447 5,120 8,808
Moscháto-Távros[322] Greece Europe Cyclopolis Cyclopolis January 2013 5 60 [194]
Moscow Russia Europe Smoove May 2013 150 2750 [195]
Mülheim a. Ruhr Germany Europe metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 13 65 [196]
Mulhouse[323] France Europe VéloCité Cyclocity 15 September 2007 40 240 486[223] [197]
Munich Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2011 30 3,000 [198]
Munich Germany Europe Call a Bike Call a Bike flex March 2000 N/A
Náfplion[220][324] Greece Europe Cyclopolis Cyclopolis June 2013 4 60 [199]
Namur[325] Belgium Europe Libiavelo Cyclocity 21 April 2012 24 200 [200]
Nancy[326] France Europe VélOstan Cyclocity 27 September 2009 29 250 675[223] [201]
Nanning China Asia December 2013 50 1,000
Nantes[327] France Europe Bicloo Cyclocity May 2008 103 885 3,640[223] [202]
Nantong[328] China Asia Nantong Economic and Technological Development Area Public Bicycle Forever Publicbike Intelligent Systems 1 January 2013 182 3,800 [203]
Naupactus[220][329] Greece Europe EasyBike EasyBike January 2013 4 60 [204]
Nea Smyrni[221] Greece Europe Cyclopolis Cyclopolis 2013 3 40 [205]
New York City[330][331][332][333] USA Americas Citi Bike Bixi (operated by Motivate) 27 May 2013 508 8,000 25,066 [206]
Newcastle UK Europe ScratchBikes
(known as WhipBikes until 2011)
ScratchBikes 2010 12 60 [207]
Nice France Europe Vélo Bleu OYBike July 2009 175 1,750 [208]
Nicosia[334] Cyprus Europe EasyBike Brainbox Smoove October 2011 27 315 [209]
Ningbo China Asia Ningbo Public Bicycle September 2013 600 15,000 [210]
Nottingham UK Europe Ucycle Sustrans & Evans Cycles 2010 0 460 [211]
Novi Sad Serbia Europe NS Bike Parking Servis 2011 5 70 [212]
Nyon, Gland Switzerland Europe PubliBike PubliBike 2011 13 167 [213]
Oberhausen Germany Europe metropolradruhr nextbike 2010 8 40 [214]
Offenburg Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2010 13 86 [215]
Oklahoma City, Oklahoma[335] USA Americas Spokies Spokies 2012 7 100
Omaha, Nebraska[336] USA Americas Omaha B-Cycle B-Cycle 2011 5 35 [216]
Opole Poland Europe Opole Bike nextbike 15 June 2012 16 164 [217]
Orania, Northern Cape[337] South Africa Africa Orania Openbare Fietsprojek 16 July 2014 3 30
Orléans France Europe Vélo'+ EFFIA June 2007 33 300 [218]
Oslo Norway Europe Oslo Bysykkel Clear Channel 2003 106 [219]
Padua Italy Europe GoodBike Padova 28 [220]
Palma Spain Europe Bicipalma 28 March 2011 28 336 [221]
Pamplona Spain Europe n'bici July 2007 5 101 [222]
Paris[338] France Europe Vélib' Cyclocity 15 July 2007 1,229 14,500 108,090 [223]
Pau France Europe IDEcycle 20 220 [224]
Toledo[339] Brazil Americas Toopedalando Toopedalando 2011 6 60
Perpignan France Europe BIP! Clear Channel February 2008 15 150 [225]
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania[340] USA Americas Indego B-Cycle 23 April 2015 60 600 [226]
Phoenix, Arizona USA Americas Grid Bike Share CycleHop and Social Bicycles 25 November 2014 40 500 [227]
Pioltello[248] Italy Europe Meglio in Bici 5 May 2012 2 20 [228]
Pisa[248] Italy Europe Ciclopi May 2013 15 200 [229]
Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania USA Americas Healthy Ride PGH nextbike 2015 50 500 [230]
Poitiers France Europe Cap'Vélo September 2007 360
Potsdam Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2010 20 150 [231]
Portland, Oregon USA Americas Biketown 19 July 2016 100 1,000 [232]
Poznań[341] Poland Europe Poznański Rower Miejski nextbike April 2012 37 443 [233]
Qingzhou China Asia 2010 550 10,300 [234]
Quito Ecuador Americas BiciQ BiciQ 2012 25 425 [235]
Rennes[342] France Europe LE vélo STAR Clear Channel June 1998 82 800 [236]
Riga, Jurmala Latvia Europe BalticBike 20 [237]
Rimini[343] Italy Europe Rimini in Bici 16
Rio de Janeiro[344] Brazil Americas Bike Rio Mobilicidade 2011 60 300
Rome Italy Europe Roma'n'Bike 19 200 [238]
Rouen[345] France Europe Cy'clic Cyclocity December 2007 21 190 419[223] [239]
Rzeszów Poland Europe RoweRes 2010 16 [240]
St. Etienne France Europe Vélivert
formerly Vélo Vert
Smoove 26 June 2010 30 700 [241]
Saint-Petersburg Russia Europe Velobike July 2014 29  ? [242]
Salt Lake City, Utah[346] USA Americas SLC Bike Share B-Cycle 2013 12 100
Salvador[347] Brazil Americas Bike Salvador Mobilicidade 2013 23 [243]
Salzburg Austria Europe nextbike nextbike 2011 [244]
San Antonio, Texas[348] USA Americas San Antonio B-Cycle B-Cycle 2011 68 600 [245]
San Diego[349] USA Americas DecoBike DecoBike February 2015 180 1,800 [246]
San Francisco Bay Area[350] USA Americas Bay Area Bike Share 2013 70 600 [247]
Santa Monica, California[351] USA Americas Breeze CycleHop and Social Bicycles 13 August 2015 80 500 [248]
Santander[352][353] Spain Europe Tusbic September 2008 15 180 [249]
Santiago Chile Americas Bikesantiago B-Cycle 2013 53 [250]
São Paulo[354] Brazil Americas Bikesampa Mobilicidade 2012 241 600 [251]
Savannah, Georgia[355] USA Americas CAT Bike B-Cycle 24 January 2014 2 16 [252]
Seattle, Washington[356] USA Americas Pronto Cycle Share Motivate 13 October 2014 50 500 [253]
Seoul[357] South Korea Asia Ddareungi 15 October 2015 300 3000 [254]
Seville [358] Spain Europe Sevici Cyclocity April 2007 259 2,100 [255]
Shanghai[359][360][361][362] China Asia Forever Bicycle March 2009 596 19,165 [256]
Shaoxing[363] China Asia Shaoxing Public Bicycle 15 June 2011 204 9,000 [257]
Shenzhen / Shekou / Xiaomeisha China Asia Shenzhen City Bicycle Public Forever Bicycle September 2010 16 350 [258]
Sion Switzerland Europe PubliBike PubliBike 2010 7 69 [259]
Slough UK Europe Smoove November 2013 4 60 [260]
Sopot[341] Poland Europe Rower Trójmiejski nextbike 5 September 2013 8 80 [261]
Sorocaba[364] Brazil Americas Integrabike Mobilicidade 2012 15 120
Spartanburg, South Carolina[365] USA Americas Spartanburg B-Cycle B-Cycle 2011 4 14 [262]
Stockholm Sweden Europe Stockholm City bikes Clear Channel April 2006 67 1,000 [263]
Strasbourg France Europe Vélhop Smoove October 2010 4 1,852 [264]
Stuttgart Germany Europe Call a Bike Call a Bike fix June 2007 64 400
Suzhou China Asia 2010 976 22,940 [265]
Sykiona[220][221] Greece Europe Cyclopolis Cyclopolis 2013 24 3 [266]
Szeged Hungary Europe CityBike Szeged CityBike Szeged 2013 12 100 [267]
Taipei[188][366] Taiwan Asia YouBike November 2009 196 6,046 [268]
Taiyuan China Asia September 2012 1,262 41,000 [269]
Taizhou, Jiangsu[367] China Asia 2014 80 2,000 [270]
Taizhou, Zhejiang China Asia 2010 200 13,000 [271]
Tampa, Florida[368] USA Americas Coast Bike Share CycleHop and Social Bicycles 7 December 2014 30 300 [272]
Tel Aviv[369] Israel Middle East Tel-O-Fun April 2016 200+ 2,000 [273]
Tirana[370] Albania Europe Ecovolis March 2011 8 200 [274]
Toronto[371] Canada Americas Bike Share Toronto (formerly Bixi Toronto) Motivate (since April 2014; formerly Bixi) 2011 80 1,000
Toruń Poland Europe Toruński Rower Miejski April 2014 12 120 [275]
Toulouse[372] France Europe VélôToulouse Cyclocity 16 November 2007 280 2,465 11,802[223] [276]
Toyama, Toyama[373] Japan Asia Cyclocity Toyama Cyclocity 22 March 2010 17 130
Trondheim Norway Europe Trondheim City Bikes Clear Channel 10 125 [277]
Tübingen Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2009 9 50 [278]
Turin Italy Europe ToBike 4 March 2011 136 1,200 [279]
Tübingen Germany Europe nextbike nextbike 2009 9 50 [280]
Urmia Iran Asia U Bike U Bike 10 June 2016 20 250 [281]
Valence, Drôme[374] France Europe Libélo Transdev Smoove March 2010 20 380 [282]
Valencia[375] Spain Europe ValenbiSi! Cyclocity 22 June 2010 276 2,400 [283]
Vancouver Canada Americas Mobi CycleHop 20 July 2016 150 1,500 [284]
Vannes France Europe Vélocéa OYBike June 2009 20 174 [285]
Velenje Slovenia Europe BICY MICikel 18 September 2012 9 40 [286]
Venaria Reale Italy Europe ToBike 10
Vevey Switzerland Europe PubliBike PubliBike 2009 5 41 [287]
Vienna[376] Austria Europe Citybike Cyclocity June 2003 121 1500 [288]
Vilnius[377] Lithuania Europe CycloCity Cyclocity 2013 33 300 [289]
Vila do Conde Portugal Europe biConde 5 June 2014 10 60 [290]
Vorarlberg Austria Europe nextbike 2009 14 70 [291]
Warsaw Poland Europe Bemowo Bike nextbike 1 April 2012 15 140 [292]
Warsaw[378] Poland Europe Veturilo nextbike 1 August 2012 202 2,950 [293]
Washington, D.C. area[379] USA Americas Capital Bikeshare Bixi (operated by Motivate) 2010 344[380] 2,800 [294]
Weifang China Asia Weifang Public Bicycle October 2013 735 20,000 [295]
Wrocław[381] Poland Europe Wrocławski Rower Miejski nextbike June 2011 73 730 [296]
Wuhu China Asia 2012 553 12,000 [297]
Wuxi China Asia Wuxibike January 2010 27 1,500 [298]
Xi'an China Asia Xianbicycle April 2011 900 20,000 [299]
Xuzhou China Asia September 2012 480 18,000 [300]
Yangzhou China Asia March 2014 140 5,000 [301]
Yantai China Asia August 2010 110 6,000 [302]
Yiwu China Asia October 2013 52 1,000 [303]
Yixing China Asia Yixing Public Bicycle December 2012 148 3,600 [304]
Yokohama Japan Asia Baybike April 2011 15 300 [305]
Yueyang China Asia April 2014 210 5,000
Zagreb[382] Croatia Europe nextbike nextbike May 2013 10 70 [306]
Zaragoza Spain Europe Bizi Clear Channel 28 May 2008 130 1,000 [307]
Zhangjiagang China Asia Forever Bicycle Forever Bicycle June 2010 152 3,200
Zhenjiang[383] China Asia Zhenjiang Public Bicycle 1 April 2013 80 2,000 [308]
Zhijin China Asia June 2014 30 1,000
Zhongshan China Asia 2010 527 11,180 [309]
Zhuhai China Asia December 2012 195 5,000 [310]
Zhuzhou China Asia Foshan Tianzhou May 2011 1005 20,000 [311]
all over the country, mainly at railway stations Netherlands Europe OV-fiets OV-Fiets/Nederlandse Spoorwegen 2003 230 5,000+ [312]
several locations Netherlands Europe Bikedispenser  ? 2005 5 500 [313] [314] [315] [316]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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