From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tambaram railway station.jpg
Chennai’s Southern Gateway[1]
Tambaram is located in Chennai
Location in Chennai Metropolitan Area
Tambaram is located in Tamil Nadu
Location in Tamil Nadu
Tambaram is located in India
Location in India
Tambaram is located in Asia
Location in Asia
Tambaram is located in Earth
Location on Earth
Coordinates: 12°55′29.6″N 80°06′00.0″E / 12.924889°N 80.100000°E / 12.924889; 80.100000Coordinates: 12°55′29.6″N 80°06′00.0″E / 12.924889°N 80.100000°E / 12.924889; 80.100000
Country India
StateTamil Nadu
MetroChennai Metropolitan Area
 • TypeMunicipal Corporation
 • BodyTambaram City Municipal Corporation
 • MayorVasanthakumari Kamalakannan (DMK)
 • Corporation CommissionerR. Alagumeena IAS
 • Total87.64 km2 (33.84 sq mi)
43 m (108 ft)
 • Total960,887
 • Density11,000/km2 (28,000/sq mi)
Time zoneUTC+5:30 (IST)
600043 to 600048; 600059, 600063, 600064, 600070, 600073, 600075, 600117 and 600126
Area code+91-044
Vehicle registrationTN 11(Tambaram RTO), TN 22 (Meenambakkam RTO – Pallavaram), TN 85 (Kundrathur RTO – Pammal, Anakaputhur, Thiruneermalai)

Tambaram is a southern suburb of Chennai, India. Located in the Chengalpattu district of Tamil Nadu,[4] it is governed by Tambaram City Municipal Corporation and is a part of the Chennai Metropolitan Area.[4][5][6][7]


Tambaram is an ancient town referred to as Taamapuram in an inscription of the 13th century. The word was inscribed on the walls around the sanctum sanctorum at Marundeeswarar temple in Tirukachur village, near Chengalpattu.[8]


The earliest mention of Tambaram dates back to the 13th century when the word 'Taamapuram' was inscribed on the walls around the sanctum sanctorum at Marundeeswarar temple in Tirukachur village, near Chengalpattu.[8]

Old Stone Age[edit]

The oldest locality in Tambaram City is Pallavapuram which is considered one of the oldest inhabited places in South Asia.[9] Pallavapuram consists of the present-day neighbourhood of Chromepet and Pallavaram.[10]

On May 13, 1863, Robert Bruce Foote, a British geologist with the Geological Survey of India (GSI), discovered a hand axe belonging to the Lower Palaeolithic Age at Pallavaram (Pallavapuram).[11][12] Since then, several Stone Age artefacts have been discovered.[12] Most of these artefacts are currently lodged in the Egmore museum.[12]

Early Medieval Period[edit]

Pallava Dynasty[edit]

The oldest locality in the city, Pallavapuram, existed during the reign of Pallava king Mahendravarman I (that is, 600–630 CE). The Pallavas have left titles in early Pallava script at the cave temple in Pallavaram neighbourhood which dates back to 600 CE. The remains of a cave shrine constructed by the Pallava ruler have been found at Asthana-E-Moula Ali Dargah.[13]

Chola Dynasty[edit]

During the reign of Later Cholas, from ninth to twelfth century CE, the region was called Churathur Nadu. Churathur Nadu was named after Thiruchuram, the present-day Trisulam. The Churathur Nadu extended from Tambaram in the south to Adambakkam and Alandur in the north. The region included the city neighborhood⁠— Pammal, Pallavaram, and Thiruneermalai.[14][15]

Colonial Period[edit]

During the Carnatic wars in the late 17th century, Tambaram was an entrenchment camp for the British East India Company. During the 17th century, Pallavaram remained dependent upon the Portuguese colony of San Thome. Later, the British established a cantonment at Pallavaram, supplementary to the one at St. Thomas Mount.

A wireless station was established in the early years of the 20th century. The Madras Aerodrome was opened at Pallavaram in 1929.


Before 1964, Tambaram was a small panchayat. In 1964, it was constituted as a Grade III Municipality comprising the Village Panchayats of Pulikoradu, Kadapperi, Tambaram, Irumbliyur, and Selaiyur.

Due to rapid development and growth of the town commercially and residentially, the Municipality was classified as a 'Selection Grade Municipality'.[16] The extent of the municipality was 20.72 km2 (8.00 sq mi). The revenue villages under this municipality are Pulikoradu, Kadapperi, Tambaram, Irumbliyur, and Selaiyur. The number of households is 26,333, the number of notified slums is 17 and the number of unnotified slums is 7.[17] The Tambaram range comprises forest lands in Nanmangalam, Madurapakkam, Tambaram, Pulikoradu, Kumili, Vandalur, Onnamancherry, Erumaiyur, Vattampakkam and Vadakupattu.[18]

In 2009, Tambaram taluk was trifurcated into Tambaram, Sholinganallur and Alandur taluks. Clubbing all the three taluks, a new revenue division with Tambaram as headquarters was formed.[19]

Creation of the Municipal Corporation[edit]

The increasing population and rapid urbanisation increased the need for town planning, improved administration structure and human resource planning. These demands drove the creation of Tambaram City Municipal Corporation.[4][7] The announcement to establish the Tambaram City Municipal Corporation was made by Minister for Municipal Administration K. N. Nehru in the state Assembly, on August 24, 2021[6] by merging five municipalities, five town panchayats and fifteen village panchayats.[20][21]

Following a supreme court ruling to conduct rural local body elections by October 2021, the village panchayats elections for Pozhichalur, Cowl Bazaar, Tirusulam, Moovarasampattu, Kovilambakkam, Nanmangalam, Medavakkam, Vengaivasal, Perumbakkam, Sithalapakkam, Ottiyambakkam, Madurambakkam, Agaramthen, Thiruvancheri, Mudichur of the St.Thomas Mount panchayat union were held. As a result, the 15 village panchayats were excluded from the Government order issued by the State Government of Tamil Nadu on September 11, 2021.[22]

The five municipalities— Anakaputhur, Pallavaram, Pammal, Sembakkam and Tambaram, and five town panchayats— Chitlapakkam, Madambakkam, Perungaluthur, Peerkangaranai and Tiruneermalai, were merged to form the Tambaram City Municipal Corporation.[23] After the tenure of existing village panchayats ends in 2026, the proposed village panchayats may get annexed into corporation limits, and may accordingly be converted into urban wards.[24]



Tambaram features a tropical wet and dry climate. Tambaram lies on the thermal equator and is also coastal, which prevents extreme variation in seasonal temperature. For most of the year, the weather is hot and humid. The hottest part of the year is late May and early June, known locally as Agni Nakshatram ("fiery star") or as Kathiri Veyyil, with maximum temperatures around 38–42 °C (100–108 °F). The coolest part of the year is January, with minimum temperatures around 18–20 °C (64–68 °F). The lowest temperature recorded is 15.8 °C (60.4 °F) and highest 45 °C (113 °F)(30 May 2003) both being recorded at the nearby Chennai city observatory at IMD Numgambakkam.[25][26]

The average annual rainfall is about 1,400 mm (55 in). The city gets most of its seasonal rainfall from the north-east monsoon winds, from mid-September to mid-December. Cyclones in the Bay of Bengal sometimes hit the city. Highest annual rainfall recorded is 2,570 mm (101 in) in 2005 for IMD Nungambakkam.[27] The most prevailing winds in Tambaram is the Southwesterly between the end of May to end of September and the Northeasterly during the rest of the year.

Climate data for Tambaram, Tamil Nadu, India (Nungambakkam) 1981–2010, extremes 1901–2012
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 34.4
Average high °C (°F) 29.3
Daily mean °C (°F) 25.2
Average low °C (°F) 21.2
Record low °C (°F) 13.9
Average rainfall mm (inches) 25.9
Average rainy days 1.4 0.8 0.3 0.8 1.8 4.0 6.5 7.7 7.3 10.9 11.5 5.8 58.8
Average relative humidity (%) (at 17:30 IST) 67 66 67 70 68 63 65 66 71 76 76 71 69
Mean monthly sunshine hours 232.5 240.1 291.4 294.0 300.7 234.0 142.6 189.1 195.0 257.3 261.0 210.8 2,848.5
Mean daily sunshine hours 7.5 8.5 9.4 9.8 9.7 7.8 4.6 6.1 6.5 8.3 8.7 6.8 7.8
Source 1: Indian Meteorological Department
Source 2: Japan Meteorological Agency[28]

Water Bodies[edit]

Some of the notable lakes in the city are Chitlapakkam Lake, Pallavaram Lake (locally known as Periya eri), Thiruneermalai Lake, Thirupananthal Lake, Peerkankaranai Lake, and Perungalathur Lake.


Tambaram City is governed by the Tambaram City Municipal Corporation, which was established on November 3, 2021.[23]

Administration Divisions[edit]

When Tambaram City Municipal Corporation was established, it consisted of 70 wards under 5 zones.

Executive Branch[edit]

The executive authority in Tambaram City Municipal Corporation is vested in Corporation Commissioner.[23][33] The current Corporation Commissioner is M. Elangovan, who has held the position since November 3, 2021.

Legislative Branch[edit]

The legislative branch of Tambaram City Municipal Corporation consists of a council of elected councillors from each ward. The Legislative body is presided over by the Mayor who is indirectly elected by the councillors.[23][33] The Mayor is the head of the municipal corporation, but the role is largely ceremonial as executive powers are vested in the Corporation Commissioner. The office of the Mayor combines a functional role of chairing the Corporation meeting as well as a ceremonial role associated with being the First Citizen of the city.[23][33] Deputy Mayor is appointed by the Mayor for a five-year term.[23][33]

At the present, the corporation is governed by Secular Progressive Alliance which collectively holds 53 out of 70 seats in the council. The opposition is led by All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam which holds 9 seats in the council. The current Mayor is Vasanthakumari Kamalakannan, who assumed the position on 4 March 2022. The current Deputy Mayor is G Kamaraj, who assumed the position on 4 March 2022.

Law and order[edit]

In September 2021, the government revealed its plans of reforming the Greater Chennai City Police and setting up two new commissionerates in Tambaram and Avadi. Subsequently, Additional Director Generals of Police (ADGPs) M. Ravi was deputed as special officers to form the Commissionerates. The new Police Commissionerates in Tambaram was formally inaugurated by the Chief Minister M. K. Stalin on 1 January 2022.

The Tambaram police commissionerate will function with two police districts⁠— Tambaram and Pallikaranai, comprising 20 police stations. For ease of administration, Somangalam and Manimangalam police stations from Kancheepuram district along with Otteri, Guduvanchery, Maraimalai Nagar, Thalambur and Kelambakkam police stations from Chengalpattu district have been attached to the Tambaram Police Commissionerate.[34]

Urban Planning[edit]

The Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority (CMDA) is the nodal agency responsible for planning and development of the city. It is responsible for all the three Municipal Corporation in the Chennai Metropolitan AreaTambaram City Municipal Corporation, Avadi Municipal Corporation and Greater Chennai Corporation.[5]


The 2021 population estimates project the population of Tambaram at 960,887.[35][36]


When established, Tambaram City Municipal Corporation was estimated to earn 3 billion in revenue approximately through local bodies connected to it.[37]

Madras Export Processing Zone[edit]

Madras Export Processing Zone (MEPZ) is a special economic zone located on GST Road, six kilometres (3.7 mi) south of Chennai International Airport. It is one of the seven export processing zones in the country set up by the central government.[38] It was established in 1984 to promote foreign direct investment, enhance foreign exchange earnings, and create greater employment opportunities in the region.[39]

The zone is under the administrative control of the Ministry of Commerce and Industries and caters to the needs of units within the SEZ, in addition to monitoring the functions of 100-percent export-oriented units (EOUs) located in Tamil Nadu, Pondicherry, and Andaman & Nicobar Islands.[40] The zone is headed by a development commissioner.

Spread over an area of 265 acres (109 hectares),[40] MEPZ SEZ is a multi-product zone housing 117 functional units.[41] In addition, another 27 units are under various stages of implementation.[41] The zone employs over 26,000 people.[40] In the manufacturing front, there are 110 SME units in the zone. MEPZ's manufacturing sector employs nearly 20,000 people.[40] IT companies housed in the zone include Cognizant Technology Solutions, Computer Sciences Corporation, CSS and HTC Global Services among others.[39] About 50 container trucks arrive at and leave the zone every day.[42]




Medieval Cholas[edit]
Dhenupureeswarar Temple[edit]

Dhenupureeswarar Temple is also known as Dhenupurisvara, and Thiripureeswarar temple. These names are colloquial name of Hindu deity Shiva. The temple is located in Madambakkam neighbourhood of the city and it was built during the reign of Parantaka Chola II (r. 962–980 CE).[43]

The garbhagriha, which is Sanskrit equivalent of sanctum sanctorum,[44] houses the primary deity Dhenupureeswara in linga form.[43] The main garbhagriha is apsidal in shape and this is a characteristic feature of Shiva Temples built during Chola Period.[45] This type of garbhagriha are known as gajaprishta vimana, where "gajaprishta" literally means "back of an elephant" in Samskrit.[46] This type of vimana here is a separate south-facing garbhagriha for the Dhenupureeswarar's Consort Goddess Dhenukambal adjacent to the main garbhagriha.

The epigraphs in the temple date to the reign of Kulottunga Chola III and Rajaraja Chola III of Chola Dynasty; Jatavarman Sundara Pandyan I of Pandya Dyanasty; Kampana Udaiyar and Devaraya II of Sangama dynasty and Sadasiva Raya of Tuluva dynasty. These epigraphs and expansions shows the continued patronage of the temple under various dyanastic rule.[43]

The temple is one of the 163 megalithic sites in the state of Tamil Nadu.[47] The temple has been declared a monument of national importance under the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Sites and Remains (amendment and validation) 2010 Act.[48] The temple has been conserved and restored by Archaeological Survey of India.[49]




The inter-state railway service is provided by Southern Railway of Indian Railways. The inter-city railway service is provided by Chennai Suburban Railway operated by Indian Railways.


The Tambaram Railway Station is one of the four main terminals located in the Chennai Metropolitan Area. The other three terminals are Chennai Central, Chennai Egmore, Chennai Beach. Similar to Chennai Egmore Station, Tambaram Railway Station provides access to destinations primarily within Tamil Nadu; however, it also handles a few interstate trains.

Chennai Suburban Railway[edit]

The Chennai Suburban Railway is a commuter rail system in the city of Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India, operated by the Indian Railways. Every day, 160 train services are operated between Chennai Beach and Tambaram, 70 between Tambaram and Chengalpet and 16 between Tambaram and Kancheepuram.[50]

The city is served by the South Line of Chennai Suburban Railway which runs between Chennai Beach to Chengalpattu. There are five stops within the City— Pallavaram, Chromepet, Tambaram Sanatorium, Tambaram, and Perungalathur. The South Line connects Tambaram with seven major interchange stations out of the eight in Chennai Suburban Railway Network.

The longest circular train in India runs through Tambaram, connecting the city with Chennai Beach, Egmore, Chengalpattu, Kanchipuram, Takkolam, Arakkonam Junction, Tiruvallur, Avadi, Ambattur, Vyasarpadi Jeeva, Washermanpet and Royapuram.

Notable places[edit]

  • Embassy splendid IT Park, Pallavaram.
  • Madras Institute of Technology, Chromepet, Pallavapuram. Former President A.P.J. Abdul Kalam was a student of this institute.[51]
  • Madras Christian College, East Tambaram.
  • Tambaram Air Force Station, Selaiyur.
  • Ranganatha Temple, Thiruneermalai, one among the 108 Divya desams.
  • Rettai Pillayar Koil, Pammal.
  • National Institute of Siddha, Kadapperi, Tambaram.
  • Government Hospital of Thoracic Medicine, Tambaram Sanatorium, Chitlapakkam.
  • Government Hospital, Chromepet, Pallavapuram.[52]
  • Airport Authority of India Signal Office, Iyyappa Nagar, Pammal.
  • Dhenupureeswarar Temple, Madambakkam.
  • Catholic Shrine of Our Lady of Fatima, East Tambaram.
  • Sankara Eye Hospital, Pammal.
  • Sri Sankara Vidyalaya Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Pammal.
  • PKS Fishmarket, Nagalkeni, Pammal.
  • Holy Family Convent Matriculation Higher Secondary School, Keelkattalai, Pallavapuram.
  • Vels Institute of Science, Technology & Advanced Studies, Pallavaram, Pallavapuram.
  • Gateway office IT park, New Perungalathur.
  • Anakaputhur Jute Weavers Association, Anakaputhur is an internationally renowned place for natural fibre fabrics.[53]
  • Velco Cinemas, Anakaputhur.
  • Ganesh Cinemas Hall, Anakaputhur.
  • Varadharaja Theatres, Chitlapakkam.
  • Vettri Theatres, Chromepet, Pallavapuram.
  • National Theatre, Tambaram.
  • Dr. Rela Institute & Medical Centre, Chromepet, Pallavapuram.
  • Royal Balaji Hospital, Chromepet, Pallavapuram.
  • Sembakkam EB children's Park, Sembakkam.
  • Sooriyamman Temple Pond and Park, Pammal.
  • Alavattamman Kovil Park, Kamarajapuram, Sembakkam.


Embassy Splendid Tech Zone, Pallavaram
MIT's newly built entrance
Perungalathur Gateway office park
Thiruneermalai Temple overlooking the temple pond

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "Chennai's southern gateway, Tambaram now a municipal corporation". The Indian Express. 5 November 2021.
  2. ^ "தாம்பரம் மாநகராட்சிக்கு அரசாணை வெளியீடு: முதல்கட்டமாக 5 நகராட்சிகள், 5 பேரூராட்சிகள் மட்டுமே இணைப்பு". 13 September 2021.
  3. ^ "தாம்பரம் மாநகராட்சிக்கான அரசாணை வெளியீடு!". 12 September 2021.
  4. ^ a b c "Tambaram, Chennai's southern gateway, now a municipal corporation". The News Minute. 5 November 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  5. ^ a b Srivathsan, A. (19 September 2013). "Indecisiveness keeps urban projects on hold". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  6. ^ a b "Ordinance issued for formation of Tambaram Corporation". DTNext.in. Archived from the original on 2 December 2021. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  7. ^ a b "Tambaram becomes the 20th municipal corporation of Tamil Nadu, Ordinance promulgated". The New Indian Express. 5 November 2021. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  8. ^ a b "Dr.Gift Siromoney's Home Page". Cmi.ac.in. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  9. ^ "How Pallavaram changed archeologists' understanding of burial in South Asia". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  10. ^ Muthiah, S. (2014). Madras Rediscovered. Chennai: EastWest. p. 145. ISBN 978-93-84030-28-5.
  11. ^ Muthiah, S. (2008). Madras: The land the people & their governance. ISBN 9788183794688.
  12. ^ a b c Muthiah, Pg 129
  13. ^ Venkat, Vaishali R. (17 July 2014). "Silent presence for 400 years". The Hindu. ISSN 0971-751X. Retrieved 16 February 2022.
  14. ^ "Now known for the airport, Tirusulam is actually an ancient, historical part of Puliyur Kottam, aka Chennai". 24 September 2018.
  15. ^ "History of Chennai Southern Suburbs". Cmi.ac.in. Retrieved 1 December 2019.
  16. ^ Kalyanaraman, M. (25 October 2011). "Migration Spurs Suburban Sprawl". The Times of India epaper. Chennai: The Times Group. Archived from the original on 18 May 2013. Retrieved 25 October 2011.
  17. ^ "Welcome to Tambaram Municipality Home Page". Municipality.tn.gov.in. 15 November 1978. Archived from the original on 9 March 2012. Retrieved 24 February 2012.
  18. ^ "After 14 years, encroachments in Nanmangalam reserve forest removed". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 16 July 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  19. ^ "Tambaram trifurcated into 3 taluks". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 18 September 2011.
  20. ^ Lopez, Aloysius Xavier (30 August 2021). "Tambaram Corporation takes shape amidst great expectations". The Hindu. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  21. ^ "Left out of upgrade plans, village panchayats irked". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  22. ^ "Rural local body polls in 9 districts on Oct. 6, 9". The Hindu. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  23. ^ a b c d e f "Gazette notification on Tambaram Municipal Corporation". The Hindu. 5 November 2021.
  24. ^ "Village panchayats' merger only in 2026". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  25. ^ "Climate of India". National Environment Agency – Singapore. Archived from the original on 6 October 2006. Retrieved 4 August 2005.
  26. ^ "Highest temperature". The Hindu. 31 May 2003. Archived from the original on 11 July 2011. Retrieved 25 April 2007.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
  27. ^ T. Ramakrishnan (3 January 2006). "Entering 2006, city's reservoirs filled to the brim". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 28 February 2007. Retrieved 4 May 2007.
  28. ^ "Normals Data". Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved 11 May 2020.
  29. ^ "Station: Chennai (Nungambakkam) Climatological Table 1981–2010" (PDF). Climatological Normals 1981–2010. India Meteorological Department. January 2015. pp. 185–186. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  30. ^ "Extremes of Temperature & Rainfall for Indian Stations (Up to 2012)" (PDF). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M192. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  31. ^ "Table 3 Monthly mean duration of Sun Shine (hours) at different locations in India" (PDF). Daily Normals of Global & Diffuse Radiation (1971–2000). India Meteorological Department. December 2016. p. M-3. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 February 2020. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  32. ^ "Chennai Climatological Table 1981–2010". India Meteorological Department. Retrieved 2 March 2020.
  33. ^ a b c d The Coimbatore City Municipal Corporation Act of 1981, Tamil Nadu Act XXV OF 1981 (1981)
  34. ^ "New Police Commissionerates in Tambaram, Avadi opened". The Hindu. January 2022.
  35. ^ "தாம்பரம் மாநகராட்சிக்கு அரசாணை வெளியீடு: முதல்கட்டமாக 5 நகராட்சிகள், 5 பேரூராட்சிகள் மட்டுமே இணைப்பு". Hindu Tamil Thisai (in Tamil). Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  36. ^ "தாம்பரம் மாநகராட்சிக்கான அரசாணை வெளியீடு!". Dinamani (in Tamil). Retrieved 5 March 2022.
  37. ^ Ayyappan, V. (25 September 2021). "Tamil Nadu: It's going to take more than a name change to make Tambaram a corporation | Chennai News – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 3 December 2021.
  38. ^ Narasimhan, T. E. (23 June 2010). "Six new SEZs to come up in TN". Business Standard. Chennai. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
  39. ^ a b "MEPZ not to allow more IT firms". Business Standard. Chennai. 29 May 2010. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
  40. ^ a b c d Menon, Ravi (8 October 2007). "MEPZ posts 25% growth in exports". Business Standard. Chennai. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
  41. ^ a b "About us". MEPZ.gov.in. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
  42. ^ "New gate at Tambaram SEZ to end traffic hassles on GST Road". The Hindu. Chennai. 24 March 2013. Retrieved 30 March 2013.
  43. ^ a b c "The Hindu : Ancient Chola temple at Madambakkam". 6 December 2003. Archived from the original on 6 December 2003. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  44. ^ Hardy, Adam (1995). Indian Temple Architecture: Form and Transformation: the Karṇāṭa Drāviḍa Tradition. Abhinav Publications. ISBN 9788170173120.
  45. ^ "Several gods adorn the walls here". The New Indian Express. Retrieved 6 March 2022.
  46. ^ Grover, Satish (1981). The Architecture of India (Buddhist and Hindu period). New Delhi: Vikas Publishing House.
  47. ^ Madhavan, D. (20 December 2012). "National Institute of Siddha modifies expansion plan". The Hindu. Chennai: The Hindu. Retrieved 23 December 2012.
  48. ^ J. V. Siva Prasanna Kumar (3 August 2012). "1,000-year-old Chola legacy draws devotees". The Asian Age. Retrieved 24 July 2014.
  49. ^ T. Ramakrishnan (2 October 2001). "Restoring past glory". The Hindu. Archived from the original on 22 January 2002. Retrieved 23 July 2014.
  50. ^ Madhavan, D (24 March 2012). "Shortage of funds derails gauge conversion works at Tambaram". The Times of India. Chennai. Archived from the original on 15 February 2013. Retrieved 31 March 2012.
  51. ^ Chandrasekhar, Chandrakala (20 December 2014). "The_Hindu-Chromepet of my childhood". The Hindu.
  52. ^ "Government Hospital, Chromepet | Chengalpattu District, Government of Tamilnadu | India". Chengalpattu.nic.in. Retrieved 19 February 2022.
  53. ^ Shekhar, Laasya (30 January 2018). "Internationally famous Anakaputhur weavers waiting for assistance in their home state". Citizen Matters, Chennai. Retrieved 16 February 2022.