Page semi-protected

Chick-fil-A

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Chick-fil-A, Inc.
Formerly
  • Dwarf Grill
  • Dwarf House
TypePrivate
IndustryRestaurants
FoundedMay 23, 1946; 76 years ago (1946-05-23) in Hapeville, Georgia, U.S.
FounderS. Truett Cathy
Headquarters5200 Buffington Road, Atlanta, Georgia,
United States
Number of locations
2,873[1]
Area served
  • United States
  • Canada
Key people
ProductsSandwiches, chicken dishes
RevenueIncreaseUS$11.3 billion (2019)[2][3]
OwnerCathy family
Number of employees
35,574 as of August 2021[4]
Websitechick-fil-a.com
chick-fil-a.ca
chick-fil-a.pr

Chick-fil-A (/ɪkfɪˈl/ chik-fil-AY, a play on the American English pronunciation of "filet") is one of the largest American fast food restaurant chains[3] and the largest specializing in chicken sandwiches.[5] The company is headquartered in College Park, Georgia.[6] Chick-fil-A operates 2,873 restaurants, primarily in the United States. The chain has locations in 49 states, the District of Columbia, and Puerto Rico.[1] The company also has operations in Canada, and previously had restaurants in the United Kingdom and South Africa. The restaurant serves breakfast before transitioning to its lunch and dinner menu. Chick-fil-A also offers customers catered selections from its menu for special events.[7]

Many of the company's values are influenced by the Christian religious beliefs of its late founder, S. Truett Cathy (1921–2014), a devout Southern Baptist. Reflecting a commitment to Sunday Sabbatarianism, all Chick-fil-A restaurants are closed for business on Sundays,[8][9] as well as on Thanksgiving and Christmas Day;[10] to honor the Western Christian liturgical season of Lent, Chick-fil-A promotes fish sandwiches in respect of abstinence from meat that characterizes that part of the Church Year.[11][12] The company's conservative opposition to same-sex marriage has been the subject of public controversy, though the company has begun to loosen its stance on this issue.[13]

History

Chick-fil-A headquarters in College Park, Georgia

The chain's origin can be traced to the Dwarf Grill (now the Dwarf House), a restaurant opened by S. Truett Cathy, the chain's former chairman and CEO, in 1946. The restaurant is located in Hapeville, Georgia, a suburb of Atlanta,[14] and is near the location of the now-demolished Ford Motor Company Atlanta Assembly Plant, for many years a source of many of the restaurant's patrons.[citation needed]

In 1961, after 15 years in the fast food business, Cathy found a pressure-fryer that could cook the chicken sandwich in the same amount of time it took to cook a fast-food hamburger.[15] Following this discovery, he registered the name Chick-fil-A, Inc. The company's trademarked slogan, "We Didn't Invent the Chicken, Just the Chicken Sandwich,"[16] refers to their flagship menu item, the Chick-fil-A chicken sandwich. Though Chick-Fil-A was the first national chain to make a quick-service, fried chicken sandwich its flagship item, several sources have demonstrated that Cathy's much broader claim to have "invented the chicken sandwich," which is referenced in the company's slogan and has been repeatedly featured in press materials, is untrue.[17]

From 1964 to 1967, the sandwich was licensed to over fifty eateries, including Waffle House and the concession stands of the new Houston Astrodome.[18][19] The Chick-Fil-A sandwich was withdrawn from sale at other restaurants when the first standalone location opened in 1967, in the food court of the Greenbriar Mall in Atlanta.[14]

During the 1970s and early 1980s, the chain expanded by opening new locations in suburban malls' food courts.[20] The first freestanding location was opened April 16, 1986, on North Druid Hills Road in Atlanta, Georgia,[21] and the company began to focus more on this stand-alone type unit rather than on the food court type. Although it has expanded outward from its original geographic base, most new restaurants are located in Southern suburban areas.[14]

Since 1997, the Atlanta-based company has been the title sponsor of the Peach Bowl, an annual college football bowl game played in Atlanta on New Year's Eve. Chick-fil-A also is a key sponsor of the SEC and the ACC of college athletics.[22]

In 2008, Chick-fil-A became the first fast-food restaurant to become completely trans-fat free.[23]

In October 2015, the company opened a three-story 5,000 square feet (460 m2) restaurant in Manhattan that became the largest free-standing Chick-fil-A in the country at that time.[24][25]

Sign posted at the Spotsylvania Towne Centre Chick-fil-A location in Fredericksburg, Virginia. Chick-fil-A Sauce was invented at this location in 1983.[26][27]

On December 17, 2017, Chick-fil-A broke their tradition and opened on a Sunday to prepare meals for passengers left stranded during the power outage at Atlanta Hartsfield-Jackson International Airport,[28] and on January 13, 2019, a Chick-fil-A franchise in Mobile, Alabama, opened on Sunday to honor a birthday wish of a 14-year-old boy with cerebral palsy and autism.[29]

Business model

Chick-fil-A in Hillsboro, Oregon, formerly a Newport Bay restaurant. This unit opened in March 2016 and was the first in Oregon to open in over a decade.

Chick-fil-A's business strategy involves a focus on a small menu and on customer service.[30] While many fast food chains often expand their menu offerings to attempt to attract new customers, Chick-fil-A's business model is to remain focused on selling chicken sandwiches.[30] The name capital A is meant to indicate that their chicken is "grade A top quality".[31] In addition, an emphasis on customer service has allowed Chick-fil-A to consistently lead the fast food industry in customer satisfaction.[32][33] These factors are seen as the reason for Chick-fil-A's massive growth in the United States.[30][32]

Chick-fil-A retains ownership of each restaurant. Chick-fil-A selects the restaurant location and builds it.[34] Chick-fil-A franchisees need only a $10,000 initial investment to become an operator.[35] Each operator is handpicked and goes through a rigorous training program; the interviews plus training can take months and is not an easy process. Chick-fil-A states on their site:

"This is not the right opportunity for you if you:

  • Are seeking a passive investment in a business.
  • Want to sell property to Chick-fil-A, Inc.
  • Are requesting that Chick-fil-A, Inc. build at a specified location.
  • Are seeking multi-unit franchise opportunities."[36]

Chick-fil-A grossed an average of $4.8 million per restaurant in 2016, despite opening only 6 days a week, the highest sales of all fast food restaurants in the United States. (Whataburger was second with $2.7 million per restaurant average).[37]

In 2019, Chick-fil-A reported $11.3 billion in sales in the United States, behind only McDonald's with $40.4 billion in sales in 2019.[38][39][40]

To respond to the aforementioned success and market dominance Chick-fil-A, competing fried chicken chain Popeyes introduced a fried chicken sandwich, starting the Chicken Sandwich Wars, with many more companies eventually following Popeyes.

Corporate culture

S. Truett Cathy was a devout Southern Baptist; his religious beliefs had a major impact on the company.[41] The company's official statement of corporate purpose says that the business exists "To glorify God by being a faithful steward of all that is entrusted to us. To have a positive influence on all who come in contact with Chick-fil-A."[42] Cathy opposed the company becoming public for religious and personal reasons.[43]

Their website states, "The Chick-fil-A culture and service tradition in our Restaurants is to treat every person with honor, dignity and respect –regardless of their belief, race, creed, sexual orientation or gender."[44]

Sunday closure

The founder's beliefs are responsible for the chain's most well-known and distinctive feature: in accordance with the Christian doctrine of first-day Sabbatarianism, all Chick-fil-A locations (both corporate owned and franchised) are closed on Sundays,[9][45] as well as on Thanksgiving and Christmas.[46] Cathy states as the final step in his Five-Step recipe for Business Success "I was not so committed to financial success that I was willing to abandon my principles and priorities. One of the most visible examples of this is our decision to close on Sunday. Our decision to close on Sunday was our way of honoring God and of directing our attention to things that mattered more than our business."[47]

In an interview with ABC News's Nightline, Truett's son Dan T. Cathy told reporter Vicki Mabrey that the company is also closed on Sundays because "by the time Sunday came, he was just worn out. And Sunday was not a big trading day, anyway, at the time. So he was closed that first Sunday and we've been closed ever since. He figured if he didn't like working on Sundays, that other people didn't either." The younger Cathy also quoted his father as saying, "I don't want to ask people to do that what I am not willing to do myself."[48]

Chick-fil-A's Sunday closures extend to non-traditional locations. In addition to countless shopping malls and airports, a Chick-fil-A location at Mercedes-Benz Stadium in Atlanta is closed on Sundays despite the fact that its main tenant, the Atlanta Falcons, plays most of their home games on Sundays. The location is open when the Falcons have a Monday night, Thursday night or Saturday home game, as well as non-Sunday home games of Atlanta United FC and other events at the stadium. The Chick-fil-A remained closed for Super Bowl LIII. On Sundays, the digital signs are flipped and concessionaire Levy Restaurants sells nonbranded food and drinks at the location.[49]

Lenten observance

To honor the Western Christian liturgical season of Lent, Chick-fil-A promotes fish sandwiches in respect of the fact that this part of the Church Year is associated with the Friday Fast, with many practicing Christian vegetarianism throughout all the forty days of Lent.[11][12]

Serving chicken without antibiotics

According to the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), antibiotics used in livestock, many of which are also used to treat humans, have contributed to the rise of dangerous bacteria. In December 2012, the FDA announced plans to phase out certain antibiotics in the food production industry.[50]

In February 2014, Chick-fil-A announced plans to serve chicken raised without antibiotics in its restaurants nationwide within five years. Chick-fil-A was the first quick service restaurant to set forth a plan and commit to serving only poultry raised without antibiotics.[51] They achieved this goal in May 2019.[52]

Recipe changes

In 2011, food blogger and activist Vani Hari wrote a post titled "Chick-fil-A or Chemical Fil-A?" on her website, FoodBabe.com. She asserted that Chick-fil-A sandwiches contained nearly 100 ingredients, including peanut oil with TBHQ.[53] In October 2012, Chick-fil-A invited Hari to meet with company executives at its headquarters.[54] In December 2013, Chick-fil-A notified Hari that it had eliminated the dye Yellow No. 5 and had reduced the sodium content in its chicken soup. The company also said that it is testing a peanut oil that does not contain TBHQ and that it would start testing sauces and dressings made without high-fructose corn syrup in 2014.[54][needs update]

International locations

Canada

Chick-fil-A at One Bloor in Toronto.

In September 1994, Chick-fil-A opened its first location outside of the United States inside a student center food court at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada.[55] This location did not perform very well and was closed within two or three years.[citation needed] The company returned to the province of Alberta by opening an outlet at the Calgary International Airport in Calgary in May 2014.[56][57] This restaurant closed in 2019.[58][59]

In July 2018, Chick-fil-A announced plans to expand within Canada by opening a new restaurant in Toronto, Ontario, in 2019.[60] That location opened on September 6, 2019 in the Yonge and Bloor Street area, marked by protests criticizing the company's violation of animal rights and "history of supporting anti-LGBTQ causes".[61] Chick-fil-A announced that it would open two other locations in Toronto during 2019, and 12 additional stores in the Greater Toronto Area over the subsequent five years.[62] The chain's second Toronto location opened at the Yorkdale Shopping Centre in January 2020.[63]

The company expanded to other areas of Ontario in 2021, opening standalone locations with drive-thrus in Kitchener and Windsor, in August and October respectively.[64][65]

South Africa

In August 1996, Chick-fil-A opened its first location outside of North America by building a restaurant in Durban, South Africa.[66] A second location was opened in Johannesburg in November 1997.[67] Since neither of the South African locations was profitable, both of these locations were closed in 2001.[68]

United Kingdom

A Chick-fil-A operated in Edinburgh during Spring 2018.[69] On October 10, 2019, Chick-fil-A returned to Europe, with the opening of a store at The Oracle shopping centre in Reading, UK.[70] The store closed in March 2020 after The Oracle opted not to continue the lease of the location beyond the six-month pilot period in the face of continued protests over the chain's anti-LGBTQ stance.[71]

In February 2019, Chick-fil-A opened a store on a 12-month pilot scheme in Aviemore, Scotland. The store was closed in January 2020 amidst protest and controversy from locals and customers regarding the chain's former donations to charities supporting anti-LGBT rights causes. The reason for closing however was not the controversy (only 1,000 signatures were gained in a petition) but the pop-up nature of the experiment and the competition from more established outlets.[72]

Planned locations

In July 2018, Chick-fil-A announced it would be opening its first location in Hawaii in Kahului in early 2022, with additional locations in Honolulu and Kapoleo to follow.[73] In December 2020, it was announced the company would open a new location in Puerto Rico.[74] The first Puerto Rican location opened on March 3, 2022 in Bayamón.

Advertising

Chick-fil-A trucks displaying the "Eat Mor Chikin" slogan

"Eat Mor Chikin" is the chain's most prominent advertising slogan, created by The Richards Group in 1995.[8] The slogan is often seen in advertisements, featuring Holstein dairy cows[75] that are often seen wearing (or holding) signs that (usually) read "Eat Mor Chikin" in all capital letters. The ad campaign was temporarily halted on January 1, 2004 during a mad cow disease scare, so as not to make the chain seem insensitive or appear to be taking advantage of the scare to increase its sales. Two months later, the cows were put up again.[citation needed] The cows replaced the chain's old mascot, Doodles, an anthropomorphized chicken who still appears as the C on the logo.[76][77]

Chick-fil-A vigorously protects its intellectual property, sending cease and desist letters to those they think have infringed on their trademarks.[78] The corporation has successfully protested at least 30 instances of the use of an "eat more" phrase, saying that the use would cause confusion of the public, dilute the distinctiveness of their intellectual property, and diminish its value.[79]

A 2011 letter to Vermont artist Bo Muller-Moore who screen prints T-shirts reading: "Eat More Kale" demanded that he cease printing the shirts and turn over his website.[80] The incident drew criticism from Vermont governor Peter Shumlin, and created backlash against what he termed Chick-fil-A's "corporate bullying."[81] On December 11, 2014, Bo Muller-Moore announced that the U.S. Patent Office granted his application to trademark his "Eat More Kale" phrase. A formal announcement of his victory took place on December 12, 2014, with Shumlin and other supporters on the Statehouse steps. His public fight drew regional and national attention, the support of Shumlin, and a team of pro-bono law students from the University of New Hampshire legal clinic.[82]

After 22 years with The Richards Group, Chick-fil-A switched to McCann New York in 2016. Along with the cows, ads included famous people in history in a campaign called "Chicken for Breakfast. It's not as crazy as you think."[83]

Chick-fil-A Classic
The Chick-fil-A Classic is a high school basketball tournament held in Columbia, South Carolina, featuring nationally ranked players and teams.[84][85] The tournament is co-sponsored by the Greater Columbia Educational Advancement Foundation (GCEAF), which provides scholarships to high school seniors in the greater Columbia area.[needs update]
Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl
The Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl, first known as the Peach Bowl until 2006 and renamed Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl in 2014, is a college football bowl game played each year in Atlanta, Georgia.[86]
Chick-fil-A Kickoff Game
The Chick-fil-A Kickoff Game is an annual early-season college football game played at the Mercedes-Benz Stadium in Atlanta, Georgia; before 2017, it was played at the Georgia Dome. It features two highly ranked teams, one of which has always been from the Southeastern Conference. In the 2012 season and again in the 2014 season, the event was expanded to two games. It was also two games in 2017.
Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl Challenge
The Chick-fil-A Peach Bowl Challenge is a premier head coach and celebrity pro-am held each April at Reynold's Plantation on Lake Oconee.[citation needed]

Controversies

Same-sex marriage

Chick-fil-A has donated over $5 million, via the WinShape Foundation, to groups that oppose same-sex marriage.[87][88][89] In response, students at several colleges and universities worked to ban or remove the company's restaurants from their campuses.[90][91][92]

In June and July 2012, Chick-fil-A's chief operating officer Dan T. Cathy made several public statements about same-sex marriage, saying that those who "have the audacity to define what marriage is about" were "inviting God's judgment on our nation".[93] Several prominent politicians expressed disapproval.[94] Boston Mayor Thomas Menino and Chicago Alderman Proco "Joe" Moreno said they hoped to block franchise expansion into their areas.[95] The proposed bans drew criticism from liberal pundits, legal experts, and the American Civil Liberties Union.[96] The Jim Henson Company, which had a Pajanimals kids' meal toy licensing arrangement with Chick-fil-A, said it would cease its business relationship, and donate the payment to the Gay & Lesbian Alliance Against Defamation.[97] Chick-fil-A stopped distributing the toys, claiming that unrelated safety concerns had arisen prior to the controversy.[98] Chick-fil-A released a statement on July 31, 2012, saying, "We are a restaurant company focused on food, service, and hospitality; our intent is to leave the policy debate over same-sex marriage to the government and political arena."[99]

In response to the controversy, former Arkansas Governor Mike Huckabee initiated a Chick-fil-A Appreciation Day movement to counter a boycott of Chick-fil-A launched by same-sex marriage activists. Many of the chain's stores reported record levels of customers that day.[100][101][102] The United States Federal Aviation Administration also responded to two cities that were preventing Chick-fil-A from opening in their international airport, citing "Federal requirements prohibit airport operators from excluding persons on the basis of religious creed from participating in airport activities that receive or benefit from FAA grant funding."[103]

In April 2018, Chick-fil-A reportedly continued to donate to the Fellowship of Christian Athletes, which opposes gay marriage.[8][104][105] In a November 18, 2019 interview, Chick-fil-A president Tim Tassopoulos said the company would stop donating to The Salvation Army and the Fellowship of Christian Athletes.[106][107]

Drive-through traffic

The popularity of Chick-fil-A's drive-throughs in the United States has led to traffic problems, police interventions, and complaints by neighboring businesses in more than 20 states. The long drive-through lines have been reported to cause traffic backups, blocking emergency vehicles and city buses and increasing the risk of collisions and pedestrian injuries.[108][109][110]

Related restaurants

Hapeville Dwarf House

Truett Cathy opened his first restaurant in 1946, The Dwarf Grill – later renamed the Dwarf House – in Hapeville, Georgia, and developed the pressure-cooked chicken breast sandwich there.[14] At the original Chick-fil-A Dwarf Grill, in addition to the full-size entrances, there is also an extra small-sized front door.[111] The original Dwarf House in Hapeville, Georgia is open 24 hours a day, six days a week, except on Sundays, Thanksgiving, and Christmas. The store closes at 10:00 p.m. on Saturday nights, and the day before Thanksgiving and Christmas and reopens at 6 a.m. on Monday mornings and the day after Thanksgiving and Christmas. It has a larger dine-in menu than the other Dwarf House locations as well as an animated seven dwarfs display in the back of the restaurant.[111] It was across the street from the former Ford Motor Company factory called Atlanta Assembly.

Dwarf House

Opened in 1986, Truett's original, full-service restaurants offer a substantial menu and provide customers a choice of table service, walk-up counter service or a drive-thru window. There are currently five of the original eleven Chick-fil-A Dwarf House restaurants still operating in the metro Atlanta area, including Duluth, Riverdale, Jonesboro, Forest Park and Fayetteville.[14]

Truett's Grill

In 1996, the first Truett's Grill was opened in Morrow, Georgia. The second location opened in 2003 in McDonough, Georgia, and a third location opened in 2006 in Griffin, Georgia.[112] Similar to the Chick-fil-A Dwarf Houses, these independently owned restaurants offer traditional, sit-down dining and expanded menu selections in a diner-themed restaurant.[113][114][115] In 2017, Chick-fil-A demolished several Dwarf House locations to replace them with Truett's Grill locations.[116][117]

Truett's Chick-fil-A

Truett's Chick-fil-A is designed in honor of founder S. Truett Cathy. The restaurant is decorated with family photos and favorite quotes of the restaurant founder. The restaurant offers drive-thru, counter, and sit-down service. The restaurant offers breakfast, lunch and dinner. There are four locations including Newnan, Rome, Stockbridge, and Woodstock, Georgia.[118][119]

Truett's Luau

Truett Cathy visited Hawaii and loved the experience so much that he wanted to bring Hawaii to Fayetteville Georgia. At the age of 92 he opened Truett's Luau in 2013.[citation needed] The menu includes island favorites with a southern spin. The restaurant offers sit down, counter and drive-thru service.

Senior leadership

Chick-fil-A has been run by the Cathy family since the restaurant chain's founding in 1946; it is currently being led by the third-generation of the Cathy family.[120]

List of chairmen

  1. S. Truett Cathy (1946–2013)
  2. Dan Cathy (2013– )

List of chief executives

  1. S. Truett Cathy (1946–2013)
  2. Dan Cathy (2013–2021)
  3. Andrew T. Cathy (2021– )

Menu

Based on data from 2018, the most popular (most ordered) item was the waffle fries followed by soft drinks, chicken nuggets, and the original chicken sandwich.[121] These items should be available at every franchise location with some locations offering the full menu or close to the full menu. The full list of menu items and nutrition information can be found on Chick-fil-A's website.[122]

See also

References

  1. ^ a b "Number of Chick-Fil-A locations in the United States". ScrapeHero. Archived from the original on June 16, 2021. Retrieved May 9, 2021.
  2. ^ Forbes.com Archived September 17, 2021, at the Wayback Machine.
  3. ^ a b Ravneberg, Christi (June 25, 2019). "Inside Chick-fil-A's rise to 3rd-largest restaurant brand". Nations Restaurant News. Archived from the original on June 26, 2019. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  4. ^ "Chick-fil-a about-us". Archived from the original on September 3, 2021. Retrieved September 3, 2021.
  5. ^ Ravneberg, Christi (June 25, 2019). "Dominating the chicken market". Nations Restaurant News. Archived from the original on September 21, 2019. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  6. ^ Beile, Kelly Anne (March 8, 2018). "Hurry to Chick-fil-A now for free breakfast". KFOX-TV. Archived from the original on June 25, 2019. Retrieved June 25, 2019.
  7. ^ "Chick-fil-A Operator Website - Home Page". www.cfarestaurant.com. Archived from the original on March 4, 2011. Retrieved October 6, 2017.
  8. ^ a b c Piepenbring, Dan (April 13, 2018). "Chick-fil-A's Creepy Infiltration of New York City". Archived from the original on April 13, 2018. Retrieved April 16, 2018 – via www.newyorker.com.
  9. ^ a b Adkins, Cooper (November 6, 2019). "New Kanye West album shocks listeners". The Georgetonian. CXXXVIV (20): 8.
  10. ^ "About Chick-fil-A". Chick-fil-A. Archived from the original on January 11, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
  11. ^ a b Meyer, Zlati (March 7, 2019). "Chick-fil-A serves up fish sandwiches for Lent, now through April 20". USA Today. Archived from the original on October 30, 2020. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  12. ^ a b Puhak, Janine (March 3, 2020). "Chick-fil-A brings back limited-edition fish sandwich for Lent". The Independent. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved February 20, 2021.
  13. ^ Heil, Emily (November 18, 2019). "Chick-fil-A drops donations that angered LGBTQ groups, and conservative leaders cry betrayal". The Washington Post. Retrieved September 1, 2022.
  14. ^ a b c d e "Company Fact Sheet". Chick-fil-A. Archived from the original on November 11, 2016. Retrieved July 30, 2012. Headquarters Chick-fil-A, Inc. 5200 Buffington Road Atlanta, GA 30349-2998
  15. ^ Nickerson, Michelle & Dochuk, Darren (2011). Sunbelt Rising: The Politics of Place, Space, and Region. University of Pennsylvania Press. p. 295. ISBN 978-0812243093. Archived from the original on January 1, 2014. Retrieved November 1, 2011.
  16. ^ "We Didn't Invent the Chicken, Just the Chicken Sandwich: Detailed trademark information from the official US federal trademark database (USPTO)". Markify. Archived from the original on January 12, 2012. Retrieved November 1, 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  17. ^ "[Hungry for History] Chick-Fil-A Didn't Create the Fried Chicken Sandwich • EBONY". August 23, 2019. Archived from the original on August 31, 2021. Retrieved June 8, 2021.
  18. ^ McConnell, Akila Sankar (2019). A Culinary History of Atlanta. Arcadia Publishing. p. 114. ISBN 9781467141239.
  19. ^ Robinson, Steve (2019). Covert Cows and Chick-fil-A: How Faith, Cows, and Chicken Built an Iconic Brand. Thomas Nelson. p. 13. ISBN 9781400213191. Archived from the original on December 7, 2021. Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  20. ^ Grem, Darren (March 8, 2012). "The World of Chick-Fil-A and the Business of Sunbelt Evangelicalism". Southern Spaces. doi:10.18737/M7QW2S. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved August 2, 2012.
  21. ^ "North Druid Hills FSU". Chick-fil-A. Archived from the original on November 23, 2015. Retrieved January 5, 2016.
  22. ^ Odesser-Torpey, Marilyn. "Reaching Out to NASCAR Nation". QSR. Archived from the original on October 28, 2007.
  23. ^ "No Trans Fats on Chick-fil-A Menu". Quick Serve Restaurant. Vol. 24, no. 10. October 9, 2008. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 18, 2015.
  24. ^ Taylor, Kate (August 10, 2015). "The Country's Largest Chick-fil-A Will Open in New York City in October". Entrepreneur. Archived from the original on August 13, 2015. Retrieved August 21, 2015.
  25. ^ "Chick-fil-A opening its largest outpost in New York City". CBS News. October 2, 2015. Archived from the original on April 16, 2020. Retrieved April 16, 2020.
  26. ^ "Serendipitous Sauce: The Chick-fil-A Sauce Story". Chick-fil-A. June 23, 2015. Archived from the original on March 25, 2020. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  27. ^ LANCE-STAR, CATHY JETT THE FREE. "Discover magazine: Chick-fil-A's most popular sauce originated in Spotsylvania". Fredericksburg.com. Archived from the original on July 27, 2020. Retrieved March 30, 2020.
  28. ^ Staff, AOL. "Chick-fil-A broke tradition and opened on a Sunday for the most heartwarming reason". AOL.com. Archived from the original on March 23, 2018. Retrieved March 22, 2018.
  29. ^ McKinley Corbley (January 16, 2019). "Chick-Fil-A Opened On a Sunday in Order to Grant the Birthday Wish of a Boy With Special Needs". GoodNewsNetwork. Archived from the original on January 23, 2019. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  30. ^ a b c "Chick-fil-A's Lean Menu Helps Chain Bulk Up". The Wall Street Journal. May 8, 2019. Archived from the original on May 9, 2019. Retrieved May 9, 2019.
  31. ^ "Who We Are". Chick Fil A. Chick fil A. Archived from the original on April 18, 2018. Retrieved July 8, 2019.
  32. ^ a b "Chick-fil-A is dominating the fast-food industry in one key area and it reveals the secret to the chain's success". Business Insider. July 5, 2018. Archived from the original on May 9, 2019. Retrieved May 9, 2019. Chick-fil-A's reliably impressive customer service scores have played a major role in the chain's explosive growth
  33. ^ "Study: Chick-fil-A Has the Most Satisfied Customers". SQR Magazine. June 2018. Archived from the original on May 9, 2019. Retrieved May 9, 2019.
  34. ^ "Company Fact Sheet". Chick-fil-A. Archived from the original on November 11, 2016. Retrieved March 24, 2012.
  35. ^ Norman, Jan (August 7, 2012). "Franchises weather Chick-fil-A's controversy". The Orange County Register. p. Business 2. Archived from the original on March 9, 2017. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  36. ^ "Own Your Future: Franchising and Licensing". Chick-fil-A. Archived from the original on November 12, 2017. Retrieved November 11, 2017.
  37. ^ "The 2017 QSR 50". Archived from the original on August 4, 2017. Retrieved August 3, 2017.
  38. ^ Taylor, Kate. "Chick-fil-A is the third-largest fast-food chain in America, and that should terrify Wendy's and Burger King". Business Insider. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
  39. ^ Sugar, Rachel (December 20, 2018). "Chick-fil-A's controversial politics haven't stopped it from becoming one of the biggest fast-food chains in America". Vox. Retrieved January 20, 2022.
  40. ^ The Washington Post https://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2019/06/19/chick-fil-a-becomes-third-largest-restaurant-chain-us/. {{cite news}}: Missing or empty |title= (help)CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  41. ^ "The World's Billionaires, No. 655 S. Truett Cathy". Forbes. March 10, 2010. Archived from the original on October 24, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
  42. ^ "Executive Biographies: Dan T. Cathy, President and Chief Operating Officer". Chick-fil-A. Archived from the original on March 9, 2012. Retrieved March 23, 2012.
  43. ^ Taylor, Kate. "Why Chick-fil-A will never go public". Business Insider. Archived from the original on June 16, 2020. Retrieved April 25, 2020.
  44. ^ "FAQs: Current News". Chick-fil-A. Archived from the original on August 20, 2012.
  45. ^ "Chick-fil-A's Closed-on-Sunday Policy" (PDF) (Press release). Chick-fil-A. 2009. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 29, 2011. Retrieved July 29, 2012.
  46. ^ "Chick-fil-A". Chick-fil-A. Archived from the original on June 1, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
  47. ^ "About Truett". truettcathy.com. Archived from the original on May 7, 2009. Retrieved May 26, 2009.
  48. ^ Mabrey, Vicki & Marsh, Mary (September 23, 2009). "Nightline(ABC-TV) presents: Chik-fil-A Wins Customers ... by closing". ABC News. Archived from the original on December 28, 2010. Retrieved September 19, 2010.
  49. ^ Wagner-McGough, Sean (August 16, 2017). "The Falcons' billion-dollar stadium will have a Chick-fil-A that's almost never open". CBS Sports. Archived from the original on August 21, 2017. Retrieved August 30, 2017.
  50. ^ Landau, Elizabeth (February 12, 2014). "Chick-fil-A to serve antibiotic-free chicken". CNN. Archived from the original on February 22, 2014. Retrieved February 13, 2014.
  51. ^ "Chick-fil-A to Serve Antibiotic-Free Chicken". Restaurant News. February 11, 2014. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved March 5, 2014.
  52. ^ "No Antibiotics Ever". Chick-fil-A. Archived from the original on August 8, 2021. Retrieved August 22, 2021.
  53. ^ Choi, Candice (December 3, 2013). "Getting the dye out; Chick-fil-A cleans up buns and sauces". NBC News. Archived from the original on May 4, 2020. Retrieved May 4, 2020.
  54. ^ a b Strom, Stephanie (December 31, 2013). "Social Media as a Megaphone to Pressure the Food Industry". The New York Times. Archived from the original on March 1, 2014. Retrieved February 12, 2014.
  55. ^ Vesey, Susannah (August 25, 1994). "Outlet in Canada to open Sept. 8". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. p. F/3. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved September 9, 2018. In another new venture, Chick-fil-A will open its first Canadian outlet on Sept. 8 in the student center food court at the University of Alberta in Edmonton. The unit, which will serve a limited menu, will be run under a license agreement by the Canadian company Versa Services. Alternate link via NewsBank.
  56. ^ Robertson, Dylan (May 29, 2014). "U.S. fast-food chain Chick-fil-A opens Canadian franchise, talks down gay marriage controversy". Calgary Herald. Archived from the original on January 10, 2019. Retrieved January 27, 2019.
  57. ^ "YYC > Traveller Info > Shopping, Dining & Services > Dining". www.yyc.com. Archived from the original on September 8, 2017. Retrieved September 7, 2017.
  58. ^ Gladysz, Kayla (September 6, 2019). "Protesters surround opening of Chick-fil-A's first Canadian location". Daily Hive. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  59. ^ "Canada's first Chick-fil-A opens to protests over owner's record on gay issues". The Chilliwack Progress. September 6, 2019. Archived from the original on June 14, 2021. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  60. ^ "U.S. fast food brand Chick-fil-A announces plans for Canadian expansion". CBC. July 25, 2018. Archived from the original on November 7, 2018. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  61. ^ Warren, May (September 6, 2019). "Protesters rally at Chick-fil-A opening in Toronto over owner's record on LGBTQ issues". Toronto Star. Archived from the original on September 12, 2019. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  62. ^ Tobin, Ben (July 25, 2018). "Chick-fil-A starts its international expansion in Toronto next year". USA Today. Retrieved March 25, 2021.
  63. ^ "Chick-fil-A is opening its second Toronto location next week". www.blogto.com. January 3, 2020. Retrieved April 12, 2022.
  64. ^ "Chick-fil-A franchise to open in Kitchener on Saturday | Globalnews.ca". Global News. August 3, 2021. Retrieved April 12, 2022.
  65. ^ "Chick-fil-A opens Windsor location with long lines and small protest". windsorstar. October 29, 2021. Retrieved April 12, 2022.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: url-status (link)
  66. ^ "Business in brief - Chick-fil-A in Africa". Atlanta Journal-Constitution. July 13, 1996. p. C3. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018. Retrieved September 9, 2018. Chick-fil-A Inc. will open its first restaurant outside North America in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal, next month. The Atlanta-based company said it granted DanCor Investments Pty Ltd., a family-owned South African company, exclusive rights to develop and operate 50 stores in southern Africa, of which 20 to 30 will be built in South Africa. Danie van den Heever, DanCor's founder and chairman, was named chief executive of Chick-fil-A Southern Africa, a new company formed to hold and operate the chicken franchise. Alternate Link via NewsBank.
  67. ^ "Atlanta-Based Chick-Fil-A to Open Second South African Location". The Atlanta Journal and Constitution. October 11, 1997. Archived from the original on September 9, 2018 – via Highbeam Research.
  68. ^ "Chick-fil-A CEO Dan Cathy regrets embroiling family chain in gay rights debate". Toledo Blade. March 30, 2014. Archived from the original on November 15, 2018. Retrieved September 9, 2018.
  69. ^ Murphy, Sean (April 24, 2018). "US restaurant chain Chick-Fil-A eye up Edinburgh following recent successful pop-up". Scotsman Food and Drink. Archived from the original on October 21, 2019. Retrieved October 21, 2019.
  70. ^ Hansen, James (October 14, 2019). "Cult-Followed Anti-LGBTQ Fried Chicken Restaurant Chick-fil-A Makes U.K. Debut". Eater London. Archived from the original on October 14, 2019. Retrieved October 14, 2019.
  71. ^ "Reading Chick-fil-A outlet to close in LGBT rights row". BBC. October 18, 2019. Archived from the original on October 19, 2019. Retrieved October 18, 2019.
  72. ^ "Controversial fast-food chain Chick Fil A closes Scots outlet". STV News. January 21, 2020. Archived from the original on January 27, 2020. Retrieved January 22, 2020.
  73. ^ "Chik-fil-A is Coming to Hawaii". Chicken Wire. Archived from the original on August 23, 2021. Retrieved August 23, 2021.
  74. ^ "Chick-fil-A making a push into Puerto Rico". Food Business News. Archived from the original on December 29, 2020. Retrieved December 30, 2020.
  75. ^ "Why does Chick-fil-A use dairy cows on its advertising?". Chick-fil-A. Archived from the original on August 20, 2012. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
  76. ^ "20 Things You Didn't Know About Chick-fil-A". thedailymeal.com. The Daily Meal Staff. April 25, 2019. Archived from the original on April 15, 2020. Retrieved March 11, 2020.
  77. ^ Collier, Joe Guy (July 9, 2008). "Dress-as-a-cow day reflects Chick-fil-A's 'have fun' culture". The Atlanta Journal-Constitution. Archived from the original on July 14, 2008.
  78. ^ Pedicini, Sandra (May 13, 2010). "Chick-fil-A cries fowl over Eat More Produce". Orlando Sentinel. Archived from the original on February 23, 2015. Retrieved February 23, 2015.
  79. ^ Ring, Wilson (November 28, 2011). "Eat more kale: A David vs. Goliath fight with Chick-fil-A?". The Christian Science Monitor. Archived from the original on December 2, 2011. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  80. ^ Carapezza, Kirk (December 2, 2011). "In Vermont, Fighting for the Rights To 'Eat More'". Vermont Public Radio. Archived from the original on December 14, 2012. Retrieved December 4, 2011.
  81. ^ Bidgood, Jess (December 4, 2011). "Chicken Chain Says Stop, but T-Shirt Maker Balks". The New York Times. Archived from the original on September 1, 2017. Retrieved February 26, 2017.
  82. ^ Ring, Wilson (December 12, 2014). "Man celebrates his new 'eat more kale' trademark". WHDH. Archived from the original on December 12, 2014. Retrieved December 12, 2014.
  83. ^ Wohl, Jessica (August 1, 2016). "No Sacred Cows: Why Chick-fil-A parted ways with The Richards Group after 22 years". Advertising Age. 87 (15): 18–20.
  84. ^ "Welcome to 8th Annual Chick-Fil-A Classic.com". Chick-fil-aclassic.com. Archived from the original on February 12, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
  85. ^ "GCEAF". Chick-Fil-A Classic. Archived from the original on March 31, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
  86. ^ "Host Bowl of the College Football Playoff". Discover Atlanta. Archived from the original on October 26, 2020. Retrieved June 19, 2020.
  87. ^ McWhirter, Cameron (July 27, 2012). "Chick-fil-A's Long Christian Heritage". The Wall Street Journal. Archived from the original on August 5, 2018. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  88. ^ Winters, Rosemary (November 10, 2011). "Sugar House protesters say Chick-fil-A is anti-gay". The Salt Lake Tribune. Archived from the original on March 4, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  89. ^ Boucly, Chris (July 24, 2012). "Gay youths plan protest against Chick-fil-A". The Orange County Register. Archived from the original on July 27, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
  90. ^ Windmeyer, Shane L. (January 28, 2013). "Dan and Me: My Coming Out as a Friend of Dan Cathy and Chick-fil-A". Huffington Post. Archived from the original on September 25, 2015. Retrieved October 23, 2015.
  91. ^ Schlanger, Zoë (March 5, 2012). "NYU Decided To Keep "Homophobic" Chick-fil-A Long Before Petition Launched". NYU Local. Archived from the original on September 8, 2016. Retrieved March 6, 2019.
  92. ^ Rocheleau, Matt (February 28, 2012). "Northeastern cancels Chick-fil-A plans after student group denounces chain". Boston Globe. Archived from the original on July 28, 2012. Retrieved July 19, 2012.{{cite news}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  93. ^ Sources:
  94. ^ Lopez, Ricardo (July 26, 2012). "San Francisco is the third city to tell Chick-fil-A: Keep out". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on July 27, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
  95. ^ Sources:
  96. ^ Drum, Kevin (July 26, 2012). "Rahm Emanuel Needs to Back Off on Chick-fil-A". Mother Jones. Archived from the original on July 27, 2012. Retrieved July 26, 2012.
  97. ^ Sources:
  98. ^ Bartkewicz, Anthony (July 25, 2012). "Coincidence? Chick-Fil-A pulls Jim Henson toys". New York Daily News. Retrieved July 30, 2012.
  99. ^ Robinson, Steve (July 31, 2012). "Chick-fil-A Response to Recent Controversy". Chick-fil-A (Press release). Archived from the original on August 2, 2012. Retrieved August 5, 2012.
  100. ^ Bingham, Amy (August 1, 2012). "Chick-Fil-A Supporters Gather for Appreciation Day". ABC News. Archived from the original on August 15, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  101. ^ Hsu, Tiffany (August 1, 2012). "Chick-fil-A fans and critics take to the streets". Los Angeles Times. Archived from the original on August 6, 2012. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  102. ^ Holpuch, Amanda (August 1, 2012). "Chick-fil-A appreciation day brings huge crowds to fast-food chain | Life and style |". The Guardian. London. Archived from the original on December 14, 2013. Retrieved August 17, 2012.
  103. ^ Gailey, Alex (May 29, 2019). "FAA launches religious discrimination investigation into Chick-fil-A's exclusion at U.S. airports". Atlanta Business Chronicle. Archived from the original on October 23, 2020. Retrieved May 31, 2019.
  104. ^ Cruz, Maria (July 30, 2018). "Torontonians threaten to boycott conservative fast-food chain Chick-fil-A - Womens Post". Womens Post. Archived from the original on September 4, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  105. ^ Israel, Josh. "Chick-fil-A is still bankrolling anti-LGBTQ causes". thinkprogress.org. Archived from the original on October 13, 2018. Retrieved September 30, 2018.
  106. ^ Yaffe-Bellany, David (November 18, 2019). "Chick-fil-A Stops Giving to 2 Groups Criticized by L.G.B.T.Q. Advocates". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Archived from the original on November 20, 2019. Retrieved November 20, 2019.
  107. ^ Brugh, Carter (November 18, 2019). "Exclusive: Chick-fil-A To Stop Donations To Charities With Anti-LGBT Views". Bisnow. Archived from the original on November 18, 2019. Retrieved November 18, 2019.
  108. ^ Gibson, Kate (March 17, 2022). "California city may declare Chick-fil-A a "public nuisance"". CBS News. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  109. ^ Times Staff (March 15, 2022). "Chick-fil-A isn't the first to get backlash over a drive-through. It's a California tradition". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  110. ^ Russell, Stefene (March 17, 2022). "Here are the worst drive-thrus in Utah, according to you". The Salt Lake Tribune. Retrieved August 11, 2022.
  111. ^ a b Bovino, Arthur (May 23, 2011). "Sandwich of the Week: Dwarf House Chick-fil-A, The Dwarf House in Atlanta – the original Chick-fil-A". The Daily Meal. Archived from the original on August 29, 2011. Retrieved November 3, 2011.
  112. ^ "Truett's Grill". Truettsgrill.com. Archived from the original on April 20, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
  113. ^ "Chick-fil-A: Truett's Grill – Griffin". Cfarestaurant.com. Archived from the original on June 19, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
  114. ^ "Chick-fil-A: Truett's Grill – McDonough". Cfarestaurant.com. Archived from the original on June 12, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
  115. ^ "Chick-fil-A: Truett's Grill – Morrow". Cfarestaurant.com. Archived from the original on June 11, 2010. Retrieved June 18, 2010.
  116. ^ Campbell, Sarah Ray (April 1, 2017). "Chick-fil-A explains changes". The Newnan Times-Herald. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  117. ^ Staff Reports (May 16, 2017). "Chick-Fil-A Dwarf House to be Demolished, Popeyes Set to be Burger King". Coosa Valley News. Archived from the original on August 15, 2017. Retrieved August 15, 2017.
  118. ^ Parker, Joe Parker (October 1, 2021). "Chick-fil-A Truett's to open Thursday". Cherokee Tribune Ledger News. Retrieved October 13, 2022.
  119. ^ "About Truett's Chick-fil-A". Chick-fil-A.
  120. ^ Maze, Jonathan (September 16, 2021). "Dan Cathy steps down as Chick-fil-A CEO".
  121. ^ Lewis, Sabrina. "Chick-fil-A's most-ordered menu items of 2018". Chick-fil-A. Archived from the original on April 6, 2020. Retrieved April 6, 2020.
  122. ^ "Chick-fil-A - Home of the Original Chicken Sandwich". Chick-fil-A. Archived from the original on April 5, 2020. Retrieved April 6, 2020.

External links