User:AMK152/2000s

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This is a list of sovereign states in the 2000s, giving an overview of states around the world during the period between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2009. It contains 208 entries, arranged alphabetically, with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty. It includes 194 widely recognized sovereign states and 14 entities which were de facto sovereign but which were not widely recognized by other states.

Sovereign states[edit]

Name Capital city Information on status and recognition of sovereignty

A[edit]

 Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia Sukhumi Partially recognized de facto independent state.[1] Claimed by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.
Afghanistan Afghanistan  Afghanistan
Capital: Taloqan (to 6 Sep 2000), Fayzabad (from 6 Sep 2000 to 13 Nov 2001), Kabul (from 13 Nov 2001)
Widely recognized UN member state.[4] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Afghanistan but only controlled a small portion of the country until 13 Nov 2001.

Afghanistan Afghanistan, Islamic Emirate of (to 7 Dec 2001)[5] Capital: Kabul (to 13 Nov 2001), Kandahar (from 13 Nov 2001) Partially recognized de facto independent state.[6] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Afghanistan but only controlled a small portion of the country after 13 Nov 2001.
 Albania – Republic of Albania Tirana Widely recognized UN member state.
 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria Algiers Widely recognized UN member state.
 Andorra – Principality of Andorra Andorra la Vella Widely recognized UN member state. The President of France and Bishop of Urgell were ex officio Co-Princes of Andorra. The defense of Andorra was the responsibility of France and Spain.
 Angola – Republic of Angola Luanda Widely recognized UN member state.
 Anjouan – State of Anjouan (to 10 Mar 2002)[7] Mutsamudu De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by the Comoros.
 Antigua and Barbuda St. John's Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Antigua and Barbuda had two dependencies, Barbuda and Redonda.
 Argentina – Argentine Republic[8] Buenos Aires Widely recognized UN member state. Argentina was a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city.[9] It had a claim over Argentine Antarctica, which was suspended under the Antarctic Treaty. It also claimed the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, both of which were British overseas territories.
 Armenia – Republic of Armenia Yerevan Widely recognized UN member state.[10]
 Australia – Commonwealth of Australia Canberra Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Australia was a federation of six states and three territories.[11] It had sovereignty over the following external territories:
 Austria – Republic of Austria Vienna Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Austria was a federation of nine states.[12]
 Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan Baku Widely recognized UN member state. Azerbaijan had one autonomous republic, Nakhchivan. It included the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh, where a partially recognized breakaway republic had declared independence.

B[edit]

 The Bahamas – Commonwealth of the Bahamas Nassau Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.
Bahrain  Bahrain
  • State of Bahrain (to 14 Feb 2002)[13]
  • Kingdom of Bahrain (from 14 Feb 2002)[13]
Manama Widely recognized UN member state.
 Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh Dhaka Widely recognized UN member state.
 Barbados Bridgetown Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.
 Belarus – Republic of Belarus Minsk Widely recognized UN member state.
 Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium Brussels Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Belgium was a federation of three communities and three regions.[14]
 Belize Belmopan Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.
 Benin – Republic of Benin Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (seat of government) Widely recognized UN member state.
 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan Thimphu Widely recognized UN member state. Bhutan was officially guided by India in its foreign affairs, but effectively pursued an independent foreign policy. The Indo-Bhutanese Friendship Treaty was revised on 8 Feb 2007, confirming Bhutan's full independence in this area.
 Bolivia
  • Republic of Bolivia (to 7 Feb 2009)[15]
  • Plurinational State of Bolivia (from 7 Feb 2009)[15]
Capital: Sucre (official), La Paz (administrative) Widely recognized UN member state.
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Sarajevo Widely recognized UN member state. Bosnia and Herzegovina was a federation of two constituent entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska.
 Botswana – Republic of Botswana Gaborone Widely recognized UN member state.
 Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil Brasília Widely recognized UN member state. Brazil was a federation of 26 states and one federal district.[16]
 Brunei – State of Brunei, Abode of Peace Bandar Seri Begawan Widely recognized UN member state. Brunei claimed part of the Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Malaysia).
 Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria Sofia Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 Jan 2007).
 Burkina Faso Ouagadougou Widely recognized UN member state.
Burma → Myanmar
 Burundi – Republic of Burundi Bujumbura Widely recognized UN member state.

C[edit]

 Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia Phnom Penh Widely recognized UN member state.
 Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon Yaoundé Widely recognized UN member state.
 Canada Ottawa Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Canada was a federation of ten provinces and three territories.[17]
 Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde Praia Widely recognized UN member state.
 Central African Republic Bangui Widely recognized UN member state.
 Chad – Republic of Chad N'Djamena Widely recognized UN member state.
 Chechnya – Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (to 6 February 2000)[18]
Capital: Dzhokhar-Ghala
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[19] Claimed by Russia as the Republic of Chechnya.
 Chile – Republic of Chile
Capital: Santiago
Widely recognized UN member state. Chile had two special territories after 30 Jul 2007, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands.
 China, People's Republic of [[Beijing}} Widely recognized UN member state.[20] The People's Republic of China had five autonomous regions: Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet. Additionally, it had sovereignty over two special administrative regions:

The People's Republic of China claimed Taiwan, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, the Pratas Islands and Itu Aba, all of which were governed by the Republic of China. It also claimed the Paracel Islands (disputed by the Republic of China and Vietnam), the Spratly Islands (disputed by the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei), and part of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. The People's Republic of China administered Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract, which were within the disputed region of Kashmir.

 China, Republic of
Capital: Taipei (seat of government), Nanjing (claimed)
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[20] The Republic of China claimed to be the sole legitimate government of China, but only administered Taiwan, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, the Pratas Islands and Itu Aba. The Republic of China had territorial claims over Mongolia; the Russian republic of Tuva; the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River (administered by Russia); The majority of Gorno-Badakhshan (adminsitered by Tajikistan); The eastern tip of the Wakhan Corridor (administered by Afghanistan); a small portion of Gilgit-Baltistan (administered by Pakistan and part of the disputed Kashmir region); Aksai Chin (administered by the People's Republic of China and part of the disputed Kashmir region); eastern Bhutan; part of the Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh; and Kachin State (administered by Myanmar).
 Colombia – Republic of Colombia [[Bogotá}} Widely recognized UN member state. Colombia administered Serranilla Bank and claimed Bajo Nuevo Bank (disputed by Nicaragua and the United States)
Comoros  Comoros
Capital: Moroni
  • Federal Islamic Republic of the Comoros (to 23 Dec 2001)[21]
  • Union of the Comoros (from 23 Dec 2001)[21]
Widely recognized UN member state. The Comoros was a federation of three islands (autonomous islands since 23 Dec 2001): Grande Comore, Mohéli, and Anjouan. Anjouan and Mohéli were de facto independent states until 10 Mar 2002. Comoros also claimed sovereignty over the French overseas territories of Mayotte and the Glorioso Islands. Comoros also claimed Banc du Geyser (disputed by Madagascar and France).
Democratic Republic of the Congo  Congo, Democratic Republic of the [[Kinshasa}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Congo, Republic of the [[Brazzaville}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
Capital: San José
Widely recognized UN member state.
 Côte d'Ivoire – Republic of Côte d'Ivoire[22]
Capital: Yamoussoukro (official), Abidjan (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state.
 Croatia – Republic of Croatia [[Zagreb}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Cuba – Republic of Cuba [[Havana}} Widely recognized UN member state. The Cuban area of Guantánamo Bay was under the permanent control of the United States.
 Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus [[Nicosia}} Widely recognized UN member state.[23] EU member (from 1 May 2004). The northeastern part of the island was the de facto independent state of Northern Cyprus, recognized only by Turkey.
 Czech Republic [[Prague}} Widely recognized UN member state.[24] EU member (from 1 May 2004).

D[edit]

 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark [[Copenhagen}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Denmark had sovereignty over two autonomous countries:
 Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti
Capital: Djibouti
Widely recognized UN member state.
 Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica [[Roseau}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Dominican Republic [[Santo Domingo}} Widely recognized UN member state.

E[edit]

East Timor → Timor-Leste
 Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador [[Quito}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt [[Cairo}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador [[San Salvador}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea [[Malabo}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Eritrea – State of Eritrea [[Asmara}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Estonia – Republic of Estonia [[Tallinn}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).
 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia [[Addis Ababa}} Widely recognized UN member state. Ethiopia was a federation of nine regions and three chartered cities.[25]

F[edit]

 Fiji – Republic of the Fiji Islands [[Suva}} Widely recognized UN member state. Fiji had an autonomous dependency, Rotuma.
 Finland – Republic of Finland [[Helsinki}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Finland had a neutral and demilitarised region:
 France – French Republic [[Paris}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. France included four overseas departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion. It also had sovereignty over the following overseas territories:

France also claimed Banc du Geyser (disputed by Madagascar and the Comoros).

G[edit]

 Gabon – Gabonese Republic [[Libreville}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 The Gambia – Republic of The Gambia [[Banjul}} Widely recognized UN member state.
Georgia (country)  Georgia [[Tbilisi}} Widely recognized UN member state. Georgia had two autonomous republics: Adjara and Abkhazia. The latter republic was home to a de facto independent state. Georgia also included the disputed region of South Ossetia, where a partially recognized breakaway republic had declared independence.
 Germany – Federal Republic of Germany [[Berlin}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Germany was a federation of sixteen states.[26]
 Ghana – Republic of Ghana [[Accra}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Greece – Hellenic Republic [[Athens}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Greece had sovereignty over Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state that was jointly governed by the multi-national "Holy Community" on the mountain and the Civil Governor appointed by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and spiritually came under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.
 Grenada
Capital: St. George's
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth Realm. Grenada had one autonomous dependency, Carriacou and Petite Martinique.
 Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala [[Guatemala City}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Guinea – Republic of Guinea [[Conakry}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau [[Bissau}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Capital: Georgetown
Widely recognized UN member state.

H[edit]

 Haiti – Republic of Haiti [[Port-au-Prince}} Widely recognized UN member state. Haiti claimed the uninhabited United States possession of Navassa Island.
Holy See → Vatican City
 Honduras – Republic of Honduras [[Tegucigalpa}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Hungary – Republic of Hungary [[Budapest}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).

I[edit]

 Iceland – Republic of Iceland [[Reykjavík}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 India – Republic of India [[New Delhi}} Widely recognized UN member state. India was a federation of twenty-eight states and seven union territories. Indian sovereignty over Arunachal Pradesh was disputed by the People's Republic of China. India administered part of the disputed region of Kashmir as the state of Jammu and Kashmir.[27]
 Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia [[Jakarta}} Widely recognized UN member state. Indonesia had five special provinces: Aceh, Jakarta, Papua (from 21 Nov 2001), West Papua (from 14 Nov 2003), and Yogyakarta.
 Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran [[Tehran}} Widely recognized UN member state.
Iraq Iraq  Iraq – Republic of Iraq [[Baghdad}} Widely recognized UN member state. Iraq was occupied by the United States, the United Kingdom, and other members of the Multinational force in Iraq from 21 Apr 2003 to 28 Jun 2004. After 15 Oct 2005, Iraq was constitutionally designated as a federation of autonomous regions, but only one region (Iraqi Kurdistan) had been established.
 Ireland[28] [[Dublin}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.
 Israel – State of Israel [[Jerusalem}} Widely recognized UN member state.[29] Israel occupied East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip the Golan Heights, the Israeli Security Zone in Southern Lebanon (to 22 May 2000), and the West Bank. These areas were not generally recognized as being part of Israel.
 Italy – Italian Republic [[Rome}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.
Ivory Coast → Côte d'Ivoire

J[edit]

 Jamaica
Capital: Kingston
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.
 Japan [[Tokyo}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan [[Amman}} Widely recognized UN member state.

K[edit]

 Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan [[Astana}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Kenya – Republic of Kenya [[Nairobi}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati [[South Tarawa}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea [[Pyongyang}} Widely recognized UN member state.[30] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.
 Korea, South – Republic of Korea [[Seoul}} Widely recognized UN member state.[31] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.
 Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo (from 17 Feb 2008)[32] [[Pristina}} Partially recognized de facto independent state.[33] Claimed by Serbia as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija under UN administration
 Kuwait – State of Kuwait [[Kuwait City}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic [[Bishkek}} Widely recognized UN member state.

L[edit]

 Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic [[Vientiane}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Latvia – Republic of Latvia [[Riga}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).
 Lebanon – Lebanese Republic [[Beirut}} Widely recognized UN member state. Lebanon was occupied by Syria (to 25 Apr 2005). Some of Southern Lebanon was occupied by Israel (to 22 May 2000).
Lesotho  Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho [[Maseru}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Liberia – Republic of Liberia [[Monrovia}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Libya – Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya [[Tripoli}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein [[Vaduz}} Widely recognized UN member state.[24] The defense of Liechtenstein was the responsibility of Switzerland.
Lithuania  Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania [[Vilnius}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).
 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Capital: Luxembourg
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

M[edit]

 Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia[34] [[Skopje}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar [[Antananarivo}} Widely recognized UN member state. Madagascar claimed the French possessions of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands and Juan de Nova Island. It also claimed Banc du Geyser (disputed by Comoros and France)
 Malawi – Republic of Malawi [[Lilongwe}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Malaysia
Capital: Kuala Lumpur (official), Putrajaya (administrative)
Widely recognized UN member state. Malaysia was a federation of thirteen states and three federal territories.[35] Malaysia claimed part of the Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Brunei).
 Maldives – Republic of Maldives [[Malé}} Widely recognized UN member state.

 Mali – Republic of Mali [[Bamako}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Malta – Republic of Malta [[Valetta}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).
 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands [[Majuro}} Widely recognized UN member state under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Marshall Islands claimed the United States territory of Wake Island.
 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania [[Nouakchott}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius [[Port Louis}} Widely recognized UN member state. Mauritius had three autonomous dependencies: Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos, and Rodrigues (from 12 Oct 2002). It claimed the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French territory of Tromelin Island.
 Mexico – United Mexican States [[Mexico City}} Widely recognized UN member state. Mexico was a federation of 31 states and one federal district.[36]
 Federated States of Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia [[Palikir}} Widely recognized UN member state under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The FSM was a federation of four states.[37]
Mohéli – Democratic Republic of Mohéli (to 10 Mar 2002)[7] [[Fomboni}} De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by the Comoros.
 Moldova – Republic of Moldova [[Chişinău}} Widely recognized UN member state. Moldova had two autonomous territorial units: Gagauzia and Transnistria. The latter was home to a de facto independent state.
 Monaco – Principality of Monaco [[Monaco}} Widely recognized UN member state. The defense of Monaco was the responsibility of France.
 Mongolia [[Ulaanbaatar}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Montenegro [[Podgorica}}
  • Republic of Montenegro (from 3 Jun 2006 to 22 Oct 2007)[38][39]
  • Montenegro (from 22 Oct 2007)[39]
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 28 Jun 2006).
 Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco [[Rabat}} Widely recognized UN member state. Morocco claimed sovereignty over and controlled most of the disputed Western Sahara, which was home to the de facto independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputed the Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla, and Peñón de Alhucemas.
 Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique [[Maputo}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Myanmar – Union of Myanmar[40]
Capital: Yangon (to 6 Nov 2005), Naypyidaw (from 6 Nov 2005)
Widely recognized UN member state.

N[edit]

 Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic [[Stepanakert}} De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Azerbaijan.
 Namibia – Republic of Namibia [[Windhoek}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Nauru – Republic of Nauru
Capital: Yaren (unofficial)
Widely recognized UN member state. The defense of Nauru was the responsibility of Australia.
   Nepal [[Kathmandu}} Widely recognized UN member state. Nepal was designated as a federation after 28 May 2008, but its federal units had not yet been created.
 Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital: Amsterdam (official), The Hague (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consisted of three autonomous countries:

The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole was a member of the EU, but Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles were not.

 New Zealand [[Wellington}} Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. New Zealand had responsibilities for the two free associated states of:

It also had sovereignty over two dependent territories:

 Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua [[Managua}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Niger – Republic of Niger [[Niamey}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria [[Abuja}} Widely recognized UN member state. Nigeria was a federation of 36 states and one federal territory.[43]
 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus [[Lefkoşa}} Partially recognized de facto independent state.[44] Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus.
 Norway – Kingdom of Norway [[Oslo}} Widely recognized UN member state. Norway had two integral overseas areas: Jan Mayen and Svalbard. The latter of area had a special status due to the Spitsbergen Treaty. Norway had sovereignty over the following dependencies:

O[edit]

 Oman – Sultanate of Oman [[Muscat, Oman}} Widely recognized UN member state.

P[edit]

 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan [[Islamabad}} Widely recognized UN member state. Pakistan was a federation of four provinces and four territories. It administered part of the disputed region of Kashmir as the territories of Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas. The latter territory was autonomous under the name Gilgit-Baltistan after 29 Aug 2009.[45]
 Palau – Republic of Palau
Capital: Koror (to 7 Oct 2006), Melekeok (from 7 Oct 2006)
Widely recognized UN member state under Compact of Free Association with the United States.
 Palestine
Capital: Ramallah (administrative), Gaza City (administrative), Jerusalem (claimed)
Disputed region consisting of three occupied territories: the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem. The declared State of Palestine, which claimed independence for all the Palestinian territories, was recognized by a large number of countries. In foreign relations, Palestine was represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, which was a permanent observer at the United Nations. The Palestinian National Authority was an interim administrative body that exercised limited control over parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. From 12 Sep 2005 to 15 Jun 2007, the PNA controlled all of Gaza. After 15 Jun 2007, Gaza was under the control of Hamas.
 Panama – Republic of Panama [[Panama City}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea [[Port Morseby}} Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. After 15 Jun 2005, Papua New Guinea had one autonomous region: Bougainville.
 Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay [[Asunción}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Peru – Republic of Peru [[Lima}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Philippines – Republic of the Philippines [[Manila}} Widely recognized UN member state. The Philippines had one autonomous region: Muslim Mindanao. The Philippines administered the Scarborough Shoal and Macclesfield Bank, both of which were disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. It also claimed sovereignty over the Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, Brunei, and Malaysia) and the Malaysian territory of Sabah.
 Poland – Republic of Poland [[Warsaw}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).
 Portugal – Portuguese Republic [[Lisbon}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Portugal had two autonomous regions: the Azores and Madeira. Portugal claimed the Spanish municipalities of Olivenza and Táliga.
 Puntland – Puntland State of Somalia (to 1 July 2001)[46] [[Garowe}} De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Somalia.

Q[edit]

 Qatar – State of Qatar [[Doha}} Widely recognized UN member state.

R[edit]

 Romania [[Bucharest}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 Jan 2007).
 Russia – Russian Federation [[Moscow}} Widely recognized UN member state. Russia was a federation of 21 republics, 49 oblasts, 9 krais, 2 federal cities, 1 autonomous oblast, and 10 autonomous okrugs.[47]
Rwanda  Rwanda [[Kigali}}
  • Rwandese Republic (to 26 May 2003)[48]
  • Republic of Rwanda (from 26 May 2003)[48]
Widely recognized UN member state.

S[edit]

 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Capital: Bir Lehlou (official), Rabouni (seat of government-in-exile), El Aaiún (claimed)
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[49] The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claimed the disputed territory of Western Sahara, most of which was under control of Morocco. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, were claimed by Morocco. Its government resided in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.
 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis [[Basseterre}} Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Saint Kitts and Nevis was a federation of two islands.[50]
Saint Lucia  Saint Lucia [[Castries}} Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines [[Kingstown}} Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Samoa – Independent State of Samoa [[Apia}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 San Marino – Republic of San Marino
Capital: San Marino
Widely recognized UN member state.
 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe [[São Tomé}} Widely recognized UN member state. São Tomé and Príncipe had one autonomous province: Príncipe.
 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia [[Riyadh}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Senegal – Republic of Senegal [[Dakar}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Serbia – Republic of Serbia (from 5 Jun 2006)[51] [[Belgrade}} Widely recognized UN member state. Serbia had two autonomous provinces: Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija. The latter province was governed by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. After 17 Feb 2008, it was home to a partially recognized de facto independent republic.
Serbia and Montenegro → Yugoslavia
 Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
Capital: Victoria
Widely recognized UN member state. The Seychelles claimed the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French territories of Tromelin Island and the Glorioso Islands.
 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone [[Freetown}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Singapore – Republic of Singapore [[Singapore}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Slovakia – Slovak Republic [[Bratislava}} Widely recognized UN member state.[24] EU member (from 1 May 2004).
 Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia [[Ljubljana}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).

 Solomon Islands [[Honiara}} Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.
 Somalia [[Mogadishu}}
  • Somalia (to 16 Jul 2000)[52]
  • Somali Republic (from 16 Jul 2000)[52]
Widely recognized UN member state. Somalia did not have a recognized central government until April 2000, when the Transitional National Government (after Nov 2004, the Transitional Federal Government) was established. Over the course of the Somali Civil War, several autonomous regional governments were established in the de jure territory of Somalia. Although these states did not claim independence from Somalia, they were de facto self-governing:

There were also areas of the country which at various times had no effective government at all or which were ruled by local clans. In addition, there were two states which had declared and established de facto independence from Somalia: Puntland (to 1 Jul 2001) and Somaliland.

 Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland [[Hargeisa}} De facto independent state. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Somalia.
 South Africa – Republic of South Africa
Capital: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), Bloemfontein (judicial)
Widely recognized UN member state.
 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia [[Tskhinvali}} Partially recognized de facto independent state.[1] Claimed by Georgia (as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia from Apr 2007).
 Spain – Kingdom of Spain [[Madrid}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Spain was divided into seventeen autonomous communities and two autonomous cities.[53] Its sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas was disputed by Morocco. Its sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga was disputed by Portugal. It claimed the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.
 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka [[Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Sudan – Republic of the Sudan [[Khartoum}} Widely recognized UN member state. Sudan was a federation of 26 states, ten of which formed the autonomous region of Southern Sudan after 9 Jan 2005.[54]
 Suriname – Republic of Suriname [[Paramaribo}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Swaziland – Republic of Swaziland
Capital: Mbabane (administrative), Lobamba (legislative)
Widely recognized UN member state.
 Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden [[Stockholm}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.
  Switzerland – Swiss Confederation [[Bern}} Widely recognized independent state. Permanent observer at the UN (to 10 Sep 2002). UN member state (from 10 Sep 2002). Switzerland was a federation of 26 cantons.[55]
 Syria – Syrian Arab Republic [[Damascus}} Widely recognized UN member state. Syria included the Golan Heights, which were occupied by Israel. It disputed the Turkish sovereignty over Hatay Province.

T[edit]

Taiwan → China, Republic of
 Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan [[Dushanbe}} Widely recognized UN member state. Tajikistan had one autonomous province: Gorno-Badakhshan.
 Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
Capital: Dodoma (official), Dar es Salaam (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state. Tanzania had one autonomous region: Zanzibar.
 Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand [[Bangkok}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Timor-Leste – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[56] (from 20 May 2002)[57] [[Dili}} Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 28 Jun 2006).
 Togo – Togolese Republic [[Lomé}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga [[Nukuʻalofa}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Transnistria – Transnistrian Moldovan Republic [[Tiraspol}} Partially recognized de facto independent state.[58] Claimed by Moldova.
 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago [[Port of Spain}} Widely recognized UN member state. Trinidad and Tobago had one autonomous island: Tobago.
 Tunisia – Tunisian Republic [[Tunis}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Turkey – Republic of Turkey [[Ankara}} Widely recognized UN member state.
Turkmenistan  Turkmenistan [[Ashgabat}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Tuvalu [[Funafuti}} Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 5 Sep 2000). Commonwealth realm.

U[edit]

 Uganda – Republic of Uganda [[Kampala}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Ukraine [[Kiev}} Widely recognized UN member state. Ukraine had one autonomous republic: Crimea.
 United Arab Emirates [[Abu Dhabi}} Widely recognized UN member state. The United Arab Emirates was a federation of seven emirates.[59]
 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland [[London}} Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. The United Kingdom was composed of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. It had sovereignty over the following dependent territories ("overseas territories" after 26 Feb 2002):

In addition, the British Monarch had direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:

 United States – United States of America [[Washington, D.C.}} Widely recognized UN member state. The United States was a federation of 50 states, one federal district, and one incorporated territory.[60] It asserted sovereignty over the following inabited insular areas:

It also asserted sovereignty over eight uninhabited unincorporated territories[61]:

The United States claimed Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank. Its claim to Serranilla was disputed by Colombia and Nicaragua and its claim to Bajo Nuevo was disputed by Colombia, Jamaica, and Nicaragua. Some government sources stated that these two areas were unincorporated territories of the United States.

 Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay [[Montevideo}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan [[Tashkent}} Widely recognized UN member state. Uzbekistan had one autonomous republic: Karakalpakstan.

V[edit]

 Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu [[Port Vila}} Widely recognized UN member state.
  Vatican City – State of the Vatican City [[Vatican City}} Widely recognized independent state. Vatican City was administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity recognized by a large number of countries and a Permanent observer at the United Nations. The Holy See also administered a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy. The Pope was the ex officio head of state of Vatican City.
Venezuela  Venezuela [[Caracas}}
  • Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (to 12 Apr 2002)[62]
  • Republic of Venezuela (from 12 Apr 2002 to 13 Apr 2002)[62][63]
  • Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (from 13 Apr 2002)[63]
Widely recognized UN member state. Venezuela was a federation of 23 states, one federal dependency, and one federal district.[64]
 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam [[Hanoi}} Widely recognized UN member state. Vietnam claimed sovereignty over the Paracel Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China) and Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Brunei, the Philippines, and Malaysia).

Y[edit]

 Yemen – Republic of Yemen [[Sana'a}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Yugoslavia / Serbia and Montenegro [[Belgrade}}
  • Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (to 4 Feb 2003)[65]
  • State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (from 4 Feb 2003 to 5 Jun 2006)[51][65]
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 1 Nov 2000). Yugoslavia was a federation of two republics (Montenegro and Serbia) and two autonomous provinces within Serbia (Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija). The latter province was under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo.

Z[edit]

 Zambia – Republic of Zambia [[Lusaka}} Widely recognized UN member state.
 Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe [[Harare}} Widely recognized UN member state.

Other entities[edit]

Excluded from the list above are the following noteworthy entities which either were not fully sovereign or did not claim to be independent:

  • Antarctica as a whole had no government and no permanent population. Seven states claimed portions of Antarctica and five of these had reciprocally recognised one another's claims.[66] These claims, which were regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, were neither recognised nor disputed by any other signatory state.[67]
  • European Union The European Union was a sui generis supranational organisation which had 15 (later 27) member states. The member states had transferred a measure of their legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, and as such the EU had some elements of sovereignty, without generally being considered a sovereign state. The European Union did not claim to be a sovereign state and had only limited capacity for relations with other states.
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta was a United Nations observer. The order had bi-lateral diplomatic relations with a large number of states, but has no territory other than extraterritorial areas within Rome.[68] The order's Constitution stated: "The Order is a subject of international law and exercises sovereign functions." [69] Although the order frequently asserted its sovereignty, it did not claim to be a sovereign state. It lacked a defined territory. Since all its members were citizens of other states, almost all of them lived in their native countries, and those who resided in the order's extraterritorial properites in Rome did so only in connection with their official duties, the order lacked the characteristic of having a permanent population.
  • United Nations The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor was a transitional non-independent territory governed by the United Nations. It was neither sovereign nor under the sovereignty of any other state. It became the independent state of Timor-Leste on 20 May 2002.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Abkhazia was recognized by South Ossetia (from 17 Nov 2006), Transnistria (from 17 Nov 2006), Russia (from 26 Aug 2008), Nicaragua (from 5 Sep 2008), Venezuela (from 10 Sep 2009), and Nauru (from 15 Dec 2009).
  2. ^ a b A transitional government for Afghanistan was appointed on 13 June 2002 by loya jirga. [1]
  3. ^ a b Afghanistan ratified a new constitution on 26 Jan 2004
  4. ^ The Islamic State of Afghanistan was not recognized by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, or the United Arab Emirates until 7 Dec 2001.
  5. ^ Kandahar, the last major city under Taliban control, fell to the Islamic State of Afghanistan on 7 Dec 2001. [2]
  6. ^ The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was recognized by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
  7. ^ a b Anjouan and Moheli became autonomous islands of the Comoros after a referendum on 10 Mar 2002. [3]
  8. ^ The name "Argentine Nation" was also used for the purposes of legislation.
  9. ^ 23 Provinces: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquén, Río Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego, Tucumán. 1 Autonomous City: Buenos Aires.
  10. ^ Armenia was not recognized by Pakistan.
  11. ^ 6 States: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia. 3 Territories: Australian Capital Territory, Jervis Bay Territory, Northern Territory.
  12. ^ 9 States: Burgenland, Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria, Vorarlberg, Vienna.
  13. ^ a b Bahrain enacted a new constitution on 14 Feb 2002. Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah, the Emir of Bahrain, was declared a King. s:Constitution of the Kingdom of Bahrain (2002)
  14. ^ 3 Communities: Flemish Community, French Community, German-speaking Community. 3 Regions: Brussels-Capital Region, Flemish Region, Walloon Region.
  15. ^ a b Bolivia enacted a new constitution on 7 February 2009, changing the official name of the state. [4]
  16. ^ 26 States: Acre, Alagoas, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins. 1 Federal District: Brazilian Federal District.
  17. ^ 10 Provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland (renamed Newfoundland and Labrador on 6 Dec 2001), Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan. 3 Territories: Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon.
  18. ^ Grozny fell to the Russians on 6 Feb 2000, ending the de facto independence of Chechnya. [5]
  19. ^ Chechnya was recognized by the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
  20. ^ a b The People's Republic of China and the Republic of China did not recognize each other, as both states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of China. The following states recognized the ROC instead of the PRC: Belize, Burkina Faso, Chad (to 6 Aug 2006), Costa Rica (to 1 Jun 2007), Dominica (to 31 Mar 2004), Dominican Republic, El Salvador, The Gambia, Guatemala, Grenada (to 20 Jan 2005), Haiti, Honduras, Kiribati (from 29 Nov 2003), Malawi (to 28 Dec 2007), Marshall Islands, Nauru (to 21 Jul 2002 and then again from 31 May 2005), Nicaragua, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia (5 May 2007), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal (to 25 Oct 2005), Solomon Islands, Swaziland, Tuvalu, and Vatican City. Until 11 Oct 2003, Liberia recognized both the ROC and the PRC, which led to the PRC severing diplomatic relations. After 11 Oct 2003, Liberia only recognized the PRC.
  21. ^ a b The Comoros adopted a new constitution on 23 Dec 2001
  22. ^ Commonly known in English as the "Ivory Coast".
  23. ^ Cyprus was not recognized by Turkey or Northern Cyprus
  24. ^ a b c Owing to a dispute over lands seized during World War II, Liechtenstein did not recognize the Czech Republic or Slovakia, and neither country recognized Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein established diplomatic relations with the Czech Republic on 13 Jul 2009 and with Slovakia on 9 Dec 2009.
  25. ^ 9 Regions: Afar, Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambela, Oromiya, Somali, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region, Tigray. 3 Chartered Cities: Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa, Harari.
  26. ^ 16 States: Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse, Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia
  27. ^ 28 States: Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh (from 1 Nov 2000), Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand (from 15 Nov 2000), Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal (from 9 Nov 2000, renamed Uttarakhand in 2007), West Bengal. 7 Union Territories: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Lakshadweep, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Pondicherry (renamed Puducherry in 2006).
  28. ^ Ireland also had the legal description of "Republic of Ireland", although this was not its constitutional name.
  29. ^ Israel was not recognized by Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Chad, Cuba, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, North Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, or Yemen.
  30. ^ North Korea was not recognized by Estonia, France, Japan, or South Korea.
  31. ^ South Korea was not recognized by North Korea.
  32. ^ Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia on 17 Feb 2008. [6]
  33. ^ Kosovo was recognized by Afghanistan (from 18 Feb 2008), Albania (from 18 Feb 2008), Australia (from 19 Feb 2008), Austria (from 28 Feb 2008), Bahrain (from 19 May 2009), Belgium (from 24 Feb 2008), Belize (from 7 Aug 2008), Bulgaria (from 20 Mar 2008), Burkina Faso (from 24 Apr 2008), Canada (from 18 Mar 2008), Colombia (from 6 Aug 2008), Comoros (from 14 May 2009), Costa Rica (from 18 Feb 2008), Croatia (from 19 Mar 2008), the Czech Republic (from 21 May 2008), Denmark (from 21 Feb 2008), Dominican Republic (from 10 Jul 2009), Estonia (from 21 Feb 2008), Finland (from 7 Mar 2008), France (from 18 Feb 2008), The Gambia (from 7 Apr 2009), Germany (from 20 Feb 2008), Hungary (from 19 Mar 2008), Iceland (from 5 Mar 2008), Ireland (from 29 Feb 2008), Italy (from 21 Feb 2008), Japan (from 18 Mar 2008), Jordan (from 7 Jul 2009), Latvia (from 20 Feb 2008), Liberia (from 30 May 2008), Liechtenstein (from 25 Mar 2008), Lithuania (from 6 May 2008), Luxembourg (from 21 Feb 2008), Macedonia (from 9 Oct 2008), Malawi (from 14 Dec 2009), Malaysia (from 31 Oct 2008), Maldives (from 19 Feb 2009), Malta (from 21 Aug 2008), Marshall Islands (from 17 Apr 2008), Federated States of Micronesia (from 5 Dec 2008), Monaco (from 19 Mar 2008), Montenegro (from 9 Oct 2008), Nauru (from 23 Apr 2008), Netherlands (from 4 Mar 2008), New Zealand (from 9 Nov 2009), Norway (from 28 Mar 2008), Palau (from 6 Mar 2009), Panama (from 16 Jan 2009), Peru (from 22 Feb 2008), Poland (from 26 Feb 2008), Portugal (from 7 Oct 2008), the Republic of China (from 18 Feb 2008), Samoa (from 15 Sep 2008), San Marino (from 11 May 2008), Saudi Arabia (from 20 Apr 2000), Senegal (from 19 Feb 2008), Sierra Leone (from 13 Jun 2008), Slovenia (from 5 Mar 2008), South Korea (from 28 Mar 2008), Sweden (from 4 Mar 2008), Switzerland (from 27 Feb 2008), Turkey (from 18 Feb 2008), the United Arab Emirates (from 14 Oct 2008), the United Kingdom (from 18 Feb 2008), and the United States (from 18 Feb 2008).
  34. ^ Provisionally referred to by the UN and a number of countries and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", see Macedonia naming dispute.
  35. ^ 13 States: Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Penang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu. 3 Federal Territories: Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, Putrajaya (from 1 Feb 2001).
  36. ^ 31 States: Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatán, Zacatecas. 1 Federal District: Federal District
  37. ^ 4 States: Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap.
  38. ^ Montenegro declared independence from Serbia and Montenegro on 3 Jun 2006. [7]
  39. ^ a b The Republic of Montenegro adopted a new constitution on 22 Oct 2007, shortening its official name to "Montenegro". [8]
  40. ^ Commonly known in English as "Burma".
  41. ^ a b Nepal adopted an interim constitution on 15 Jan 2007, changing its official name to "State of Nepal" [9]
  42. ^ a b The Nepalese monarchy was formally abolished on 28 May 2008
  43. ^ 36 States: Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara. 1 Federal Territory: Federal Capital Territory
  44. ^ Northern Cyprus was recognized only by Turkey.
  45. ^ 4 Provinces: Balochistan, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh. 4 Territories: Azad Kashmir, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Islamabad Capital Territory, Northern Areas (renamed Gilgit-Baltistan on 29 Aug 2009).
  46. ^ Puntland's "temprorary independence" came to an end on 1 July 2001, when it adopted a new constitution and declared itself to be an integral part of Somalia. [10]
  47. ^ 21 Republics: Adygea, Altai, Bashkortostan, Buryatia, Chechnya, Chuvash Republic, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, KalmykiaKarachay-Cherkessia, Karelia, Khakassia, Komi, Mari El, Mordovia, North Ossetia-Alania, Sakha, Tatarstan, Tuva, Udmurtia. 49 Oblasts: Amur, Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Chita (to 1 Mar 2008), Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka (to 1 Jul 2007), Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Oryol, Penza, Perm (to 1 Dec 2005), Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan, Sakhalin, Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk, Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ulyanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl. 9 Krais: Altai, Kamchatka (from 1 Jul 2007), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm (from 1 Dec 2005), Primorsky, Stavropol, Zabaykalsky (from 1 Mar 2008). 2 Federal Cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg. 1 Autonomous Oblast: Jewish Autonomous Oblast. 10 Autonomous Okrugs: Agin-Buryatia (to 1 Mar 2008), Chukotka, Evenkia (to 1 Jan 2007), Khantia-Mansia, Koryakia (to 1 Jul 2007), Nenetsia, Permyakia (to 1 Dec 2005), Taymyria (to 1 Jan 2007), Ust-Orda Buryatia (to 1 Jan 2008), Yamalia.
  48. ^ a b On 26 May 2003, Rwanda adopted a new constitution, changing its official French name from "République rwandaise" to "République du Rwanda" [11] [12]. The former name can be translated into English as "Rwandese Republic" s:CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Rwanda, "Rwandan Republic" [13], or "Republic of Rwanda" [14]. The name in Kinyarwanda has always been "Republika y'u Rwanda".
  49. ^ the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic was recognized by Afghanistan (to 12 Jul 2002), Albania (to 11 Nov 2004), Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Burundi (to 5 May 2006 and then again from 17 Jun 2008), Cambodia, Cape Verde (to 30 Jul 2007), Chad (from 17 Jul 2007), Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador (to 19 Jun 2004 and then again from 8 Feb 2006), Ethiopia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau (from 30 May 2009), Guyana, Haiti (from 23 Nov 2006), Honduras, India (to 26 Jun 2000), Iran, Jamaica, Kenya (to 22 Oct 2006), Kiribati (to 15 Sep 2000), Laos, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Malawi (to 16 Sep 2008), Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru (to 15 Sep 2000), Nicaragua (to 21 Jul 2000 then again 12 Jan 2007), Nigeria, North Korea, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay (from 9 Feb 2000), Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (from 14 Feb 2002), Seychelles (to 17 Apr 2008), Sierra Leone, South Africa (from 15 Sep 2004), Suriname, Syria, Tanzania, Timor-Leste (from 20 May 2002), Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu (to 15 Sep 2000), Uganda, Uruguay (from 28 Dec 2005), Vanuatu (to Nov 2000 and then again from Aug 2008), Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
  50. ^ 2 Islands: Saint Kitts, Nevis.
  51. ^ a b The Serbian parliament declared independence from Serbia and Montenegro on 5 Jun 2006, ending the union. [15]
  52. ^ a b The Transitional National Government of Somalia adopted a Federal Charter on 16 Jul 2000. [16]
  53. ^ 17 Autonomous Communities: Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, Balearic Islands, Basque Country, Canary Islands, Cantabria, Castile-La Mancha, Castile and León, Catalonia, Extremadura, Galicia, Madrid, Murcia, Navarre, La Rioja, Valencian Community. 2 Autonomous Cities: Ceuta, Melilla.
  54. ^ 26 States: Blue Nile, Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Al Jazirah, Jonglei, Kassala, Khartoum, Lakes, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, North Darfur, North Kurdufan, Northern, Al Qadarif, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kurdufan, Unity, Upper Nile, Western Equatoria, Western Bahr el Ghazal, West Darfur, West Kurdufan (to 16 Aug 2005), White Nile, Warrap
  55. ^ 26 Cantons: Aargau, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Basel-Stadt, Basel-Landschaft, Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Glarus, Graubünden, Jura, Lucerne, Neuchâtel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, St. Gallen, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zürich
  56. ^ Commonly known in English as "East Timor".
  57. ^ Timor-Leste declared independence from United Nations administration on 20 May 2002. [17]
  58. ^ Transnistria was recognized by Abkhazia (from 17 Nov 2006) and South Ossetia (from 17 Nov 2006).
  59. ^ 7 Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Qaiwain.
  60. ^ 50 States: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming. 1 Federal District: District of Columbia. 1 Incorporated Territory: Palmyra Atoll.
  61. ^ These islands were sometimes designated for statistical purposes as the United States Minor Outlying Islands
  62. ^ a b After being installed as interim president of Venezuela on 14 Apr 2002, Pedro Carmona issued a decree which voided the 1999 constitution. [18]
  63. ^ a b Hugo Chávez returned to power on 13 Apr 2002 and restored the Constitution of Venezuela. [19]
  64. ^ 23 States: Amazonas, Anzoátegui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Mérida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Táchira, Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy, Zulia. 1 Federal District: Capital District. 1 Federal Dependency: Federal Dependencies.
  65. ^ a b The Federal Republic of Yugolsavia reconstituted itself as Serbia and Montenegro on 4 Feb 2003. [20]
  66. ^ Rogan-Finnemore, Michelle (2005), "What Bioprospecting Means for Antarctica and the Southern Ocean", in Von Tigerstrom, Barbara, International Law Issues in the South Pacific, Ashgate Publishing, p. 204, ISBN 0754644197  "Australia, New Zealand, France, Norway and the United Kingdom reciprocally recognize the validity of each other's claims."
  67. ^ CIA – the World Factbook – Antarctica – accessed 19 January 2008
  68. ^ Bilateral relations with countries, Retrieved 2009-12-22
  69. ^ Chapter General of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta (1998-01-12). Constitutional Charter and Code of the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of St. John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes, and of Malta, promulgated 27 June 1961, revised by the Extraordinary Chapter General 28–30 April 1997, Article 3 "Sovereignty," Paragraph 1 (PDF). Rome: Tipografia Arte della Stampa. p. 11.