Detailed logarithmic timeline

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Main article: Logarithmic timeline

This timeline shows the whole history of the universe, the Earth, and mankind in one table. Each row is defined in years ago, that is, years before the present date, with the earliest times at the top of the chart. In each table cell on the right, references to events or notable people are given, more or less in chronological order within the cell.

Each row corresponds to a change in log(time before present) of about 0.1 (using log base 10). The dividing points are taken from the R′′20 Renard numbers.


14 000 million years ago to 5 500 million years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
14 Ga – 11 Ga

Big Bang, Stars and galaxies, earliest quasars, habitable epoch[1][2] NGC 6522 star cluster forms, at least 12 Ga ago. Omega Centauri star cluster forms.

11 Ga – 9 Ga
9 Ga – 7 Ga

Gliese 876 and its planets form[3]

7 Ga – 5.5 Ga

Birth of Alpha Centauri

5 500 million years ago to 1 800 million years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 Ga – 4.5 Ga

Formation of Sun, Solar System, Earth

4.5 Ga – 3.5 Ga

End of Hadean eon,

beginning of Archaean eon

Late Heavy Bombardment. Origin of life. Earliest evidences for life on Earth: unusually high amounts of light isotopes of carbon, a common sign of life, found in mineral deposits aged 4.25 Ga located in the Jack Hills of Western Australia;[4] graphite found to be biogenic in metasedimentary rocks aged 3.7 Ga discovered in Western Greenland.[5]

3.5 Ga – 2.8 Ga Archaean eon

Microbial mat fossils found in sandstone aged 3.48 Ga discovered in Western Australia.[6][7] Stromatolites, Cyanobacteria (photosynthesis).[8] Stabilisation of cratons. Sterane biomarkers possibly indicate first eukaryotes. Possible largest crater on earth near Maniitsoq, Greenland.[9]

2.8 Ga – 2.2 Ga End of Archaean, beginning of Paleoproterozoic era

Oxygen revolution. Beginning of Huronian glaciation.

2.2 Ga – 1.8 Ga Paleoproterozoic era

End of Huronian glaciation. Grypania fossils. First unambiguous Cyanobacteria fossils, in Belcher Islands.[8] Bolide over 10 km in size creates Vredefort crater. Milky Way perturbed by collision.[10] Oxygen levels briefly plummet (possibly).[8] 10-km diameter bolide creates Sudbury Basin. Columbia supercontinent. Traces of 24-isopropylcholestane, possibly from sponges.

1 800 million years ago to 550 million years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
1.8 Ga – 1.4 Ga End of Paleoproterozoic, beginning of Mesoproterozoic era

Fossils of filamentous algae. Erosion of granite introduces copper, zinc, and molybdenum into surface waters.[11]

1.4 Ga – 1.1 Ga Mesoproterozoic era

Eukaryotes found in lakes.[12]

1.1 Ga – 900 Ma End of Mesoproterozoic, beginning of Neoproterozoic era. Tonian period

Coming together of Rodinia supercontinent. Appearance of sex (possibly). Sturtian-Varangian or Cryogenian glaciation begins. Traces of sponge-like animals.[13][14]

900 Ma – 700 Ma Cryogenian period

Breakup of Rodinia, Sturtian-Varangian or Cryogenian glaciation, possible Snowball Earth, volcanism on Venus practically stops

700 Ma – 550 Ma End of Cryogenian, beginning of Ediacaran period

Pannotia supercontinent forms, then breaks up into Laurentia, Gondwana, Angaraland and Baltica. First non-microscopic life (Ediacaran biota). Rangeomorphs. First fossils of animals. Cambrian explosion. Fish-like Myllokunmingia, Haikouichthys, & Pikaia. First conodonts. All modern mineralized phyla present.[15] Arthropods dominant until arrival of chambered nautili [16] Earth becomes very hot.[17]

550 million years ago to 180 million years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
550 Ma – 450 Ma

End of Ediacaran. Cambrian period (541–485 Ma) - Ordovician (485–443 Ma)

End-Botomian mass extinction. First fossils of plants and fungi on land.[18] Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event. Collision of asteroids gives rise to L chondrite group of meteoroids and several craters ca. 470 Ma ago (Ordovician meteor event).[19] First starfish, sea urchins, oysters, scallops, placoderms, cartilaginous fish (such as sharks) and bony fish. First clear evidence of land arthropods (scorpions).[18] Andean-Saharan glaciation.

450 Ma – 350 Ma

Silurian (443–419 Ma) - Devonian (416-359 Ma)

Ordovician-Silurian extinction events. Prototaxites, tree-like organism, probably a fungus or lichen. First Labyrinthodontia, the group that now includes reptiles and mammals. Tiktaalik (lungfish) walks on land. Ichthyostega. First amphibians, archaeopteris (tree ferns), seeds, coelacanths. Late Devonian extinctions, culminating in the Hangenberg event and atmospheric oxygen falling to 13%. Few arthropods left on land.[18] Beginning of Karoo Ice Age. Romer's gap in the tetrapod record.

350 Ma – 280 Ma

Carboniferous (359-299 Ma), beginning of Permian (299-252 Ma)

Karoo Ice Age. Formation of Pangaea supercontinent. Oxygen levels rise and animals colonize the land a second time.[18] First winged insects and reptiliomorphs such as Solenodonsaurus, synapsids (forerunners of mammals), and reptiles. Oxygen in atmosphere peaks, around 30%.[18] Carboniferous Rainforest Collapse.

280 Ma – 220 Ma Permian, Triassic (252–201 Ma)

Cycads, seed ferns. Therapsids (forerunners of mammals) such as pelycosaurs and cynodonts. End-Capitanian extinction event.[20] Siberian Traps eruption and Permian-Triassic extinction event. Dinosaur tracks.[21][22] 40 °C sea temperatures during Smithian-Spathian extinction. Turtles. Dominance of archosaurs: crocodile-like Crurotarsi. First pterosaurs, ichthyosaurs. Dinosaurs. Gymnosperms dominant. Dicroidium flora common on land. Manicouagan Crater formed. First lizards.

220 Ma – 180 Ma

Triassic, Jurassic (201–145 Ma)

Central Atlantic eruption and Triassic–Jurassic extinction event. Oxygen in atmosphere hits low of about 12%.[18] Breakup of Pangaea into Gondwana and Laurasia. Mammals. Gymnosperms (especially conifers, Bennettitales, and cycads) and ferns common. Sauropods, carnosaurs, stegosaurs. Toarcian turnover (extinction). Gondwana breaks up. Juramaia sinensis, first known placental mammal.

180 million years ago to 55 million years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
180 Ma – 140 Ma Jurassic

First birds (Archaeopteryx).

140 Ma – 110 Ma Early Cretaceous (145 – 100 Ma), |Aptian & Albian

Flowering plants. India breaks from East Gondwana. Ontong Java eruption. First known snakes. Early-Aptian anoxic event. Seas cool by 5 °C during 2 million years.[23] Earliest known monotreme fossils. Sinodelphys, earliest known marsupial. Eomaia, earliest known eutherian.

110 Ma – 90 Ma Late Cretaceous: Cenomanian, Turonian, Coniacian, Santonian

Bees. Mammals diversify into many forms.[24] Cenomanian-Turonian boundary event (oceans anoxic for half a million years).[25]

90 Ma – 70 Ma Campanian & Maastrichtian stages of the Cretaceous

Dominance of angiosperm rosids. Mosasaurs are dominant marine predator.

70 Ma – 55 Ma

Paleocene (66–56 Ma)

Evidence for grasses in dinosaur dung (coprolites). Crocodiles. Madagascar breaks away from India. Bolide creates Chicxulub Crater. Deccan Traps. Possible Shiva crater. Cretaceous-Tertiary Extinction Event. Mammals dominate. Titanoboa, largest known snake. Eritherium, first known proboscid. Lemurs. Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum.

55 million years ago to 18 million years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
55 Ma – 45 Ma Early Eocene

First creodonts. First equid, the Eohippus or Hyracotherium. Andes mountains begin to rise. Azolla event. India collides with Asia, giving rise to the Himalayas. First cetaceans (whales) and simians.

45 Ma – 35 Ma Eocene

Primates cross Atlantic to South America and become New World monkeys. First elephant-like animal, the Moeritherium. Grasses common. 100-km Popigai crater in Siberia. 2-mile (3.2 km) diameter bolide creates 90-km Chesapeake Bay impact crater in America.

35 Ma – 28 Ma Beginning of Oligocene (34 – 23 Ma)

Tasmanian Seaway and Drake Passage open, allowing creation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. Baleen whales appear. Gould Belt of stars created.[26] Alps begin to rise. First indricotheria, "hornless rhinoceros" about 6 metres high. Explosive eruption of La Garita Caldera in Colorado.

28 Ma – 22 Ma Oligocene, Chattian

Pelagornis sandersi, largest known flying bird with a wingspan of 6 or 7 metres. Puijila darwini, early pinniped. Daeodon shoshonensis (a "terminator pig").

22 Ma – 18 Ma Miocene (23 to 5 Ma), Aquitanian age

Dawn bear - ancestor of bears.

18 million years ago to 5.5 million years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
18 Ma – 14 Ma Miocene, Burdigalian age, Langhian age

Antarctica becomes mostly ice-covered. Africa/Arabia collides with Eurasia, end of Tethys Sea. Columbia River basalts. First deinotheres, similar to an elephant but with tusks on lower jaw. Nördlinger Ries impact crater. Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum, Middle Miocene disruption. Hominidae split from gibbons.

14 Ma – 11 Ma Miocene, Serravallian age

Last of the adapiforms. Anoiapithecus, one of the first hominids, in Spain.

11 Ma – 9 Ma Miocene, Tortonian age
9 Ma – 7 Ma Miocene, Tortonian age

First Gigantopithecus, an ape almost 10 feet (3.0 m) tall.<--From 9 Ma--> C4 grasses become common. Crocodiles cross the Atlantic to America.[27]

7 Ma – 5.5 Ma Miocene, Messinian age

"Toumaï", of species Sahelanthropus tchadensis, shows some human traits. First Thylacosmilus, sabre-toothed marsupial of South America. Orrorin tugenensis, possible hominin. Mediterranean Sea dries up (Messinian Event).

5.5 million years ago to 1.8 million years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 Ma – 4.5 Ma Pliocene, Zanclean

Zanclean Deluge. Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus anamensis. Divergence of polar bears and brown bears. Possible date of 52-km Karakul crater in Tajikistan.

4.5 Ma – 3.5 Ma Pliocene, Zanclean

Human bipedalism. First Australopithecus afarensis. Hominid fossil footprints in Laetoli, Tanzania.

3.5 Ma – 2.8 Ma Pliocene, Piacenzian

Evidence of use of stone tools by A. afarensis.[28][29] Human line loses fur (possibly).[30] Possible time of Isthmus of Panama connecting South and Central America. Great American Interchange. Lucy, member of the species Australopithecus afarensis. First Megatherium americanum, a giant sloth.

2.8 Ma – 2.2 Ma Beginning of Pleistocene, Gelasian, Lower Paleolithic

Beginning of the current ice age, known as the Quaternary glaciation. Homo habilis appears. Oldowan tools used near Gona, Ethiopia. Possible tool use in Sivalik Hills, India.[31][32] Stone artefacts at Longgupo (Dragon Bone Slope) in China.[33] (see also Wushan Man)

2.2 Ma – 1.8 Ma Gelasian

Island Park Caldera in Wyoming and Idaho. Homo erectus appears. Dmanisi Man (Homo erectus georgicus) in Dmanisi, Georgia and in Xiaochangliang, China. Human-like Australopithecus sediba. Homo ergaster in Africa. First signs of Acheulian culture, in Kenya. Last known terror birds.

1.8 million years ago to 550,000 years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
1.8 Ma – 1.4 Ma

First true hand-axes. Homo erectus found in Europe. Giant megalodon shark goes extinct.

1.4 Ma – 1.1 Ma

Henry's Fork Caldera in Idaho erupts.

1.1 Ma – 900 ka

Stone artefacts on Flores, made by hominins.[34] This required crossing seas at least 19 km wide.[35] 14-km Zhamanshin Crater formed in Kazakhstan. Hominin footprints and tools in England.

900 ka – 700 ka

Evidence of use of fire (Daughters of Jacob Bridge, Palestine).[36] Brunhes–Matuyama geomagnetic reversal. Homo floresiensis-like creatures on Flores.[37][38]

700 ka – 550 ka Günz glaciation

Yellowstone Caldera supervolcano spreads ash over North America. Homo antecessor in Spain. Cut marks on human bones indicate cannibalism.[39]

550,000 years ago to 180,000 years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
550 ka – 450 ka Günz-Mindel interglacial Mindel glaciation

Stone points (possibly for spears) used by Homo heidelbergensis in South Africa. Etching on shell at Trinil in East Java, done by Homo erectus.[40] Homo heidelbergensis in Germany, France, and Greece. Oldest known spear, Clacton-on-Sea.[41]

450 ka – 350 ka Mindel glaciation, Mindel-Riss interglacial

Homo heidelbergensis footprints in Italy (Ciampate del Diavolo). Venus of Tan-Tan (300 to 500 ka ago) and Venus of B'rekhat Ram (233 to 800 ka ago). First appearance of proto-Neanderthal traits.

350 ka – 280 ka

Estimated time of Y-chromosomal Adam.[42] Schöningen wooden spears.[43] Geminga supernova may have begun the creation of the Local Bubble.

280 ka – 220 ka

Strait of Dover formed. Apparent date of stone tools at the Hueyatlaco site in Mexico.

220 ka – 180 ka Illinoian Stage (Riß glaciation)

First traces of Homo sapiens (Omo remains).

180,000 years ago to 55,000 years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
180 ka – 140 ka Illinoian Stage (Riß glaciation)

Underground circular piles of stalagmites built by Neanderthals.[44] Use of ochre, fine stone blades, and seafood at Pinnacle Point, SA (164±12ka ago).[45][46] Evidence for use of fire to pre-treat stone for making blades.[47] Appearance of full-blown Neanderthal traits. Stone tools in Crete (40 km from nearest neighboring land).

140 ka – 110 ka Eemian interglacial

Estimated time of Mitochondrial Eve. Temperatures generally higher than today during the Eemian interglacial. Late Eemian Aridity Pulse. Tools used at Talepu site in Sulawesi.[48][49]

110 ka – 90 ka

Shells with holes, probably used as beads, at the Es Skhul cave on Mount Carmel. Abbassia Pluvial. Humans with modern teeth in China (Fuyan Cave, between 80 and 120 ka ago).[50] Paint made at Blombos Cave.[51] First evidence of metre-high Flores Man on the island of Flores (Indonesia). Human burial at Qafzeh in Israel. Remains of string in France.[52]

90 ka – 70 ka Beginning of Würm glaciation

Shell beads in Taforalt Caves, Morocco. Tools made in Kota Tampan, Malaysia, probably by Homo sapiens. Abstract designs engraved on ochre, and pressure flaking, at Blombos Cave in South Africa. Use of glue, arrowhead-like projectile points, and insecticidal Cape Laurel for bedding at Sibudu Cave in South Africa.

70 ka – 55 ka Ca. 68,000 – ca. 53,000 BCE

Supervolcano Toba in Indonesia erupts, covering India and Pakistan with ash and starting a 1,000-year ice age. Humans begin to use clothing. Humans on Luzon, Philippines.[53] Sewing needle-like implement used at Sibudu Cave, South Africa. Engraved ostrich eggs at Diepkloof Rock Shelter. Humans enter Tibetan plateau. Mousterian culture.

55,000 years ago to 18,00 years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
55 ka – 45 ka Ca. 53,000 – ca. 43,000 BCE

Last evidence of Homo erectus[54]

45 ka – 35 ka Ca. 43,000 – ca. 33,000 BCE Upper Paleolithic

First Cro Magnon people. Neanderthal Divje Babe flute - prehistoric music. Mining of hematite at the Lion Cave in Swaziland. Mungo Man in Australia. Deep sea fishing.[55] Brief geomagnetic Laschamp Excursion. 50-metre diameter asteroid creates 1.2-km Meteor Crater in Arizona. Homo sapiens in Peștera cu Oase, Romania and in Tianyuan Cave, China. Oldest dated cave decoration (red ochre dot, in Caves of Monte Castillo, Spain). Neanderthals disappear. Needles and sewing. Shoes. Beginnings of Aurignacian culture. Paleolithic flutes and Venus of Hohler Fels, Dyed flax fibres in Georgia.

35 ka – 28 ka Ca. 33,000 – ca. 26,000 BCE

Oldest known skull of a dog (Siberia), with wolf-like teeth.[56] Oats made into flour.[57][58] Human presence in Japan. Lion man ivory sculpture. Chauvet Cave paintings. Stone mortar and pestle used to grind fern and cattail tubers.[59][60] Impression of rope on fired clay.[61] Avian figurine in ivory and stone phallus of Hohler Fels.[62] Venus of Dolní Věstonice (first known ceramic). End of Aurignacian culture, beginning of Gravettian.

28 ka – 22 ka Ca. 26,000 – ca. 20,000 BCE

Imprint of woven cloth in clay (Czech Republic). Venus of Lespugue (ivory sculpture). First known spear thrower or atlatl. Oruanui eruption in New Zealand. Venus of Brassempouy (carving of face). Lapedo child with mixture of Neanderthal and sapiens features at Lagar Velho Portugal.

22 ka – 18 ka Ca. 20,000 – ca. 16,000 BCE

End of Gravettian culture, beginning of Solutrean. Ishango Bone, thought by some to be a tally stick which may show a prime number sequence. 1.9-km Tenoumer crater in Mauritania. Claimed presence of Australian aborigine-type people in Brazil.[63][64] First clear evidence of building (homes),[65] remains of mud huts at Ohalo, by Sea of Galilee. Pottery sherds at Xianren Cave. Reported date of artefacts found on Cactus Hill in Virginia.[66]

18,000 years ago to 5,500 years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
18 ka – 14 ka Ca. 16,000 – ca. 12,000 BCE

Disappearance of Solutrean. Beginning of Magdalenian culture. Clay figurines of animals.[67] Lascaux cave paintings and 7mm-diameter rope. Red Deer Cave people, a possible separate species of Homo in China. Stone tools at the Buttermilk Creek Complex in Texas. Evidence of massacre at Cemetery 117. Older Dryas cold spell. Most recent glaciation gradually ends. Sea level rises 30 metres in a few hundred years (Meltwater pulse 1A).

14 ka – 11 ka Ca. 12,000 – ca. 9,000 BCE. End of Pleistocene, beginning of Holocene.

Clovis culture in Americas. Beginning of Natufian culture in Levant. Outburst of water from Lake Agassiz or Younger Dryas impact event bring about the Younger Dryas cold spell. Extinction of many species of large animals. Natufian Shaman burial[68] and earliest known banquet.[69] Vela Supernova only 800 ly away. Island of Spartel flooded (possible site of Atlantis). Arrow-shaft straighteners used by Natufian culture in the Levant. Neolithic revolution (agriculture begins, domestication of animals). Göbekli Tepe (temple-like monuments and art). Lime. Earliest layers of Jericho – first known monumental building (stone tower 8 m high).

11 ka – 9 ka Transition from Mesolithic to Neolithic. Pre-Pottery Neolithic B in Mideast, 9th millennium BCE, 8th millennium BCE

Copper pendant in Iraq. Toothpicks and birch-bark chewing gum. Sea rises about 20 m in 9th millennium BCE. Possible lunar time reckoner at Warren Field in Aberdeenshire.[70] Kennewick Man in Washington, whose skull was different from modern Native Americans. Oldest cloth yet found (Çayönü). Oldest evidence of alcoholic beverage, in China. Dentistry.

9 ka – 7 ka Ubaid period. 7th millennium BCE, 6th millennium BCE

Trepanation. Lake Agassiz largely empties into the Hudson Bay. Finse event, a 300-year cold spell. Storegga tsunami. Mount Etna causes tsunami, possibly ending Atlit Yam settlement (Israel). Smelted lead, pottery & finger rings at Çatal Höyük. Opium Wine and beer. Cheesemaking (Poland). Sea rises 15–20 m in 6th millennium BCE, flooding Doggerland and cutting off Britain. Holocene thermal maximum brings temperatures warmer than today. Older Peron "transgression" (high sea level). Sahara region not a desert (Neolithic Subpluvial). Megaliths. Domestication of the horse. Pottery revolutionized by the potter's wheel. Earliest known smelting of copper (Serbia).

7 ka – 5.5 ka Chalcolithic. 5th millennium BCE, beginning of 4th millennium BCE

Oldest wrought gold known, in Varna necropolis. Last mastodons. Copper Age. Continuation of Holocene thermal maximum. 5.9 kiloyear event – redesertification of Sahara begins. Sweet Track roadway. Silver mining. Invention of wheel. Large city of Hamoukar, destroyed in war, probably by Uruk in Sumer.

5,500 years ago to 1,800 years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 ka – 4.5 ka End of 4th millennium BCE, beginning of 3rd millennium BCE. Beginning of Bronze Age.

Ötzi the Iceman. Bronze. Phonetic writing begins in Sumer (Cuneiform) and Elam. Yamna culture, identified with the Proto-Indo-Europeans. Invention of toilet and sewerage systems (Indus civilization and Skara Brae). Soap-like substance produced in Babylon.[71] Wire. Cannabis in use. Pyramids of Ancient Egypt, Indus civilization, Ur, Stonehenge.

4.5 ka – 3.5 ka End of 3rd millennium BCE, beginning of 2nd millennium BCE

Gilgamesh epic Sargon, use of bronze, surgery. Law code of Ur-Nammu. Farming starts in KentuckyEastern Agricultural Complex [72] Xia dynasty. Minoan Crete. Hammurabi. Avellino eruption of Vesuvius. Calculation of the square root of 2 in Babylon.[73] Rhind Mathematical Papyrus, implying an approximation of pi. Last mammoths. Thera eruption.

3.5 ka – 2.8 ka ca. 1500 BCE – ca. 800 BCE. Beginning of Iron Age.

Egyptian medical papyri. Akhenaten. Rigveda. Shang dynasty. Olmec civilization. Trojan war, Bronze Age collapse. Hekla 3 eruption. Beginning of Zhou Dynasty. David and Solomon. Apiculture.

2.8 ka – 2.2 ka ca. 800 BCE – ca. 200 BCE

Zarathustra (Zoroaster), Homer, Hesiod. Fall of Kingdom of Israel and Kingdom of Judah. First coins. Solon's reforms in Athens. Cyrus, Kǒng Fūzǐ (Confucius) Buddha (date uncertain), Pythagoras, rudimentary democracy in Athens. Greco-Persian Wars, Etruscan civilization, Socrates, Hippocrates, Plato, Aristotle. Helike sinks beneath the waves. Alexander, Euclid. Gallic invasion of the Balkans. Library of Alexandria. Ashoka. Punic Wars end with razing of Carthage. Qin Dynasty.

2.2 ka – 1.8 ka ca. 200 BCE – ca. 200 CE

Han Dynasty. Julius Caesar. Roman Empire, Yeshua (Jesus). Spread of Buddhism. Lions become extinct in Western Europe. 115 Antioch earthquake, Hadrian's Wall. Kanishka the Great and the Kushan Empire. Antonine Plague, Christianity, Gnosticism, Mithraism

1,800 years ago to 550 years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
1.8 ka – 1.4 ka ca. 200 – ca. 600

Manichaeism Plague of Cyprian. Jin Dynasty. Constantine. 365 Crete earthquake. Roman Empire splits. Tiwanaku. Classic Maya civilization. Byzantine Empire, Augustine, Attila, Saint Patrick, King Arthur. Teotihuacán. Nika riots. Climate changes of 535-536. Plague of Justinian.

1.4 ka – 1.1 ka ca. 600 – ca. 900

Tang dynasty. Sasanids temporarily conquer Egypt. Muhammad. Muslims capture Ctesiphon, largest city in world. Alexandria falls to the Muslims. Siege of Constantinople (717–718). Battle of Poitiers. Donation of Pepin. 774–775 carbon-14 spike.[74] Charlemagne. Saeculum obscurum. Vikings.

1100 y – 900 y ca. 900 – ca. 1100

Beowulf written. Chinese invent gunpowder. Bjarni Herjólfsson sights North America. Leifr Eiriksson goes there (Vinland). Medieval Warm Period. Song Dynasty, true north discovered. Ibn Sina. East-West Schism. Height of Kievan Rus' and Fatimid Caliphate, decline of Byzantine Empire. Norman Conquest. First Crusade.

900 y – 700 y ca. 1100 – ca. 1300

Crusades. Height of Khmer Empire. Bombard invented in China. Genghis Khan. Magna Carta. Francis of Assisi. Mount Rinjani on Lombok erupts, causing global cooling and failed harvests. Siege of Baghdad (1258) by the Mongols. Mamluks defeat Mongol army of Hulagu Khan (under Kitbuqa) in the Battle of Ain Jalut. Thomas Aquinas. Cannon. Yuan Dynasty. Marco Polo.

700 y – 550 y ca. 1300 – ca. 1470

Great Famine of 1315–1317. Beginning of Hundred Years' War. Black Death. Beginning of the Renaissance. Chaucer. Beginning of Ming Dynasty. Hwacha multiple rocket launcher. Zheng He. Battle of Grunwald. Battle of Agincourt. Joan of Arc. Kuwae eruption. Fall of Constantinople. Gutenberg.

550 years ago to 180 years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
550 y – 450 y End of 15th century, beginning of 16th century

Wars of the Roses. Columbus rediscovers the New World. Muscovite–Lithuanian Wars (1492 to 1537). Vasco da Gama reaches India by sea. Columbian Exchange. Da Vinci, Michelangelo. Luther and the Reformation. Siege of Vienna. Copernicus, Scientific Revolution. 1556 Shaanxi earthquake.

450 y – 350 y End of 16th century, beginning of 17th century

Beginning of Eighty Years' War. First of about 11 Russo-Turkish Wars (1568 to 1878). Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Battle of Lepanto. Spanish Armada. Microscope. Rise of the Moghul Empire. Russian Time of Troubles and Russian famine of 1601–1603, probably connected to eruption of Huaynaputina. Beginning of Little Ice Age (ca. 1550 to 1850). Beginning of Northern Wars (1554 to 1721). William Shakespeare. King James Bible. Thirty Years' War. Galileo. English Civil War. Descartes. Fermat. Pascal. Louis XIV.

350 y – 280 y 1666 – 1736

Great Fire of London. Franco-Dutch War. Battle of Vienna and Great Turkish War. Isaac Newton. Glorious Revolution of 1688. Nine Years' War. Seven ill years in Scotland, failure of the Darién scheme. War of the Spanish Succession. Great Northern War. Battle of Poltava in Ukraine – beginning of decline of Swedish power. South Sea Bubble. Defoe, Swift, Bach,

280 y – 220 y 1736 – 1796

Voltaire. Age of Enlightenment. Lisbon destroyed by earthquake, tsunami, and fire. Seven Years' War. Rousseau. American Revolution, Watt engine. Dismantlement of Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. Eruption of Laki. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. French Revolution, Haitian Revolution.

220 y – 180 y 1796 – 1836

First locomotive. Ludwig van Beethoven. Napoleon I of France. New Madrid earthquakes. War of 1812. Eruption of Mount Tambora. Battle of Waterloo. Simón Bolívar. Year Without a Summer. Photography, electric motor. Babbage. Telegraph.

180 years ago to 55 years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
180 y – 140 y 1836 – 1876

First Opium War. Mexican–American War. Revolutions of 1848. Crimean War. Taiping Civil War kills at least 20 million. John Snow. Beginning of Third Plague Pandemic. Second Opium War. Darwin. Solar storm of 1859. American Civil War. Austro-Prussian War. Joseph Lister. Marx. Long Depression.

140 y – 110 y 1876 – 1906

Telephone. Pasteur. War of the Pacific. First Boer War. Invention of automobile. Krakatoa. 1887 Yellow River flood. Mark Twain. Henry George. Spanish–American War. Boxer Rebellion. Second Boer War. Philippine–American War. Wright Brothers. Russo-Japanese War. Einstein's papers on special relativity and quantization of light (photons).

110 y – 90 y 1906 – 1926

1906 San Francisco earthquake. US Panic of 1907. Tunguska event. First Model T. Freud, Cubism, Republic of China, RMS Titanic. Novarupta volcano, biggest eruption of the 20th century. World War I. General relativity, Russian Revolution. Irish War of Independence. Russian famine of 1921. Greco-Turkish War (1919–1922).

90 y – 70 y 1926 – 1946

Stalin. Crash of 1929. 1931 Yellow River flood. Soviet famine of 1932–1933. Great Depression. Hitler. FDR, New Deal. Gödel. Gandhi. Second Sino-Japanese War, Spanish Civil War. LSD invented. World War II. Ballistic missiles, radar, jet aircraft. Penicillin. Atom bomb, Bretton Woods system.

70 y – 55 y 1946 – 1961

United Nations. Cold War begins. ENIAC, formation of Israel and 1948 Arab–Israeli War. NATO, Mao Zedong. Korean War. Structure of DNA found. McCarthyism, Elvis Presley. Suez War. Beginning of Vietnam War. Sputnik. ARPA. Cuban Revolution, invention of laser. 1960 Valdivia earthquake, most powerful recorded earthquake. Ca. 20-30 million die in Great Chinese Famine. Berlin Wall.

55 years ago to 18 years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
55 y – 45 y 1961 – 1971

John F. Kennedy. Cuban missile crisis, American Civil Rights Movement. Indonesian killings of 1965–66. Decolonisation, Space Race. Cultural Revolution (1966–76). Six-Day War. 2001 (film). Vietnam War, Counterculture. Unix, Moon landing, Woodstock. Bhola cyclone kills 500,000,

45 y – 35 y 1971 – 1981

Bangladesh Liberation War. Yom Kippur War. Richard Nixon resigns. Banqiao Dam and 61 other dams break in China. Khmer Rouge. Tangshan earthquake. Downfall of Gang of Four. Microcomputers, Jimmy Carter, Three Mile Island, Margaret Thatcher comes to power, Usenet. Eruption of Mount St. Helens. Pac-Man. CNN

35 y – 28 y 1981 – 1988

MTV. AIDS discovered. First IBM PC. Beginning of presidency of Ronald Reagan. Falklands War. Black July pogrom against Tamils in Sri Lanka. Macintosh Bhopal disaster, Soviet-Afghan War. Discovery of ozone hole. Challenger Disaster. Chernobyl, first 80386, Iran-Contra scandal . BSE, perestroika, Black Monday,

28 y – 22 y 1988 – 1994

1988 Burmese uprising. End of Iran–Iraq War, March 1989 geomagnetic storm cuts power in Quebec. US invades Panama, Tiananmen protests, fall of Berlin Wall. Launch of Hubble Space Telescope, George H. W. Bush presidency, First Gulf War. AOL. Eruption of Mount Pinatubo. 1991 Soviet coup d'état attempt, End of USSR. Black Wednesday attack on British pound. Beginning of Clinton presidency. First Pentium. Bosnian War. End of apartheid. 1994 Los Angeles earthquake.

22 y – 18 y 1994 – 1998

Rwandan massacre. Israeli-Jordanian Peace Treaty. Rising use of the Internet and the World Wide Web. Start of World Trade Organization. Kobe earthquake. Windows 95, Java programming language. Tony Blair becomes PM of the UK. Asian financial crisis.

18 years ago to 5.5 years ago[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
18 y – 14 y 1998 – 2002

Human genome sequenced. Good Friday Agreement. Discovery of the acceleration of the universe. Kosovo War, 1999 Izmit, Turkey earthquake. Second Chechen War, Vladimir Putin president of Russia, end of Indonesian occupation of East Timor, Y2K scare Start of al-Aqsa Intifada. George W. Bush becomes president of US, 2001 Gujarat earthquake, September 11 attacks, US invasion of Afghanistan.

14 y – 11 y 2002 – 2005

Columbia disaster, Darfur conflict begins, 2003 Iraq War, European heat wave of 2003. Bam earthquake. Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity land on Mars. Yassir Arafat dies. 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.

11 y – 9 y 2005 – 2007

John Paul II dies. Gaza pullout by Israel, Great Flood of New Orleans, Kashmir earthquake. 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, 2006 North Korean nuclear test. Nicolas Sarkozy becomes president of France.

9 y – 7 y 2007 – 2009

Battle of Gaza (2007). iPhone. Gordon Brown becomes PM of UK. World population becomes more than 50% urban. Northwest Passage opens for first time in recorded history. Cyclone Sidr, Cyclone Nargis. 2008 Sichuan earthquake. 2008 Russo-Georgian War. 2008 economic crisis. 2008 Mumbai attacks. 2008-2009 Israel-Gaza conflict. Barack Obama president of US.

7 y – 5.5 y 2009 – 2010

2009 swine flu outbreak. 2010 Haiti earthquake. 2010 Chile earthquake. iPad. 2010 Yushu earthquake. 2010 eruptions of Eyjafjallajökull. Deepwater Horizon oil spill. 2010 European sovereign debt crisis. 2010 United iKingdom general election brings David Cameron to power. 2010 Gaza flotilla clash. 2010 Northern Hemisphere summer heat wave. 2010 Pakistan floods.

5.5 years ago to present[edit]

Time interval, before the present time. a=annus (year) Period Event, invention or historical development
5.5 y – 4.5 y 2010 – 2011

WikiLeaks publishes US diplomatic cables. 2010–2011 Queensland floods. 2010–2011 Tunisian revolution.

Egyptian Revolution of 2011. February 2011 Christchurch earthquake. Fukushima nuclear accident. Beginning of Syrian Civil War. Assassination of Osama bin Laden. Last Space Shuttle flight. 2011 North American heat wave, Utøya massacre. United States debt-ceiling crisis. 2011 England riots. 2011 Libyan civil war ends rule of Mu`ammar al-Qaddhafi, 2011 Thailand floods.

4.5 y – 3.5 y 2011 – 2012

Largest strike-slip earthquake ever recorded.[75] François Hollande becomes president of France. Discovery of the Higgs boson. Curiosity rover lands on Mars.

3.5 y – 2.8 y 2012 – 2013

Hurricane Sandy. Operation Pillar of Defense.

France intervenes in the Northern Mali conflict. Chelyabinsk meteor. Hugo Chavez dies. Benedict XVI resigns, Pope Francis elected. Cyprus bailout. 2013 Korean crisis. 2013 protests in Turkey.

2.8 y – 2.2 y 2013 – 2014

2013 protests in Brazil. 2013 Egyptian coup d'état. 2013 NSA surveillance scandal. Ghouta chemical attack. Westgate shopping mall attack. Record heat in Australia leads to 2013 New South Wales bushfires. Typhoon Haiyan (Yolanda), most powerful on record. Establishment of Federation of Northern Syria – Rojava. War in Central African Republic, Beginning of South Sudanese Civil War. 2013–14 North American cold wave, Belgium legalises euthanasia.

2.2 y – 0 y 2014 – 2016

2014 Ukrainian revolution and Crimean crisis. 2013–14 Thai political crisis. Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant launches 2014 Northern Iraq offensive and announces caliphate. 2014 Israel–Gaza conflict. West African Ebola virus epidemic, Rosetta mission arrives at Comet 67P. 2014 Peshawar school massacre. United States–Cuban Thaw.

January 2015 Paris attacks. Dawn spacecraft arrives at Ceres. 2015 military intervention in Yemen, Garissa University College attack. April 2015 Nepal earthquake, FIFA crisis. 2015 Rohingya refugee crisis. Greek bailout referendum, Iran nuclear deal, Turkey-PKK conflict restarts, New Horizons visits Pluto, Beginning of European refugee crisis. Volkswagen emissions scandal. Mecca crane collapse and Mina stampede. Evidence of saltwater flows found on Mars. Russian intervention in Syria. Knife Intifada. Metrojet Flight 9268 brought down near Sharm el-Sheikh. November 2015 Paris attacks. Mauricio Macri President in Argentina, opposition wins 2015 Venezuelan parliamentary election. 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference. New Year's Eve sexual assaults in Germany.

Saudi Arabia executes Nimr al-Nimr. 2016 North Korean nuclear test and satellite launch. LIGO announces discovery of gravitational waves. Zika fever outbreak, ExoMars Trace Gas Orbiter launched. 2016 Brussels bombings. Panama Papers. 2016 Ecuador earthquake. Fort McMurray fire. Impeachment of Dilma Rousseff. Britain votes to leave the EU. Panama Canal widened.


A logarithmic timeline can also be devised for events which should occur in the future, barring unforeseen circumstances and assuming that we can extrapolate into the future based on our science.

Time interval Event
1 – 10 years (2016–2026)
10 – 100 years (2026–2116) Global warming
100 – 1000 years (2116-3016) Consumption of fossil fuels much lower than at present
1000 – 10 ka (3016-12 016 CE) Summer and winter constellations switch, north celestial pole moves far from present North Star
10 ka – 100 ka (12 016 - 102 016 CE) Presently used Computus will give Paschal Full Moon at new moon.

Present constellations become unrecognizable.

Hebrew Calendar out of sync with seasons.

100 ka – 1 Ma Gregorian Calendar out of sync with seasons.

Several supervolcanoes erupt. Strait of Gibraltar closes, Mediterranean Sea dries up.

1 Ma – 10 Ma Technetium-99 produced today ceases to be dangerous

Several kilometre-size asteroids or comets on collision course with Earth.

Gliese 710 comes within about a lightyear of the sun.

The Afar Depression and the East African Rift become a new sea, splitting Africa.

10 Ma – 100 Ma Mediterranean basin closes.

Iodine-129 and Neptunium-237 in nuclear waste decay.

100 Ma – 1 Ga Different continents from today due to splitting and coalescence.

Sun completes several orbits around the Milky Way

1 Ga – 10 Ga Hotter sun makes land too hot for life.

Oceans evaporate.

Possible Andromeda–Milky Way collision.

Sun becomes a red giant

10 Ga – 100 Ga

Sun becomes a white dwarf

Uranium decays away. Rhenium-187 decays away.

100 Ga – 1 Ta White dwarf Sun fades away.

Local Group coalesces.

Thorium decays away.

1 Ta – 10 Ta

Galaxies outside Local Supercluster no longer visible (if dark energy prevails). Proxima Centauri ceases to be a main-sequence star.

10 Ta – 100 Ta Star formation ends, so does the Stelliferous Era. The Degenerate Era starts.
100 Ta – 1 Pa Nuclear fusion ceases (if not sooner).

Sun becomes a black dwarf.

1 Pa – 10 Pa Planets fall or are flung away from their stars.
10 Pa – 100 Pa
100 Pa – 1 exaannus
1 Ea – 10 Ea
10 Ea – 100 Ea Bismuth decays into lead and mercury.
100 Ea – 1 zettaannus

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]