User:Transhumanist/List of nutrition-related topics

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General dietary terms[edit]

Diets and Dieting[edit]

See also List of diets




Amino Acids[edit]


Saturated fats[edit]

Monounsaturated fats[edit]

Polyunsaturated fats[edit]

Essential fatty acids[edit]

Other Fats[edit]

Fat substitutes[edit]


Dietary fiber[edit]



Sugar substitutes[edit]

  • Artificial sugar substitutes
    • Acesulfame-K
    • Acesulfame potassium — 200x sweetness (by weight), Nutrinova, E950, FDA Approved 2003
    • Alitame — 2,000x sweetness (by weight), Pfizer, Pending FDA Approval
    • Aspartame — 160-200x sweetness (by weight), NutraSweet, E951, FDA Approved 1981
    • Cyclamate — 30x sweetness (by weight), Abbott, E952, FDA Banned 1969, pending re-approval
    • Dulcin — 250x sweetness (by weight), FDA Banned 1950
    • Neohesperidine dihydrochalcone — 1,500x sweetness (by weight), E959
    • Neotame — 8,000x sweetness (by weight), NutraSweet, FDA Approved 2002
    • P-4000 — 4,000x sweetness (by weight), FDA Banned 1950
    • Saccharin — 300x sweetness (by weight), E954, FDA Approved 1958
    • Sucralose — 600x sweetness (by weight), Tate & Lyle, FDA Approved 1998
  • Natural sugar substitutes
    • Brazzein — Protein, 2,000x sweetness of sucrose (by weight), Exxx
    • Curculin — Protein, 550x sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Erythritol — 0.7x sweetness (by weight), 14x sweetness of sucrose (by food energy), 0.05x energy density of sucrose
    • Fructose
    • Glycyrrhizin — 50x sweetness (by weight)
    • Glycerol — 0.6x sweetness (by weight), 0.55x sweetness (by food energy), 1.075x energy density, E422
    • Hydrogenated starch hydrolysates — 0.4x–0.9x sweetness (by weight), 0.5x–1.2x sweetness (by food energy), 0.75x energy density
    • Isomalt — 0.45x–0.65x sweetness (by weight), 0.9x–1.3x sweetness (by food energy), 0.5x energy density, E953
    • Lactitol — 0.4x sweetness (by weight), 0.8x sweetness (by food energy), 0.5x energy density, E966
    • Mabinlin — Protein, 100x sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Maltitol — 0.9x sweetness (by weight), 1.7x sweetness (by food energy), 0.525x energy density, E965
    • Mannitol — 0.5x sweetness (by weight), 1.2x sweetness (by food energy), 0.4x energy density, E421
    • Miraculin — Protein, nx sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Monellin — Protein, 3,000x sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Pentadin — Protein, 500x sweetness (by weight), Exxx
    • Sorbitol — 0.6x sweetness (by weight), 0.9x sweetness (by food energy), 0.65x energy density, E420
    • Stevia — 250x sweetness (by weight)
    • Tagatose — 0.92x sweetness (by weight), 2.4x sweetness (by food energy), 0.38x energy density
    • Thaumatin — Protein, — 2,000x sweetness (by weight), E957
    • Xylitol — 1.0x sweetness (by weight), 1.7x sweetness (by food energy), 0.6x energy density, E967




Organic Acids[edit]


See also List of food additives

Pyramid Groups[edit]



Temperate fruits[edit]

Fruits of temperate climates are almost universally borne on trees or woody shrubs or lianas. They will not grow adequately in the tropics, as they need a period of cold (a chilling requirement) each year before they will flower. The apple, pear, cherry, and plum are the most widely grown and eaten, owing to their adaptability. Many other fruits are important regionally but do not figure prominently in commerce. Many sorts of small fruit on this list are gathered from the wild, just as they were in Neolithic times.

Rosaceae family[edit]

The Family Rosaceae dominates the temperate fruits, both in numbers and in importance. The pome fruits, stone fruits and brambles are fruits of plants in Rosaceae.

The pome fruits:


The stone fruits, drupes of genus Prunus:

  • Apricot (Prunus armeniaca or Armeniaca vulgaris)
  • Cherry, sweet, sour, and wild species (Prunus avium, P. cerasus, and others)
  • Plum, of which there are several domestic and wild species; dried plums are called prunes
  • Peach (of the normal and white variety) and its variant the nectarine (Prunus persica)
  • Chokecherry (Prunus virginiana)
  • Hybrids of the preceding species, such as the pluot, aprium and peacotum

In non-technical usage, berry means any small fruit that can be eaten whole and lacks objectionable seeds. The bramble fruits, compound fruits of genus Rubus (blackberries), are some of the most popular pseudo-berries:


The true berries are dominated by the family Ericaceae, many of which are hardy in the subarctic:

Other berries not in the Rosaceae or Ericaceae:

Fruits of Asian origin[edit]

Some fruits native to Asia that were not common elsewhere until the 20th century:

Fruits of American origin[edit]

Some other fruits native to North America that are eaten in a small way:

Cacti and other succulents[edit]

Several cacti yield edible fruits, which are important traditional foods for some Native American peoples:


Podocarps are conifers in the family Podocarpaceae. The seed cones are highly modified and, in some, the seed is surrounded by fleshy scale tissue, resembling a drupe. These berry-like cone scales are eaten by birds which then disperse the seeds in their droppings and the cones can be eaten in many species. Podocarps are either half-hardy or frost tender, depending on species. Many genera are similar in that they have edible fruits and often don't have a common name.

Herbaceous annuals fruits[edit]
Melons and other members of Cucurbitaceae or Solanaceae family[edit]

Some exceptions to the statement that temperate fruits grow on woody perennials are:

Accessory fruits[edit]

The accessory fruits, seed organs which are not botanically berries at all::

Vegetables mistaken as fruits[edit]

A few vegetables are sometimes colloquially, but incorrectly, termed as "fruit" in the kitchen:

Mediterranean and subtropical fruits[edit]

Fruits in this category are not hardy to extreme cold, as the preceding temperate fruits are, yet tolerate some frost and may have a modest chilling requirement. Notable among these are natives of the Mediterranean:


In the important genus Citrus (Rutaceae), some members are tropical, tolerating no frost. All common species of commerce are somewhat hardy:


Other subtropical fruits:

Tropical fruits[edit]

Tropical fruit grow on plants of all habitats. The only characteristic that they share is an intolerance of frost.



Western Brassicas[edit]

Closeup of romanesco broccoli.

Oriental Brassicas[edit]

Chinese White Cabbage

Leafy and salad vegetables[edit]

garden cress
Iceberg lettuce field in Northern Santa Barbara County
Spinach in flower

Fruiting and flowering vegetables[edit]

Avocado fruit (cv. 'Fuerte'); left: whole, right: in section

Podded vegetables[edit]

Diversity in dry common beans
Varieties of soybeans are used for many purposes.

American groundnut (Apios americana)

Bulb and stem vegetables[edit]

Garlic bulbs and individual cloves, one peeled.

Root and tuberous vegetables[edit]

Carrots come in a wide variety of shapes and sizes
Potatoes are one of the most used staple foods.
bunch of radishes


The Caulerpa is a genus of edible Seaweed.





See main article List of edible fish.


Some of the following are referred to as whitefish in the market, but are not whitefishes in a taxonomic sense.


These creatures are consumed in some Asian cuisines.

Milk (Dairy)[edit]

Junk foods[edit]

Dietary supplements not listed above[edit]


Herbs and Spices[edit]

Spices on sale in India

See also[edit]