|Community development block|
|• Type||Community development block|
|• Total||99.77 km2 (38.52 sq mi)|
|Elevation||31 m (102 ft)|
|• Density||2,700/km2 (6,900/sq mi)|
|• Official||Bengali, English|
|• Total literates||133,722 (61.17%)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|ISO 3166 code||IN-WB|
|Vehicle registration||WB-57, WB-58|
|Lok Sabha constituency||Jangipur|
|Vidhan Sabha constituency||Raghunathganj|
Raghunathganj II CD Block lies in the Rarh region in Murshidabad district. The Bhagirathi River splits the district into two natural physiographic regions – Rarh on the west and Bagri on the east. The Padma River separates Murshidabad district from Malda district and Chapai Nawabganj and Rajshahi districts of Bangladesh in the north. The Rarh region is undulating and contains mostly clay and lateritic clay based soil. As the Rajmahal hills slopes gently down from adjoining Jharkhand it forms the Nabagram plain at the lowest edge of its elevation in this region. The eastern slope of the region is characterised by the existence of numerous cliffs and bluffs.
The Rarh region or the western part of the district is drained by the right bank tributarires of the Bhagirathi, flowing down from the hilly / plateau region of Santhal Pargana division in neighbouring Jharkhand. The Farakka Barrage regulates the flow of water into the Bhagirathi through the feeder canal. Thereafter, it is fed with the discharge from the Mayurakshi system. About 1,800 km2 of area in the neighbourhood of Kandi town is flooded by the combined discharge of the Mayurakshi, Dwarka, Brahmani, Gambhira, Kopai and Bakreshwar – the main contributor being the Mayurakshi. Certain other areas in the western sector also get flooded.
A major problem is river bank erosion. As of 2013, an estimated 2.4 million people reside along the banks of the Ganges alone in Murshidabad district. The estimated cost of protection along the 174 km stretch is Rs. 1,740 crore. The budget sanction is an insignificant fraction of this. Between 1931 and 1977, 26,769 hecatres have been eroded and many villages have been fully submerged. 1980-1990 was a decade of erosion for this district and during the decade Giria, Sekhalipur, Khejustala, Mithipur, Fajilpur, Rajapur, Akheriganj, Parashpur villages were badly affected.
Murshidabad is a predominantly agricultural district. A majority of the population depends on agriculture for a living. The land is fertile. The eastern portion of the Bhagirathi, an alluvial tract, is very fertile for growing Aus paddy, jute and rabi crops. The Kalantar area in the south-eastern portion of the district, is a low-lying area with stiff dark clay and supports mainly the cultivation of Aman paddy. The west flank of the Bhagirathi is a lateritic tract insersected by numerous bils and old river beds. It supports the cultivation of Aman paddy, sugar cane and mulberry.
Jot Kamal, a census town in Raghunathganj II block, is located at
Raghunathganj II CD Block is bounded by Suti I CD Block in the north, Lalgola CD Block and Chapai Nawabganj Sadar Upazila in Chapai Nawabganj District of Bangladesh, across the Ganges, in the east, Sagardighi CD Block in the south and Raghunathganj I CD Block in the west.
Murshidabad district has a 125.35 km long international border with Bangladesh of which 42.35 km is on land and the remaining is riverine. There are 9 blocks – Samserganj, Suti I, Suti II, Raghunathganj II, Lalgola, Bhagawangola I, Bhagawangola II, Raninagar II and Jalangi - along the Bangladesh-India border.
Raghunathganj II CD Block has an area of 140.91 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 6 gram panchayats, 117 gram sansads (village councils), 63 mouzas and 56 inhabited villages. Raghunathganj police station serves this block.Headquarters of this CD Block is at Jangipur.
As per 2011 Census of India Raghunathganj II CD Block had a total population of 265,336, of which 131,236 were rural and 134,100 were urban. There were 135,723 (51%) males and 129,613 (49%) females. Population below 6 years numbered 46,739. Scheduled Castes numbered 23,242 (8.76%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 86 (0.03%).
As per 2001 census, Raghunathganj II block has a total population of 192,505, out of which 94,325 were males and 98,180 were females. Raghunathganj II block registered a population growth of 24.14 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for the district was 23.70 per cent.Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.
The decadal growth of population in Raghunathganj II CD Block in 2001-2011 was 37.82%, the highest amongst all the CD Blocks in the district.
The decadal growth rate of population in Murshidabad district was as follows: 33.5% in 1951-61, 28.6% in 1961-71, 25.5% in 1971-81, 28.2% in 1981-91, 23.8% in 1991-2001 and 21.1% in 2001-11.The decadal growth rate for West Bengal in 2001-11 was 13.93%.
Census towns and villages
Census towns in Raghunathganj II CD Block were (2011 population figures in brackets): Giria (17,131), Mithipur (15,260), Jot Kamal (7,685), Osmanpur (10,512), Sahajadpur (23,280), Khodarampur (7,277), Donalia (6,081), Teghari (25,058), Krishna Sali (10,742) and Bara Jumla (11,074).
Large villages in Raghunathganj II CD Block were (2011 population figures in brackets): Lal Khandiar (1,223), Giria Kismat (7,153), Sekendara (21,668), Mukundapur (4,009), Jot Sundar (4,207), Putia (4,984), Kul Gachhi (11,292), Jamra (4,692), Bahara (12,862), Kasia Danga (14,025) and Dighir Pahar (4,468).
As per the 2011 census, the total number of literates in Raghunathganj II CD Block was 133,722 (61.17% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 72,849 (65.03% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 61,233 (57.45% of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 7.59%.
|Literacy in CD Blocks of
|Farakka – 59.75%|
|Samserganj – 54.98%|
|Suti I – 58.40%|
|Suti II – 55.23%|
|Raghunathganj I – 64.49%|
|Raghunathganj II – 61.17%|
|Sagardighi – 65.27%|
|Murshidabad-Jiaganj – 69.14%|
|Bhagawangola I - 57.22%|
|Bhagawangola II – 53.48%|
|Nabagram – 70.83%|
|Berhampore – 73.51%|
|Beldanga I – 70.06%|
|Beldanga II – 67.86%|
|Hariharpara – 69.20%|
|Naoda – 66.09%|
|Kandi – 65.13%|
|Khargram – 63.56%|
|Burwan – 68.96%|
|Bharatpur I – 62.93%|
|Bharatpur II – 66.07%|
|Domkal – 55.89%|
|Raninagar I – 57.81%|
|Raninagar II – 54.81%|
|Jalangi – 58.73%|
|Source: 2011 Census: CD Block Wise
Primary Census Abstract Data
Language and religion
In the 2001 census, Bengali was mother tongue of 98.3% of the population in Murshidabad district, followed by Santhali 0.8%, Hindi 0.4%, Telugu 0.2% and Urdu 0.1%.
In the 2011 census Muslims numbered 217,502 and formed 81.97% of the population in Raghunathganj II CD Block. Hindus numbered 47,403 and formed 17.87% of the population. Others numbered 431 and formed 0.16% of the population. In Raghunathganj I and Raghunathganj II CD Blocks taken to-gether, while the proportion of Muslims increased from 66.72% in 1991 to 67.39% in 2001, the proportion of Hindus declined from 33.20% in 1991 to 32.61% in 2001.
Murshidabad district, one of the three Muslim majority districts of West Bengal, had 4,707,573 Muslims who formed 66.27% of the population, 2,359,061 Hindus who formed 33.21% of the population, and 37, 173 persons belonging to other religions who formed 0.52% of the population, in the 2011 census. While the proportion of Muslim population in the district increased from 61.40% in 1991 to 63.67% in 2001, the proportion of Hindu population declined from 38.39% in 1991 to 35.92% in 2001.
Murshidabad was the only Muslim majority district in West Bengal at the time of partition of India in 1947. The proportion of Muslims in the population of Murshidabad district in 1951 was 55.24%.The Radcliffe Line had placed Muslim majority Murshidabad in India and the Hindu majority Khulna in Pakistan, in order to maintain the integrity of the Ganges river system In India.
According to India Today, writing about life in a Murshidabad village, : “National Sample Survey (NSS) data for 2009 accords the district the ignominious distinction of being India’s poorest, with an unbelieveable 56% of its population living below the ridiculously low Rs. 27 per capita per day poverty line recently proclaimed by the Planning Commission.”
In Raghunathganj II CD Block in 2011, amongst the class of total workers, cultivators numbered 4,541 and formed 3.90%, agricultural labourers numbered 8,438 and formed 7.25%, household industry workers numbered 43,428 and formed 37.34% and other workers numberd 59,910 and formed 51.51%.
There are 36 inhabited villages in Raghunathganj II CD Block. 100% villages have power supply. 35 villages (97.22%) have drinking water supply. 12 villages (33.33%) have post offices. 25 villages (69.44%) have telephones (including landlines, public call offices and mobile phones). 18 villages (50.00%) have a pucca approach road and 6 villages (16.67%) have transport communication (includes bus service, rail facility and navigable waterways). 2 villages (5.56%) have agricultural credit societies and 4 villages (11.11%) have banks.
From 1977 onwards major land reforms took place in West Bengal. Land in excess of land ceiling was acquired and distributed amongst the peasants.Following land reforms land ownership pattern has undergone transformation. In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Raghunathganj II CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 1,029 (4.17%), patta (document) holders 6,765 (27.41%), small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 1,302 (5.27%), marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 7,150 (28.97%) and agricultural labourers 8,438 (34.18%).
In 2013-14, Raghunathganj II CD Block produced 31,471 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop from 10,177 hectares, 384 tonnes of Boro paddy (spring crop) from 114 hectares, 141 tonnes of Aus paddy (summer crop) from103 hectares, 2,875 tonnes of wheat from 1,000 hectares, 32,052 tonnes of jute from 2,002 hectares, 83 tonnes of potatoes from 30 hectares and 160 tonnes of sugar cane from 2 hectares. It also produced pulses and oilseeds.
In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Raghunathganj II CD Block was 1,499 hectares, out of which 60 hectares were irrigated with tank water, 239 hectares with river lift irrigation and 1,200 hectares by other means.
Silk and handicrafts
Murshidabad is famous for its silk industry since the middle ages. There are three distinct categories in this industry, namely (i) Mulberry cultivation and silkworm rearing (ii) Peeling of raw silk (iii) Weaving of silk fabrics.
Ivory carving is an important cottage industry from the era of the Nawabs. The main areas where this industry has flourished are Khagra and Jiaganj. 99% of ivory craft production is exported. In more recent years sandalwood etching has become more popular than ivory carving. Bell metal and Brass utensils are manufactured in large quantities at Khagra, Berhampore, Kandi and Jangipur. Beedi making has flourished in the Jangipur subdivision.
Raghunathganj II CD Block has 5 ferry services and 2 originating/ terminating bus routes.
In 2013-14, Raghunathganj II CD Block had 97 primary schools with 16,519 students, 13 middle schools with 1,511 students, 3 high schools with 4,600 students and 8 higher secondary schools with 20,430 students. Raghunathganj II CD Block had 407 institutions special and non-formal education with 24,104 students.
In Raghunathganj II CD Block, amongst the 36 inhabited villages, 3 villages did not have a school, 22 villages have more than 1 primary school, 21 villages have at least 1 primary and 1 middle school and 7 villages had at least 1 middle and 1 secondary school.
In 2014, Raghunathganj II CD Block had 1 block primary health centre and 1 primary health centre with total 25 beds and 6 doctors (excluding private bodies). It had 28 family welfare subcentres. 6,683 patients were treated indoor and 107,434 patients were treated outdoor in the hospitals, health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.
Raghunathganj II CD Block is one of the areas of Murshidabad district where ground water is affected by a high level of arsenic contamination. The WHO guideline for arsenic in drinking water is 10 mg/ litre, and the Indian Standard value is 50 mg/ litre. All but one of the 26 blocks of Murshidabad district have arsenic contamination above the WHO level, all but two of the blocks have arsenic concentration above the Indian Standard value and 17 blocks have arsenic concentration above 300 mg/litre. The maximum concentration in Raghunathaganj II CD Block is 875 mg/litre.
- "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Physiography, Page 13. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Murshidabad". Geography. Murshidabad district authorities. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Types and sources of floods in Murshidabad, West Bengal" (PDF). Swati Mollah. Indian Journal of Applied Research, February 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "District Census Handbook, Murshidabad, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 17-22: Soil and cropping pattern, Land and land-use pattern. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- "Rahunathganj II Block". onefivenine. Retrieved 18 February 2016.
- "Tehsil Map of Murshidabad". CD Block/ Tehsil. Maps of India. Retrieved 6 August 2017.
- "Egiye Bangla Murshidabad". Murshidabad district authorities. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad, Tables 2.1, 2.2". Note: At the time of uploading of the revised version of this page the internet version of the District Statistical Handbook had been taken off but there is a print version. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 22 July 2017.
- "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Map of Murshidabad with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fourth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Murshidabad - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 15 August 2017.
- "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 14 October 2015.
- "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001 – Mushidabad district. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 28, 2011. Retrieved 8 June 2016.
- "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved 2012-04-12.
- "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Brief Analysis of Inset Tables based on Primary Census Abstract 2011 (Inset Tables 1-35), Table I: Decadal change in population of Tahsils (Sub-district) by Residence, 2001-2011, Page. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Growth Rate, Page 44. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "Decadal Growth Rate". Mps of India. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "Bangladeshi Infiltration: The Reality Check". The Pioneer, 27 June 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- "Report taking shape amid infiltration buzz". The Telegraph, 23 August 2005. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- "District Census Handbook: Murshidabad, Series 20 Part XII A" (PDF). Mother-tongue, page 48. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 24 July 2017.
- "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 20 July 2016.
- "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad". Table 17.1, Population by religion in the blocks of Murshidabad. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad". Table 2.10, Population by religion in the district of Murshidabad, 1991 and 2001. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- "Bengal beats India in Muslim growth rate". The Times of India, 26 August 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- "The rise and rise of Muslims in West Bengal". Dinajpur-Maldah-Murshidabad-Birbhum region. Hindu Post. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- Chatterji, Joya. The Spoils of Partition: Bengal and India, 1947–1967. pages 42-60. University of Cambridge, first published 2007. ISBN 978-0-521-87536-3. Retrieved 23 July 2017.
- "A day in the Life of India’s Poorest". Asit Jolly. India Today, 2 August 2013. Retrieved 25 July 2017.
- "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Murshidabad". Tables 2.7, 17.2, 16.1, 18.1, 18.2, 20.1, 21.2, 4.4, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- "District Census Handbook, Murshidabad, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 96-97 Table 36: Distribution of villages according to availability of different amenities,2011. Directorate of Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- "District Human Development Report: South 24 Parganas". (1) Chapter 1.2, South 24 Parganas in Historical Perspective, pages 7-9 (2) Chapter 3.4, Land reforms, pages 32-33. Development & Planning Department, Government of West Bengal, 2009. Retrieved 7 August 2016.
- "District Census Handbook, Murshidabad, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 22-23: Industry. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- "Egiye Bangla Murshidabad district". Handicrafts and Silk Industry. Murshidabad district administration. Retrieved 17 August 2017.
- "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- "District Census Handbook, Murshidabad, 2011, Series 20, Part XII A" (PDF). Pages 901-902, Appendix I A: Villages by number of Primary Schools and Appendix I B: Villages by Primary, Middle and Secondary Schools, 2011. Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal. Retrieved 4 August 2017.
- "Groundwater Arsenic contamination in West Bengal-India (20 years study )". Murshidabad. SOES. Retrieved 4 August 2017.