|Nickname(s): "The Pink City" (վարդագույն քաղաք vardaguyn k'aghak' , literally "rosy city")|
|City status||1 October 1879|
|Founded by||Argishti I (as Erebuni)|
|• Body||Yerevan City Council|
|• Mayor||Taron Margaryan (Republican)|
|• Total||223 km2 (86 sq mi)|
|Elevation||989.4 m (3,246.1 ft)|
|• Density||4,754/km2 (12,310/sq mi)|
|Time zone||GMT+4 (UTC+4)|
|Area code(s)||+374 10|
|Sources: Yerevan city area and population|
Yerevan (//; Armenian: Երևան [jɛɾɛˈvɑn], listen (help·info)), is the capital and largest city of Armenia, and one of the world's oldest continuously inhabited cities. Situated along the Hrazdan River, Yerevan is the administrative, cultural, and industrial center of the country. It has been the capital since 1918, the thirteenth in the history of Armenia, and the seventh located in or around the Ararat plain.
The history of Yerevan dates back to the 8th century BC, with the founding of the fortress of Erebuni in 782 BC by king Argishti I at the western extreme of the Ararat plain. Erebuni was "designed as a great administrative and religious centre, a fully royal capital." During the centuries long Iranian rule over Eastern Armenia that lasted from the early 16th century up to 1828, it was the center of Iran's Erivan khanate administrative division from 1736. In 1828, it became part of Imperial Russia alongside the rest of Eastern Armenia who conquered it from Iran through the Russo-Persian War (1826-1828). After World War I, Yerevan became the capital of the First Republic of Armenia as thousands of survivors of the Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire settled in the area. The city expanded rapidly during the 20th century as Armenia became part of the Soviet Union. In a few decades, Yerevan was transformed from a provincial town within the Russian Empire, to Armenia's principal cultural, artistic, and industrial center, as well as becoming the seat of national government.
With the growth of the economy of the country, Yerevan has been undergoing major transformation as many parts of the city have been the recipient of new construction since the early 2000s, and retail outlets as much as restaurants, shops, and street cafes, which were rare during Soviet times, have multiplied.
As of 2011, the population of Yerevan was 1,060,138, making up to 35.1% of the total population of Armenia.
- 1 Etymology and symbols
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Government and politics
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Culture
- 7 Cinemas, theatres, opera and concert halls
- 8 Tourism
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Economy
- 11 Monuments and landmarks
- 12 Education
- 13 Sports
- 14 International relations
- 15 Notable natives
- 16 See also
- 17 References
- 18 Further reading
- 19 External links
Etymology and symbols
One theory regarding the origin of Yerevan's name is the city was named after the Armenian king, Yervand IV (the Last), the last leader of the Orontid Dynasty, and founder of the city of Yervandashat. However, it is likely that the city's name is derived from the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni (Էրեբունի), which was founded on the territory of modern-day Yerevan in 782 BC by Argishti I. As elements of the Urartian language blended with that of the Armenian one, the name eventually evolved into Yerevan (Erebuni = Erevani = Erevan = Yerevan). Scholar Margarit Israelyan notes these changes when comparing inscriptions found on two cuneiform tablets at Erebuni:
The transcription of the second cuneiform bu [original emphasis] of the word was very essential in our interpretation as it is the Urartaean b that has been shifted to the Armenian v (b > v). The original writing of the inscription read «er-bu-ni»; therefore the prominent Armenianologist-orientalist Prof. G. A. Ghapantsian justly objected, remarking that the Urartu b changed to v at the beginning of the word (Biani > Van) or between two vowels (ebani > avan, Zabaha > Javakhk)....In other words b was placed between two vowels. The true pronunciation of the fortress-city was apparently Erebuny.
Early Christian Armenian chroniclers attributed the origin of the name, "Yerevan," to a derivation from an expression exclaimed by Noah, in Armenian. While looking in the direction of Yerevan, after the ark had landed on Mount Ararat and the flood waters had receded, Noah is believed to have exclaimed, "Yerevats!" ("it appeared!").
In written sources, Yerevan was also mentioned as Erevan, Erivan, Erewan, Ervan, Eruan, Arevan, Iravan, Revan and Ayravan.
The principal symbol of Yerevan is Mount Ararat, which is visible from any area in the capital. The seal of the city is a crowned lion on a pedestal with the inscription "Yerevan." The lion's head is turned backwards while it holds a scepter using the right front leg, the attribute of power and royalty. The symbol of eternity is on the breast of the lion with a picture of Ararat in the upper part. The emblem is a rectangular shield with a blue border.
On 27 September 2004, Yerevan adopted an anthem, "Erebuni-Yerevan", written by Paruyr Sevak and composed by Edgar Hovhanisyan. It was selected in a competition for a new anthem and new flag that would best represent the city. The chosen flag has a white background with the city's seal in the middle, surrounded by twelve small red triangles that symbolize the twelve historic capitals of Armenia. The flag includes the three colours of the Armenian National flag. The lion is portrayed on the orange background with blue edging.
Early history up to the Middle Ages
The ancient kingdom of Van (Ararat or Urartu or Biainili), was formed in the 9th century BC in the basin of Lake Van of the Armenian Highland, including the territory of modern-day Yerevan. King Arame was the founder of the state which was one of the most developed states of its age.
However, the territory of Yerevan-Erebuni was settled in the fourth millennium B.C., fortified settlements from the Bronze Age include Shengavit, Tsitsernakaberd, Teishebaini, Arin Berd, Karmir Berd and Berdadzor. Archaeological evidence, such as a cuneiform inscription, indicates that the Urartian military fortress of Erebuni (Էրեբունի) was founded in 782 BC (29 years earlier than Rome) by the orders of King Argishti I at the site of current-day Yerevan, to serve as a fort and citadel guarding against attacks from the north Caucasus. Yerevan, as mentioned, is considered one of the oldest cities in the world.
The cuneiform inscription found at Erebuni Fortress reads:
By the greatness of the God Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, built this mighty stronghold and proclaimed it Erebuni for the glory of Biainili [Urartu] and to instill fear among the king's enemies. Argishti says, "The land was a desert, before the great works I accomplished upon it. By the greatness of Khaldi, Argishti, son of Menua, is a mighty king, king of Biainili, and ruler of Tushpa." [Van].
During the height of Urartian power, irrigation canals and an artificial reservoir were built on Yerevan's territory. In 585 BC, the fortress of Teishebaini (Karmir Blur), thirty miles to the north of Yerevan, was destroyed by an alliance of Medes and the Scythians.
Following the disintegration of Urartu at the hands of the Iranian Medes, Yereven came under the latters rule. Following the Medes their overthrow by Cyrus the Great, it passed into Achaemenid hands. Between the sixth and fourth centuries BC, Yerevan was one of the main centers of the Armenian satrapy of the Achaemenid Empire.
Due to the absence of historical data, the timespan between the fourth century BC and the third century AD is known as the "Yerevan Dark Ages."
Armenia became a Christian nation in 301, during the rule of the Arsacid dynasty of Armenia. The first church in Yerevan, the church of St. Peter and Paul, was built in the fifth century, and was demolished in 1931 to build a cinema hall. The Katoghike Tsiranavor Church of Avan (595–602) of Avan district, which was partly damaged in the 1679 earthquake, is the city's oldest surviving church.
Following the partition of Armenia by the Byzantine Empire and Sassanid Persia, Yerevan and the wider Eastern Armenian lands came under Sassanid Persian rule, and were administrated through the province of Persian Armenia.
In 658 AD, during the height of Arab invasions, Yerevan was conquered during the Muslim conquest of Persia, as it was part of Persian-ruled Armenia. Since then, and as a result of the Arab trade activities, the site has been strategically important as a crossroads for the Arab caravan routes passing between Europe and India through lands controlled by the Arabs. It has been known as "Yerevan" since at least the seventh century AD. Between the ninth and eleventh centuries, Yerevan was a secure part of the Armenian Bagratuni Kingdom, before being overrun by Seljuks. The city was seized and pillaged by Tamerlane in 1387 and subsequently became an administrative center of the Ilkhanate. It became subsequently part of the Turkoman dynasties of the Ak Koyunlu and the Kara Koyunlu.
In 1500-1502, Eastern Armenia including Yereven were swiftly conquered by the emerging Safavid dynasty of Iran led by Shah Ismail I. For the next 3 centuries, it remained under (intermittent) Iranian rule. Due to its strategic significance, Yerevan was often fought over, and passed back and forth, between the dominion of the rivalling Iranian and Ottoman Empire, until it stabily remained in Iranian hands.
In 1555, Iran had secured its legitimate possession over Yerevan with the Ottomans by the Peace of Amasya, and this was again confirmed in 1639 with the Treaty of Zuhab. In 1604, following a scorched earth policy during the first Ottoman-Safavid War of the 17th century, Shah Abbas I ordered the deportation of hundreds of thousands of Armenians including citizens from Yerevan to Persia's heartlands. As a consequence, population became 80 percent Muslim (Persians, Turks, and Kurds) and 20 percent Armenian. Muslims were either sedentary, semi-sedentary, or nomadic. Armenians lived in Erevan or the villages. The Armenians dominated the various professions and trade in the area and were of great economic significance to the Persian administration. On 7 June 1679, a devastating earthquake razed the city to the ground.
During Safavid Iranian rule, Yerevan and adjacent territories became part of the Čoḵūr Saʿd administrative territory. After Safavid rule, it fell into the Iranian Afsharid and Qajar hands. This lasted until 1828, when the region was conquered from Qajar Iran into the Russian Empire, the latter which had by 1813 already taken modern-day Georgia, Dagestan, and most of the contemporary Republic of Azerbaijan from Iran.
From Iranian to Russian rule
During the second Russian-Persian war of the 19th century, Yerevan was captured by Russian troops under general Ivan Paskevich on 1 October 1827. It was formally ceded by the Iranians in 1828, following the Treaty of Turkmenchay. After three centuries, Yereven alongside the rest of Eastern Armenia, would now enter a Russian dominated era. Tsarist Russia sponsored Armenian resettlement from Persia and Turkey. Due to the resettlement, Armenians' share in city population increased from 28% to 53.8%. The resettlement was intended to create Russian power bridgehead in the Middle East. In 1829, Armenian repatriates from Persia were resettled in the city and a new quarter was built.
Yerevan served as the seat of the newly formed Armenian Oblast between 1828–1840. By the time of Nicholas I's visit in 1837, Yerevan had become an uyezd. In 1840, the Armenian Oblast was dissolved and its territory incorporated into a larger new province; the Georgia-Imeretia Governorate. In 1850 the territory of the former oblast was reorganized into the Erivan Governorate. Yerevan was the centre of the newly established governorate until 1917, when Erivan governorate was dissolved.
Yerevan began to grow economically and politically, with old buildings torn down and new buildings in European style erected instead. The first general plan of the city was made in 1854, during which, St. Hripsime and St. Gayane women's colleges were opened and the English Park was founded. In 1874, Zacharia Gevorkian opened Yerevan's first printing house and in 1879 the first theatre, sited near the church of St. Peter and Paul, was established.
At the beginning of the 20th century, Yerevan city's population was over 29,000. In 1902, a railway line linked Yerevan with Alexandropol, Tiflis and Julfa. In the same year, Yerevan's first public library was opened. In 1905, the grandnephew of Napoleon I; prince Louis Joseph Jérôme Napoléon (1864–1932) was appointed as governor of Yerevan province. In 1913, for the first time in the city, a telephone line with eighty subscribers became operational.
At the start of the 20th century, Yerevan was a small city with a population of 30,000. In 1917, the Russian Empire ended with the October Revolution. In the aftermath, Armenian, Georgian and Muslim leaders of Transcaucasia united to form the Transcaucasian Federation and proclaimed Transcaucasia's secession.
The Federation, however, was short-lived and on 28 May 1918, the Dashnak leader Aram Manukian declared the independence of Armenia. Subsequently, Yerevan became the capital and the center of the newly independent First Republic of Armenia, although the members of the Armenian National Council were yet to stay in Tiflis until their arrival in Yerevan to form the government in the summer of the same year.
However, after a short period of independence, Yerevan fell to the Bolshevik 11th Red Army who entered the city during the Russian Civil War on 29 November 1920, and Armenia was incorporated into the Soviet Union on 2 December 1920. Although nationalist forces managed to retake the city in February 1921 and successfully released all the political leaders, the city's nationalist elite were once again defeated by the Soviet forces on 2 April 1921.
The Red Soviet Army invaded Armenia on 29 November 1920 from the northeast. On 2 December 1920, Yerevan along with the other territories of the First Republic of Armenia, became one of the fifteen republics of the Soviet Union, known as the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic. However, the Armenian SSR was a part of the Transcaucasian SFSR (TSFSR) together with the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic, between 1922 and 1936.
Under the Soviet rule, Yerevan became the first among the cities in the Soviet Union for which a general plan was developed. The "General Plan of Yerevan" developed by the academician Alexander Tamanian, was approved in 1924. It was initially designed for a population of 150,000. The city was quickly transformed into a modern industrial metropolis of over one million people. New educational, scientific and cultural institutions were founded as well.
Tamanian incorporated national traditions with contemporary urban construction. His design presented a radial-circular arrangement that overlaid the existing city and incorporated much of its existing street plan. As a result, many historic buildings were demolished, including churches, mosques, the Persian fortress, baths, bazaars and caravanserais. Many of the districts around central Yerevan were named after former Armenian communities that were destroyed by the Ottoman Turks during the Armenian Genocide. The districts of Arabkir, Malatia-Sebastia and Nork Marash, for example, were named after the towns Arabkir, Malatya, Sebastia, and Marash, respectively. After the end of World War II, German POWs were used to help in the construction of new buildings and structures, such as the Kievyan Bridge.
Within the years, the central Kentron district has become the most developed area in Yerevan, something that created a significant gap compared with other districts in the city. Most of the educational, cultural and scientific institutions were centred in the Kentron district.
In 1965, during the commemorations of the fiftieth anniversary of the Armenian Genocide, Yerevan was the location of a demonstration, the first such demonstration in the Soviet Union, to demand recognition of the Genocide by the Soviet authorities. In 1968, the city's 2,750th anniversary was commemorated.
Yerevan played a key role in the Armenian national democratic movement that emerged during the Gorbachev era of the 1980s. The reforms of Glasnost and Perestroika opened questions on issues such as the status of Nagorno-Karabakh, the environment, Russification, corruption, democracy, and eventually independence. At the beginning of 1988, nearly one million Yerevantsis engaged in demonstrations concerning these subjects, centered on the Theater Square (currently Freedom Square).
Following the dismantling of the USSR, Yerevan became the capital of the Republic of Armenia on 21 September 1991. Maintaining supplies of gas and electricity proved difficult; constant electricity was not restored until 1996 amidst the chaos of the badly instigated and planned transition to a market based economy.
Since 2000, central Yerevan has been transformed into a vast construction site, with cranes erected all over the Kentron district. Officially, the scores of multi-storied buildings are part of large-scale urban planning projects. Roughly $1.8 billion was spent on such construction in 2006, according to the national statistical service. Prices for downtown apartments have increased by about ten times over the last decade. The majority of the historic buildings located on the central Aram Street, were either entirely destroyed or transformed into modern residential buildings through the construction of additional floors. Only few structures were preserved, mainly in the portion that extends from Abovyan Street to Mashtots Avenue.
Political demonstrations are a common scene in Yerevan. In 2008, unrest in the capital between the authorities and opposition demonstrators led by ex-President Levon Ter-Petrosyan occurred after the 2008 Armenian presidential election. The events resulted in ten deaths and a subsequent 20-day state of emergency declared by President Robert Kocharyan.
Topography and location
Yerevan has an average height of 990 m (3,248.03 ft), with a minimum of 865 m (2,837.93 ft) and a maximum of 1,390 m (4,560.37 ft) above sea level. It is located on to the edge of the Hrazdan River, northeast of the Ararat plain (Ararat Valley), to the center-west of the country. The upper part of the city is surrounded with mountains on three sides while it descends to the banks of the river Hrazdan at the south. The Hrazdan divides Yerevan into two parts through a picturesque canyon.
Historically, the city is situated at the heart of the Armenian Highland, in Kotayk canton (Armenian: Կոտայք գավառ Kotayk gavar, not to be confused with the current Kotayk Province) of Ayrarat province, within Armenia Major.
As the capital of Armenia, Yerevan is not part of any marz ("province"). Instead, it is bordered with the following provinces: Kotayk from the north and the east, Ararat from the south and the south-west, Armavir from the west and Aragatsotn from the north-west.
Yerevan features a steppe climate (Köppen climate classification: BSk), with long, hot, dry summers and short, but cold and snowy winters. This is attributed to Yerevan being on a plain surrounded by mountains and to its distance from the sea and its effects. The summers are usually very hot with the temperature in August reaching up to 40 °C (104 °F), and winters generally carry snowfall and freezing temperatures with January often being as cold as −15 °C (5 °F) and lower. The amount of precipitation is small, amounting annually to about 318 millimetres (12.5 in). Yerevan experiences an average of 2,700 sunlight hours per year. Temperature regime in Yerevan is close to the southern Midwest cities such as Kansas City, Missouri, and Omaha, Nebraska, though Yerevan is much drier.
|Climate data for Yerevan|
|Record high °C (°F)||19.5
|Average high °C (°F)||0.6
|Daily mean °C (°F)||−4.1
|Average low °C (°F)||−7.8
|Record low °C (°F)||−27.6
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||22
|Average snowfall cm (inches)||5
|Average precipitation days (≥ 92)||9||9||8||11||13||8||5||3||4||7||7||8||92|
|Average snowy days||6||5||1||0||0||0||0||0||0||0||1||4||17|
|Average relative humidity (%)||81||74||62||59||58||51||57||57||51||64||73||79||63.8|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||93.0||113.1||161.2||177.0||241.8||297.0||344.1||331.7||279.0||210.8||138.0||93.0||2,479.7|
|Source: World Meteorological Organisation (UN),|
Government and politics
Yerevan has been the capital of Armenia since the independence of the First Republic in 1918. Situated in the Ararat plain, the historic lands of Armenia, it served as the best logical choice for capital of the young republic at the time.
When Armenia became a republic of the Soviet Union, Yerevan remained as capital and accommodated all the political and diplomatic institutions in the republic. In 1991 with the independence of Armenia, Yerevan continued with its status as the political and cultural centre of the country, being home to all the national institutions: the Government house, the Parliament, ministries, the presidential palace, the constitutional court, judicial bodies and other public organisations.
The Armenian Constitution, adopted on 5 July 1995, granted Yerevan the status of a marz (region). Therefore, Yerevan functions similarly to the other regions of the country with a few specificities. The administrative authority of Yerevan is thus represented by:
- the mayor, appointed by the President (who can remove him at any moment) upon the recommendation of the Prime Minister, alongside a group of four deputy mayors heading eleven ministries (of which financial, transport, urban development etc.),
- the Yerevan City Council, regrouping the Heads of community districts under the authority of the mayor,
- twelve "community districts", with each having its own leader and their elected councils. Yerevan has a principal city hall and twelve deputy mayors of districts.
The last modification to the Constitution on 27 November 2005 turned the city into a "community" (hamaynk); since, the Constitution declares that this community has to be led by a mayor, elected directly or indirectly, and that the city needs to be governed by a specific law. This law is currently in preparation in the Armenian parliament that adopted its first draft in December 2007 and should do the same in the second draft in spring of 2008. The project on the law envisions an indirect election of the mayor.
In addition to the national police and road police, Yerevan has its own municipal police. All three bodies cooperate to maintain law in the city.
Yerevan is divided into twelve "administrative districts" (վարչական շրջան, varčakan šrĵan) each with an elected leader. The total area of the 12 districts of Yerevan is 223 square kilometres (86 square miles).
|District||Armenian||Population (2011 census)||Area (km²)|
|Nor Nork||Նոր Նորք||126,065||14|
|c. 1650||absolute majority||—||—||—||—|
|c. 1725||absolute majority||—||—||—||~20,000|
|^a Called Tatars prior to 1918|
Originally a small town, Yerevan became the capital of Armenia and a large city with over one million inhabitants. Until the fall of the Soviet Union, the majority of the population of Yerevan were Armenians with minorities of Russians, Kurds, Azerbaijanis and Iranians present as well. However, with the breakout of the Nagorno-Karabakh War from 1988 to 1994, the Azerbaijani minority diminished in the country in what was part of population exchanges between Armenia and Azerbaijan. A big part of the Russian minority also fled the country during the 1990s economic crisis in the country. Today, the population of Yerevan is overwhelmingly Armenian.
After the collapse of the Soviet Union, due to economic crises, thousands fled Armenia, mostly to Russia, North America and Europe. The population of Yerevan fell from 1,250,000 in 1989 to 1,103,488 in 2001 and to 1,091,235 in 2003. However, the population of Yerevan has been increasing since. In 2007, the capital had 1,107,800 inhabitants.
Yerevan was inhabited first by Armenians and remained homogeneous until the 15th century. The population of the Erivan Fortress, founded in the 1580s, was mainly composed of Muslim soldiers, estimated two to three thousand. The city itself was mainly populated by Armenians. French traveler Jean-Baptiste Tavernier, who visited Yerevan possibly up to six times between 1631 and 1668, states that the city is exclusively populated by Armenians. During the 1720's Ottoman–Persian War its absolute majority were Armenians. The demographics of the region changed because of a series of wars between the Ottoman Empire, Iran and Russia. By the early 19th century, Yerevan had a Muslim majority.
Until the Sovietizaton of Armenia, Yerevan was a multicultural city, mainly with Armenian and Caucasian Tatar (nowadays Azerbaijanis) population. After the Armenian Genocide, many refugees from what Armenians call Western Armenia (nowadays Turkey, then Ottoman Empire) escaped to Eastern Armenia. In 1919, about 75,000 Armenian refugees from the Ottoman Empire arrived in Yerevan, mostly from the Vaspurakan region (city of Van and surroundings). A significant part of these refugees died of typhus and other diseases.
From 1921–1936, about 42,000 ethnic Armenians from Iraq, Turkey, Iran, Greece, Syria, France, Bulgaria etc. came to Soviet Armenia, with most of them settling in Yerevan. The second wave of repatriation occurred from 1946–1948, when about 100,000 ethnic Armenians from Iran, Syria, Lebanon, Greece, Bulgaria, Romania, Cyprus, Palestine, Iraq, Egypt, France, United States etc. came to Soviet Armenia, again most of whom settled in Yerevan. Thus, the ethnic makeup of Yerevan became more monoethnic during the first 3 decades in the Soviet Union. In the late 1980s and the early 1990s, the remaining 2,000 Azeris left the city, because of the Nagorno-Karabakh conflict.
The Armenian Apostolic Christianity is the dominant religion in Armenia as well as Yerevan. The Armenian Church is represented in the city by the Araratian Patriarchal Diocese, with the Surp Sarkis Cathedral being the seat of the prelacy. Yerevan is home to the largest Armenian church in the world, the Cathedral of Saint Gregory the Illuminator, opened in 2001 when the entire Armenian nation had celebrated the 1700th anniversary of the establishment of the Armenian Church and the adoption of Christianity as a state religion in Armenia.
The tiny community of the Orthodox Russians has its own Church of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God, located in the Kanaker-Zeytun district of Yerevan. The church was built across the barracks of the Cossack troops which had been deployed in Yerevan since the Russian victory in the Russian-Persian war in 1828. The church was closed in the Soviet times to be used first as a warehouse and later as a regimental club. Divine services were resumed in it only in 1991. In 2004, the reconstructed church re-acquired a cupola and a belfry. The consecration of the new Holy Cross Russian Orthodox church of Yerevan was conducted on 18 March 2010, by Patriarch Kirill I of Moscow. The church is being built on Admiral Isakov Avenue and is set to be completed by the end of 2013.
After the capture of Yerevan by Russians as result of the Russo-Persian War, the main mosque in the fortress, built by the invading Turks in 1582, was converted into an Orthodox church under the orders of the Russian commander, general Ivan Paskevich. The church was sanctified on 6 December 1827 and named the Church of the Intercession of the Holy Mother of God. According to Ivan Chopin, there were eight mosques in Yerevan in the middle of the 19th century. The 18th-century Blue Mosque of Yerevan was restored and reopened in the latter half of the 1990s funded by Iran, to become the only active mosque throughout the Republic of Armenia. Nowadays, Islamic religious services are conducted within the Blue Mosque to serve the Shia Iranian visitors and tradesmen.
Few members of the Yezidi and Jewish communities of Armenia live in Yerevan. The city is home to the Jewish Council of Armenia. A variety of other minor religious communities are also present in the city.
Museums and libraries
Yerevan is home to dozens of museums, art galleries, and libraries. The most prominent of these are the National Gallery of Armenia, the History Museum of Armenia, the Cafesjian Museum of Art, the Matenadaran library of ancient manuscripts, and the Armenian Genocide museum. Others include the Modern Art Museum, the Children’s Picture Gallery, and the Martiros Saryan Museum. Moreover, many private galleries are in operation, with many more opening every year, featuring rotating exhibitions and sales.
Constructed in 1921, the National Gallery of Armenia is Yerevan's principal museum. It is integrated with the History Museum of Armenia. In addition to having a permanent exposition of works of painters such as Aivazovsky, Kandinsky, Chagall, Théodore Rousseau, Monticelli or Eugène Boudin, it usually hosts temporary expositions such as Yann Arthus-Bertrand in 2005 or the one organized on the occasion of the Year of Armenia in France in October 2006. The Armenian Genocide museum is found at the foot of Tsitsernakaberd memorial and features numerous eyewitness accounts, texts and photographs from the time. It comprises a Memorial stone made of three parts, the latter of which is dedicated to the intellectual and political figures who, as the museum's site says, "raised their protest against the Genocide committed against the Armenians by the Turks. Among them there are Armin T. Wegner, Hedvig Büll, Henry Morgenthau, Franz Werfel, Johannes Lepsius, James Bryce, Anatole France, Giacomo Gorrini, Benedict XV, Fritjof Nansen, Fayez al-Huseini". This place of remembrance was created by Laurenti Barseghian, the Museum's director, and Pietro Kuciukian, the founder of the "Memory is the Future" Committee for the Righteous for the Armenians. This Memorial hosts the ashes or fistfuls of earth from the tombs of the Righteous and of those non-Armenians who witnessed the genocide and tried to help the Armenians. Here, people also celebrates living characters who stand out for their pro-memory engagement.
The Matenadaran is a library-museum regrouping 17,000 ancient manuscripts and several bibles from the Middle Ages. Its archives hold a rich collection of valuable ancient Armenian, Greek, Assyrian, Hebrew, Roman and Persian manuscripts. It is located on Mashtots Avenue at central Yerevan.
Next to the Hrazdan river, the Sergey Parajanov Museum that was completely renovated in 2002, has 250 works, documents and photos of the Armenian filmmaker and painter. Yerevan has several other museums like the museum of the Middle-East and the Museum of Yerevan.
Here is a list of Yerevan's most important museums:
|Erebuni museum||founded in 1968 near the Erebuni fortress.|
|History Museum of Armenia||opened in 1921, contains more than 400,000 items and pieces of Armenian heritage.|
|National Gallery of Armenia||exhibits more than 25,000 painting samples of Armenian, Russian and European artists.|
|Matenadaran||Library, museum and institute of ancient manuscripts named after Mesrop Mashtots.|
|Cafesjian Museum of Art||Gerard L. Cafesjian Museum and Art Centre of the Cascade complex, opened on 7 November 2009, showcases a massive collection glass artwork, particularly the works of the Czech artists Stanislav Libenský and Jaroslava Brychtová. The front gardens showcase sculptures from Gerard Cafesjian's collection.|
|Armenian Genocide Museum||Armenian Genocide museum-institute, part of the Tsitsernakaberd genocide memorial.|
|House-Museum of Hovhannes Tumanyan||opened in 1953, home to many personal belongings of poet Hovhannes Tumanyan along with his personal library.|
|House-Museum of Aram Khachaturian||opened in 1984, contains more than 18,000 valuable items.|
|House-Museum of Martiros Saryan||contains many art works of painter Martiros Saryan.|
|House-Museum of Khachatur Abovian||the home of writer Khachatur Abovian in Kanaker, turned into museum in 1939.|
|Sergei Parajanov Museum||opened in 1991, exhibits the works of Sergei Parajanov and many other directors.|
|Military Museum||within the Mother Armenia complex at the Victory Park, dedicated to the World War II and Karabakh war.|
|Charents Museum of Literature and Arts||located on Aram street.|
|ARF History Museum||commemorates the history of the Armenian Revolutionary Federation and its notable members.|
|Yerevan History Museum||founded in 1931, reopened in 2005 in the new complex of the Yerevan City Hall.|
|Komitas Museum||founded in 2015, located near the Komitas Pantheon.|
On 6 June 2010, Yerevan was named as the 2012 World Book Capital by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). The Armenian capital was chosen for the quality and variety of the programme it presented to the selection committee, which met at UNESCO’s headquarters in Paris on 2 July 2010.
Cinemas, theatres, opera and concert halls
The city has many cinemas; among them the famous Moscow Cinema, which show major films from different countries. Since 2004, the Moscow Cinema hosts annual the Golden Apricot international film festival. Other cinemas with notable architectural value include the Hayrenik Cinema, Nairi Cinema and Rossiya Cinema.
The Yerevan Opera and Ballet Theatre consists of two concert halls: Aram Khatchaturian concert hall and the hall of the National Theatre of Opera and Ballet named after Alexander Spendiarian. The Komitas Chamber Music Hall is the home of chamber music in Armenia.
Numerous cultutal centres and halls host multitude shows and performances, such as the modern Complex named after Karen Demirchyan. Other significant theatres include: Sundukyan State Academic Theatre, Paronyan Musical Comedy Theatre, Stanislavski Russian Theatre, Drama and Comedy Theatre named after Edgar Elbakyan, Yerevan State Dramatic Theatre named after Hrachia Ghaplanian, Yerevan State Hamazgain Theatre and the State Puppet Theatre named after Hovhannes Tumanyan.
Tourism in Armenia is developing year by year and the capital city of Yerevan is one of the major tourist destinations. The city has a majority of luxury hotels, modern restaurants, bars, pubs and nightclubs. Zvartnots airport has also conducted renovation projects with the growing number of tourists visiting the country. Numerous places in Yerevan are attractive for tourists, such as the dancing fountains of the Republic Square, the State Opera House, the Cascade complex, the ruins of the Urartian city of Erebuni (Arin Berd), the historical site of Karmir Blur (Teishebaini), etc. The Armenia Marriott Hotel is situated in the heart of the city at Republic Square, while other major chains are also present in central Yerevan, such as the Royal Tulip Yerevan Hotel and the Best Western Congress Hotel.
The location of Yerevan itself, is an inspiring factor for the foreigners to visit the city in order to enjoy the view of the biblical mount of Ararat, as the city lies on the feet of the mountain forming the shape of a Roman amphitheatre.
Leisure and nightlife
Yerevan has an extensive nightlife scene with a variety of night clubs, live venues, street cafes, jazz cafes, tea houses, casinos, pubs, karaoke clubs and restaurants. The city prides itself on having connections 24/7 as taxis are available at any time of the day or night. The city has played host to many world-famous musical acts.
- Yerevan Zoo: founded in 1940 and operated by the Yerevan municipality, is home to 1500 different animals and 260 species.
- Yerevan Circus: opened in 1956 in the centre of Yerevan. The famous Soviet clown Leonid Yengibarian was one of the prominent actors of the Yerevan circus between 1959-1971.
- Northern Avenue pedestrian street with modern residences, business centres, restaurants and cafés. The Northern Avenue connects the Opera House with Abovyan street
- Public parks: districts throughout the city are graced with large green parks with the most popular being the Lovers' Park on Marshal Baghramyan Avenue. The Yerevan Botanical Garden opened in 1935 is one of the largest parks in the city along with the Victory park and the Circular Park. Other parks in Yerevan include: the English Park of the 1860s, the Buenos Aires Park and Tumanyan Park in Ajapnyak, Komitas park in Shengavit, Vahan Zatikian park in Malatia-Sebastia, David Anhaght park in Kanaker-Zeytun, the Family park in Avan, Fridtjof Nansen park in Nor Nork and the Lyon Park in Erebuni.
- Yerevan Water World and Play City amusement park are also among the favourite entertaining centres.
- Dalma Garden Mall, opened in October 2012 near the Tsitsernakaberd hill.
- Yerevan Mall, opened in February 2014 on Arshakunyats Avenue and is home to the first Carrefour hypermarket in Armenia.
Yerevan is served by the Zvartnots International Airport, located 12 kilometres (7 miles) west of the city center. It is the primary airport of the country and the hub of Air Armenia, national air carrier company. Inaugurated in 1961 during the Soviet era, Zvartnots airport was renovated for the first time in 1985 and a second time in 2002 in order to adapt to international norms. It went through a facelift starting in 2004 with the construction of a new terminal. The first phase of the construction ended in September 2006 with the opening of the arrivals zone. A second section designated for departures was inaugurated in May 2007. The departure terminal is anticipated, October 2011 housing state of the art facilities and technology. This will make Yerevan Zvartnots International Airport, the largest, busiest and most modern airport in the entire Caucasus. The entire project costs more than $100 million USD.
A second airport, Erebuni Airport, is located just south of the city. Since the independence, "Erebuni" is mainly used for military or private flights. The Armenian Air Force has equally installed its base there and there are several MiG-29s stationed on Erebuni's tarmac.
Bus and trolleybus
Yerevan has 46 bus lines and 24 trolleybus lines. The Yerevan trolleybus system has been operating since 1949. Old Soviet-era buses have been replaced with new modern ones. Outside the bus lines that cover the city, some buses at the start of the central road train station located in the Nor Kilikia neighborhood serve practically all the cities of Armenia as well as of others abroad, notably Tbilisi in Georgia or Tabriz in Iran.
A new route network has been developed in the city, according to which the number of minibuses will be reduced from the currently existing 2600 to 650 by the end of 2010.
The tramway network that operated in Yerevan since 1906 was decommissioned in January 2004. Its use had a cost 2.4 times higher than the generated profits, which pushed the municipality to shutdown the network, despite a last-ditch effort to save it towards the end of 2003. Since the closure, the rails have been dismantled and sold.
The Yerevan Metro named after Karen Demirchyan, (Armenian: Կարեն Դեմիրճյանի անվան Երեւանի մետրոպոլիտեն կայարան (Karyen Dyemirchhani anvan Yeryewani myetropolityen kaharan)) is a rapid transit system that serves the capital city since 1981. It has a single line of 13.4 km (8.3 mi) length with 10 active stations. The interiors of the stations resemble that of the former western Soviet nations, with chandeliers hanging from the corridors. The metro stations had most of their names changed after the collapse of the Soviet Union and the Independence of the Republic of Armenia.
A northeastern extension of the line with two new stations is currently being developed. The construction of the first station (Ajapnyak) and of the one kilometer tunnel linking it to the rest of the network will cost 18 million USD. The time of the end of the project has not yet been defined. Another long term project is the construction of two new lines, but these have been suspended due to lack of finance.
More than 60,000 people are being transported by the Yerevan metro on a daily basis.
Yerevan has a single central train station (several train stations of suburbs have not been used since 1990) that is connected to the metro via the Sasuntsi Davit station. The train station is made in Soviet-style architecture with its long point on the building roof, representing the symbols of communism: red star, hammer and sickle. Due to the Turkish and Azerbaijani blockades of Armenia, there is only one international train that passes by once every two days, with neighboring Georgia being its destination. For example, for a sum of 9 000 to 18 000 dram, it is possible to take the night train to the Georgian capital, Tbilisi. This train then continues to its destination of Batumi, on the shores of the Black sea in the summer season.
The only railway that goes to Iran to the south passes by the closed border of Nakhichevan. For this reason, there are no trains that go south from Yerevan. A construction project on a new railway line connecting Armenia and Iran directly is currently being studied.
During the first decade of the 21st century, the South Caucasus Railway CJSC -which is the current operator of the railway system in Armenia- announced its readiness to put the Yerevan-Gyumri-Kars railway line in service in case the Armenian-Turkish protocols are ratified and the opening of the borders between the two countries is achieved.
There are several number of suburb trains to:
- Armavir (4), Gyumri (2);
- Yeraskh (1), Ararat (2);
- Hrazdan (2), Shorzha (1, on route only in summer).
In 2001, Yerevan's share of national industrial production was approximately 50%. Yerevan's manufactures include chemicals, primary metals, machinery, rubber products, plastics, textiles, alcoholic beverages and processed food. Even though the economic crisis of the '90s ravaged the industry of the country, several factories remain always in service, notably in the petrochemical and the aluminium sectors. Not only is Yerevan the headquarters of major Armenian companies, but of international ones as well, as it is seen as an attractive outsourcing location for Western European, Russian and American multinationals. Yerevan is also the country's financial hub, home to the Central Bank of Armenia, the Armenian Stock Exchange (NASDAQ OMX Armenia), as well as some of the country's largest commercial banks.
Armenian beverages, especially the Armenian cognac and beer have a worldwide fame. Hence, Yerevan is home to many leading enterprises of Armenia and the Caucasus for the production of alcoholic beverages, such as Yerevan Brandy Company, Yerevan Ararat Wine Factory, Yerevan Kilikia Beer Company and Yerevan Champagne Wines Factory.
Yerevan is also home to many other industrial and international plants: Nairit chemical and rubber plant, ArmRosGazProm a subsidiary of the Russian Gazprom, Rusal Armenal aluminium foil mill and Cigaronne company for tobacco products.
The carpet industry in Armenia has an ancient tradition and a deeply rooted history, therefore, the carpet production is rather developed in Yerevan with three major factories that also produce hand-made rugs.
Yerevan's location on the shores of Hrazdan river has enabled the production of hydroelectricity. Two plants are established on the territory of the municipality. There is also a modern thermal power plant which is unique in the region for its quality and high technology, situated in the southern part of the city, furnished with a new gas-steam combined cycled turbine, to generate electric power.
The construction sector has experienced strong growth since 2000. During the 1st decade of the 21st century, Yerevan has witnessed a massive construction boom, funded mostly by Armenian millionaires from Russia, with an extensive and controversial redevelopment process in which Czarist and Soviet-period buildings have been demolished and replaced with new buildings. This urban renewal plan has been met with opposition and criticism from some residents. Coupled with the construction sector's growth has been the increase in real estate prices. Downtown houses deemed too small are increasingly demolished and replaced by high-rise buildings.
Two major construction projects are scheduled in Yerevan: the Northern Avenue and the Main Avenue projects. The Northern Avenue is almost completed and was put in service in 2007, while the Main Avenue is still under development. In the past few years, the city centre has also witnessed major road reconstruction, and the renovation of the Republic square, funded by the American-Armenian billionaire, Kirk Kerkorian. Another diasporan Armenian from Argentina; Eduardo Eurnekian took over the airport, while the cascade development project was funded by the US based Armenian millionaire Gerard L. Cafesjian.
On 29 January 2010, another major project "Yerevan Cit" was announced by the municipality of Yerevan, to build a new cultural businesslike centre near the hill of Paskevich, where the Noragyugh neighborhood is located. The project will link Admiral Isakov Avenue with Arshakunyats Avenue and will be fulfilled upon cooperation with Moscow city government.
Monuments and landmarks
|Erebuni Fortress||or Arin Berd, where the city of Yerevan was founded in 782 BC by King Argishti I.|
|Tsiranavor Church||or the Katoghike Surp Hovhannes Church of Avan built in 591, being the city's oldest surviving church.|
|Mausoleum of Turkmen emirs||Islamic funerary tower built in 1413, located in the village of Argavand in the vicinity Yerevan.|
|Red Bridge||17th-century bridge on the Hrazdan River, built in 1679 and reconstructed in 1830.|
|Surp Zoravor Church||rebuilt in 1693-1694, one of the best preserved churches in Yerevan.|
|Blue Mosque||or "Gök Jami" built between 1764–1768, located on Mashtots Avenue, is the only operating mosque in Armenia.|
|Saint Sarkis Cathedral||the seat of Araratian Patriarchal Diocese, rebuilt between 1835–1842.|
|Yerevan Opera Theater||the Armenian National Academic Opera and Ballet Theatre opened in 1933.|
|Komitas Pantheon||cemetery established in 1936 where many famous Armenians are buried, famous for its artistic tombstones.|
|Moscow Cinema||opened in 1937 on the site of Saint Paul and Peter Church of the 5th century which was destroyed in 1931.|
|Mother Armenia||World War II and Karabakh Liberation war memorial, opened in 1950 at the Victory park.|
|Matenadaran||Mesrop Mashtots Institute of Ancient Manuscripts opened in 1959, one of the world's richest depositories of manuscripts.|
|Monument of David of Sasun||erected in 1959, dedicated to the legendary Armenian hero David of Sasun.|
|Swan Lake||located at the opera park since 1963, turns into an ice-skating arena in winters.|
|Yerevan Lake||an artificial lake formed between 1963-1966 with a surface of 0.65 km2 (0.25 sq mi).|
|Tsitsernakaberd||monument commemorating the victims of the Armenian Genocide since 1967.|
|Yerevan Vernissage||large open-air exhibition-market formed during th 1980s.|
|Yerablur Pantheon||the military cemetery where over 1,000 Armenian martyrs of Nagorno-Karabakh War are buried since 1990.|
|The Cascade||massive steps with fountains ascending up from Tamanyan street, completed during the 2000s, home to the Cafesjian Museum of Art.|
|Saint Gregory Cathedral||the largest Armenian church in the world, completed in 2001.|
Yerevan is a major education centre in the region. As of 2014, the city is home to 263 schools, of which 220 are state-owned (169 run by the municipality and 51 run by the ministry of education), and 43 are private. The municipality runs 159 kindergartens.
As of 2014, 56 universities are licensed to operate in the Republic of Armenia. Yerevan has 45 universities of which 12 are state-owned, 6 are inter-governmental, 5 are international private and 22 are local private.
Prominent universities of Yerevan include:
- Yerevan State University (YSU, 1919)
- Yerevan State Musical Conservatory named after Komitas (YSC, 1921)
- Armenian State Pedagogical University named after Khachatur Abovian (ASPU, 1922)
- Yerevan State Medical University named after Mkhitar Heratsi (YSMU, 1930)
- State Engineering University of Armenia (SEUA, 1933)
- Yerevan State Linguistic University named after Valery Brusov (YSLU, 1935)
- Armenian State University of Economics (ASUE, 1975)
- National University of Architecture and Construction of Armenia (NUACA, 1921)
- American University of Armenia (AUA, 1991)
- Fondation Université Française en Arménie (UFAR, 1995)
- Russian-Armenian (Slavonic) University (RAU, 1997)
The most played and popular sport in Yerevan is football. Yerevan has many football clubs with five in the 2012 season of the Armenian Premier League: FC Ararat Yerevan, FC Banants, FC Mika, FC Pyunik, Ulisses FC
Yerevan has a total of 9 football stadiums: Armenia Sports Stadium, Republican Stadium, Alashkert Stadium, Erebuni Stadium, Hrazdan Stadium, Pyunik Stadium, Banants Stadium, Mika Stadium and the Football Academy Stadium. "Hrazdan" is the largest one in the city and the entire country.
The largest indoor arena in the city and the entire country is the Karen Demirchyan Sports and Concerts Complex, mostly used for hockey matches and figure skating shows. Dinamo and Mika indoor arenas are regular venues for basketball, volleyball, handball and futsal domestic and regional competitions.
Armenia has always excelled in chess with its players being very often among the highest ranked and decorated. The headquarters of the Chess Federation of Armenia is located in the Tigran Petrosian Chess House of Yerevan. The city is home to a large number of chess clubs. In 1996, despite the severe economic conditions in the country, Yerevan hosted the 32nd Chess Olympiad. In 2006, the four members from Yerevan of the Armenian chess team won the 37th Chess Olympiad in Turin and repeated the feat at the 38th Chess Olympiad in Dresden. Armenian won the chess Olympiad for the 3rd time in 2012 in Istanbul. The Yerevan-born leader of the chess national team; Levon Aronian, is one of the top chess players in the world.
Yerevan Velodrome; one of the newest sport structures in the city, is an international-standard outdoor track cycling venue opened in 2011. The city is also home to a large equestrian centre named after Hovik Hayrapetyan.
The city of Yerevan is member of many international organizations: the "International Assembly of CIS Countries' Capitals and Big Cities" (MAG), the "Black Sea Capitals' Association" (BSCA), the "International Association of Francophone Mayors" (AIMF), the "Organization of World Heritage Cities" (OWHC), the "International Association of Large-scale Communities" and the "International Urban Community Lighting Association" (LUCI).
Twin towns — sister cities
Yerevan has a partnership agreement with 18 cities or administrative regions:
- List of notable persons born in Yerevan: People from Yerevan
- Voskan Yerevantsi (17th century), printer
- Simeon I of Yerevan (1710–1780), Catholicos of All Armenians
- Khachatur Abovian (1809–1848), writer
- Mammad agha Shahtakhtinski (1846–1931), Azerbaijani linguist
- Hamo Beknazarian (1891–1965), film director
- Silva Kaputikyan (1919–2006), poet
- Arno Babajanian (1921–1983), Soviet composer
- Karen Demirchyan (1932–1999), Soviet and Armenian politician
- Armen Dzhigarkhanyan (b. 1935), Soviet and Russian actor
- Arthur Meschian (b. 1949), composer and architect
- Harout Pamboukjian (b. 1950), pop singer
- Ruben Hakhverdyan (b. 1950), singer-songwriter
- Khoren Oganesian (b. 1955), football player
- Vardan Petrosyan (b 1959), actor
- Hasmik Papian (b. 1961), soprano
- Tata Simonyan (b. 1962), pop singer
- Garik Martirosyan (b. 1974), Russian-based comedian
- Shavo Odadjian (b. 1974), member of the band System of a Down
- Armenchik (b. 1980), US-based pop singer
- Arthur Abraham (b. 1980), boxer, world champion
- Levon Aronian (b. 1982), chess player, World no. 2
- Sirusho (b. 1987), contemporary singer
- Henrikh Mkhitaryan (b. 1989), football player
- Hovasapyan, Zara (1 August 2012). "When in Armenia, Go Where the Armenians Go". Armenian National Committee of America.
Made of local pink tufa stones, it gives Yerevan the nickname of "the Pink City.
- Dunn, Ashley (21 February 1988). "Pink Rock Comes as Gift From Homeland in Answer to Armenian College's Dreams". Los Angeles Times.
To Armenians, though, the stone is unique. They often refer to Yerevan, the capital of their homeland, as "Vartakouyn Kaghak," or the "Pink City" because of the extensive use of the stone, which can vary from pink to a light purple.
- "Տուֆ [Tuff]". encyclopedia.am (in Armenian).
Երևանն անվանում են վարդագույն քաղաք, որովհետև մեր մայրաքաղաքը կառուցապատված է վարդագույն գեղեցիկ տուֆե շենքերով:
- "Оld Yerevan". yerevan.am. Yerevan Municipality.
Since this construction material gave a unique vividness and specific tint to the city, Yerevan was called "Rosy city".
- Sarukhanyan, Petros (21 September 2011). Շնորհավո՛ր տոնդ, Երեւան դարձած իմ Էրեբունի. Hayastani Hanrapetutyun (in Armenian). Retrieved 1 February 2014.
Պատմական իրադարձությունների բերումով Երեւանին ուշ է հաջողվել քաղաք դառնալ։ Այդ կարգավիճակը նրան տրվել է 1879 թվականին, Ալեքսանդր Երկրորդ ցարի հոկտեմբերի 1—ի հրամանով։
- Hartley, Charles W.; Yazicioğlu, G. Bike; Smith, Adam T., ed. (2012). The Archaeology of Power and Politics in Eurasia: Regimes and Revolutions. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 72. ISBN 9781107016521.
...of even the most modern Yerevantsi.
- Ishkhanian, Armine (2005). Atabaki, Touraj; Mehendale, Sanjyot, ed. Central Asia and the Caucasus: Transnationalism and Diaspora. New York: Routledge. p. 122. ISBN 9781134319947.
...Yerevantsis (residents of Yerevan)...
- Bournoutian, George A. (2003). A concise history of the Armenian people: (from ancient times to the present) (2nd ed.). Costa Mesa, California: Mazda Publishers. ISBN 9781568591414.
- Katsenelinboĭgen, Aron (1990). The Soviet Union: Empire, Nation and Systems. New Brunswick: Transaction Publishers. p. 143. ISBN 0-88738-332-7.
- R. D. Barnett (1982). "Urartu". In John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, N. G. L. Hammond, E. Sollberger. The Cambridge Ancient History, Vol. 3, Part 1: The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press. p. 346. ISBN 978-0521224963.
- Hovannisian, Richard G. (1971). The Republic of Armenia: The First Year, 1918-1919, Vol. I. Berkeley: University of California Press. pp. 126–127. ISBN 0-520-01984-9.
- "Yerevan named World Book Capital 2012 by UN cultural agency".
- "Members List". eurocities.eu. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- (Armenian) Baghdasaryan A., Simonyan A, et al. "Երևան" (Yerevan). Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia. vol. iii. Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Armenian Academy of Sciences, 1977, pp. 548–564.
- (Armenian) Israelyan, Margarit A. Էրեբունի: Բերդ-Քաղաքի Պատմություն (Erebuni: The History of a Fortress-City). Yerevan, Armenian SSR: Hayastan Publishing Press, 1971, p. 137.
- Soviet Armenian Encyclopedia, Vol.3 page 550, Yerevan 1977
- "Symbols and emblems of the city". Yerevan.am. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "Yerevan (Municipality, Armenia)". CRW Flags. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "Yerevan Municipality:Old Yerevan".
- Brady Kiesling, "Rediscovering Armenia" (PDF). 2000. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 September 2007. Retrieved 27 April 2008.
- Views of Asia, Australia, and New Zealand explore some of the world's oldest and most intriguing countries and cities. (2nd ed.). Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica. 2008. p. 43. ISBN 9781593395124.
- Israelyan. Erebuni, p. 9.
- Steven R. Ward. Immortal, Updated Edition: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces pp 43. Georgetown University Press, 8 January 2014 ISBN 1626160325
- A Global Chronology of Conflict: From the Ancient World to the Modern Middle East, Vol. II, ed. Spencer C. Tucker, (ABC-CLIO, 2010). 516.
- Encyclopaedia Iranica (George A. Bournoutian and Robert H. Hewsen, Erevan)
- Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond pp 728-729 ABC-CLIO, 2 December 2014 ISBN 1598849484
- Ferro, Mark (2003). The Use and Abuse of History: How the Past Is Taught to Children. London: Routledge. p. 233. ISBN 0-415-28592-5.
- Kirakossian, Arman J. (2003). British Diplomacy and the Armenian Question: From the 1830s to 1914. New York: Gomidas Institute. p. 142. ISBN 1-884630-07-3.
- Timothy C. Dowling Russia at War: From the Mongol Conquest to Afghanistan, Chechnya, and Beyond p 729 ABC-CLIO, 2 December 2014 ISBN 1598849484
- The Nagorno-Karabakh Conflict: A Legal Analysis. Heiko Krger, Heiko Krüger. Springer, 2010. ISBN 3-642-11787-2, ISBN 978-3-642-11787-9.
- (Russian) Erivan in the Brockhaus and Efron Encyclopedic Dictionary, St. Petersburg, Russia, 1890–1907.
- Walker, Christopher (1980). Armenia: A Survival of a Nation, Chapter 3. Librairie Au Service de la Culture. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-312-04944-7.
- (French) Encyclopædia Universalis France S.A., " Erevan ", 1995.
- Suny, Ronald Grigor (1993). The Revenge of the Past: Nationalism, Revolution, and the Collapse of the Soviet Union. Stanford: Stanford University Press. p. 122. ISBN 0-8047-2247-1.
- Malkasian, Mark (1996). Gha-ra-bagh!: The Emergence of the National Democratic Movement in Armenia. Wayne State University Press. p. 41. ISBN 0-8143-2605-6.
- "Death Toll in Armenia’s Post-election Melee Rises to Ten", Armenia Liberty ([RFE/RL]), 14 April 2008
- Armenia declares emergency rule", BBC News, 1 March 2008.
- (Armenian) (Russian) V. Azatian et T. Hakopian, Երևան Ереван Yerevan, ИПО Parberakan, Erevan, 1989, p. 284.
- "Climatological Information for Yerevan, Armenia" – pogoda.ru.net
- "Article 108 of the Armenian Constitution". Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- "Article 117 of the Armenian Constitution". Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- "Yerevan municipality structure". Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- "Article 82 of 7 May 2002 Law relative to local autonomy". Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- "Article 77 on 7 May 2002 Law relative to local autonomy". Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- "Articles 88.1 and 108 of the Armenian Constitution". Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- "Declaration of a member of the Assembly of the Council of Europe." (in French). Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- "Panorama.am, Executive prefers to have indirect elections for mayor". 18 October 2007. Retrieved 16 May 2008.
- (Armenian) Վարչական շրջաններ
- Armstat:Yerevan population, 2011 census
- (Armenian) M. Karapetyan (1986) "The Dynamics of the Number and Ethnic Structure of the Population of Yerevan in 1600—1724" Patma-Banasirakan Handes. pp. 95-109. ISSN 0135-0536
- (Armenian) M. Karapetyan, Բնակչության էթնիկ կազմը և էթնիկ պրոցեսները Երևանում 1724-1800 թվականներին (Ethnic composition of the population of Yerevan and ethnographic processes in Yerevan from 1724 to 1800), Patma-Banasirakan Handes, 1987, Yerevan, Armenian National Academy of Sciences, ISSN 0135-0536
- (Armenian) Երևան քաղաքի բնակչության շարժընթացը 1824-1914թթ. Yerevan History Museum
- (Russian) Эривань // Географическо-статистический словарь Российской империи. Сост. по поручению Русского географического общества действ. член Общества П. Семёнов, при содействии действ. члена В. Зверинского. Т. V. Спб., 1885, с. 870.
- (Russian) Демоскоп Weekly – г. Эривань
- (Russian) Ethno-Caucasus: Армения
- Demographics of Yerevan 1970
- Demographics of Armenian SSR (1989)
- Demographics of Yerevan (1989)
- Yerevan city: Ethnic Structure of De Jure Population National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia
- Demographics of Yerevan 2011 National Statistical Service of the Republic of Armenia 2011
- 2001 Census : ArmStat.
- "ArmStat, 2003 Census" (PDF). Retrieved 21 March 2008.
- Ramirez-Faria, Carlos (2007). Concise Encyclopaedia of World History. Atlantic. pp. 42–44. ISBN 81-269-0775-4.
- Tavernier, Jean-Baptiste. Les six voyages en Turquie, en Perse et aux Indes, Volume 1, p. 623
- Richard G. Hovannisian, The Republic of Armenia: The first year, 1918–1919, Universito of California, Los Angeles, 1971
- "Russian Orthodox Church, External Church Relations Official Website:Patriarch Kirill visits a Russian church in Yerevan". Mospat.ru. 17 March 2010. Retrieved 1 May 2011.
- Потто, Василий Александрович (2000). Кавказская война. Том 3. Персидская война 1826-1828 гг. MintRight Inc. p. 359. ISBN 9785425080998.
- Chopin, Jean-Marie (1852). Исторический памятник состояния Армянской области в эпоху ея присоединения к Российской Империи. Императорская Академия Наук. p. 468.
- Bournoutian, George A. (1992). The khanate of Erevan under Qajar rule, 1795-1828. Mazda Publishers. p. 173. ISBN 9780939214181.
- Kiesling, Brady (2005). Rediscovering Armenia, 2nd edition. Yerevan: Matit. p. 37.
- The National Gallery of Armenia also houses a collection of paintings, drawings and sculptures issued from German, American, Austrian, Belgian, Spanish, French, Hungarian, Italian, Dutch, Russian and Swiss artists."Website of the National Gallery of Armenia". Archived from the original on 11 April 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
- "Website of the Armenian National Gallery". Retrieved 20 May 2008.
- "ArmeniaTour". Archived from the original on 20 February 2008. Retrieved 20 May 2008.
- Brady Kiesling, Rediscovering Armenia, 2000, Read online
- "Armenian directing and locating system.". Hi-loc.com. Retrieved 8 August 2011.
- "The Yerevan Zoo on Armeniapedia". Retrieved 20 May 2008.
- "Website of Zvartnots International Airport". Retrieved 18 May 2008.
- "List of bus lines on the website of Yerevan" (PDF) (in Armenian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
- "List of trolleybus lines on the website of Yerevan" (PDF) (in Armenian). Archived from the original (PDF) on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 18 May 2008.
- "Public transportation, minibus". Retrieved 15 September 2010.
- "Arminfo, "Last Tram Put Out Of Operation in Yerevan"". 22 January 2004. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
- Announcement by Prime Minister Serge Sargsyan during a visit to the network in January 2008.
- "ArmenPress, "Yerevan - Batumi railway communication to resume in Summer", ArmeniaDiaspora.com". 15 February 2007. Archived from the original on 4 April 2008. Retrieved 19 May 2008.
- "International Monetary Fund, "Republic of Armenia : Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper", in IMF Country Report, n° 03/62 (november 2003)" (PDF). Retrieved 26 May 2008.
- "NASDAQ OMX Armenia". Capitalmarket.Banks.am. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "Tufenkian Trans Caucasus Co.Ltd". Spyur.am. 24 March 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "Araratrugs Closed Joint-Stock Company". Spyur.am. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "Megarian Carpet Open Joint-Stock Company". Spyur.am. 21 January 2010. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- G. Beglaryan, Atlas of Armenia and adjacent countries, Noyan Tapan, 2007, p. 8.
- 22/04/2010 11:58 (22 April 2010). "President Sargsyan attends opening of reconstructed Yerevan thermal power plant. Retrieved 22 April 2010". Arka.am. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "Haroutiun Khatchatrian, " Un ambitieux agenda économique pour l’Arménie: Le nouveau gouvernement pourra-t-il relever le défi ? " sur Caucaz.com, le 18 juillet 2007" (in French). Retrieved 26 May 2008.
- "ArmeniaNow.com". ArmeniaNow.com. Retrieved 2 July 2010.
- "Stéphane/armenews, " Les prix de l’immobilier à Erevan en hausse en 2007 " sur Armenews, le 1er janvier 2008" (in French). Retrieved 26 May 2008.
- "Yerevan city official web: News".
- Education in Yerevan
- "32nd Chess Olympiad: Yerevan 1996". Retrieved 1 May 2008.
- "AIMF: Liste des membres".
- "Yerevan - Twin Towns & Sister Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- ԵՐԵՎԱՆԻ ՔԱՂԱՔԱՊԵՏԱՐԱՆՊԱՇՏՈՆԱԿԱՆ ԿԱՅՔ [Yerevan expanding its international relations] (in Armenian). www.yerevan.am. Archived from the original on 2013-05-12. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- "A Message from the Peace Commission: Information on Cambridge's Sister Cities," 15 February 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- Richard Thompson. "Looking to strengthen family ties with 'sister cities'," Boston Globe, 12 October 2008. Retrieved 12 October 2008.
- "Tbilisi Sister Cities". Tbilisi City Hall. Tbilisi Municipal Portal. Archived from the original on 2013-07-24. Retrieved 2013-08-05. External link in
- "Partner (Twin) towns of Bratislava". Bratislava-City.sk. Archived from the original on 2013-07-28. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- "Pesquisa de Legislação Municipal - No 14471" [Research Municipal Legislation - No 14471]. Prefeitura da Cidade de São Paulo [Municipality of the City of São Paulo] (in Portuguese). Archived from the original on 2011-10-18. Retrieved 2013-08-23.
- Lei Municipal de São Paulo 14471 de 2007 WikiSource (Portuguese)
- listed on Yerevan Municipality Official Website as Kishinev.
- "Oraşe înfrăţite (Twin cities of Minsk) [via WaybackMachine.com]" (in Romanian). Primăria Municipiului Chişinău. Archived from the original on 3 November 2012. Retrieved 2013-07-21.
- "Yerevan official web: Sister cities: Nice".
- Riga and Yerevan sign for sister cities agreement
- "Yerevan, Amman Become Sister Cities". Asbarez. 29 October 2014.
- "Yerevan - Partner Cities". Yerevan Municipality Official Website. © 2005—2013 www.yerevan.am. Archived from the original on 5 November 2013. Retrieved 2013-11-04.
- "Partner Cities of Lyon and Greater Lyon". 2008 Mairie de Lyon. Retrieved 17 July 2009.
- "Երևանի և Ստեփանակերտի քաղաքապետերը բարեկամության համաձայնագիր են ստորագրել." [Mayors of Yerevan and Stepanakert Sign Friendship Agreement]. Tert.am. 28 September 2012.
- The capitals of Armenia, Sergey Vardanyan, Apolo 1995, ISBN 5-8079-0778-7
- My Yerevan, G. Zakoyan, M. Sivaslian, V. Navasardian, Acnalis 2001, ISBN 99930-902-0-4
- Yerevan at GEOnet Names Server
- Evliya Çelebi (1834). "Description of the Town of Erivan". Narrative of Travels in Europe, Asia, and Africa, in the Seventeenth Century 2. Translated by Joseph von Hammer-Purgstall. London: Oriental Translation Fund.
|Look up Yerevan in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Yerevan.|
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Yerevan.|
- Yerevan Municipality
- Yerevan History Museum
- My Yerevan portal
- About Yerevan and more...
- Yerevan article on Armeniapedia
- iYerevan portal
- Photos of Yerevan Sights