Jhalda I

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Jhalda I
ঝালদা I
Community development block
সমষ্টি উন্নয়ন ব্লক
Jhalda I is located in West Bengal
Jhalda I
Jhalda I
Coordinates: 23°15′20″N 85°53′11″E / 23.25556°N 85.88639°E / 23.25556; 85.88639
Country  India
State West Bengal
District Purulia
Parliamentary constituency Purulia
Assembly constituency Baghmundi
Area
 • Total 315.09 km2 (121.66 sq mi)
Elevation 249 m (817 ft)
Population (2011)
 • Total 137,143
 • Density 440/km2 (1,100/sq mi)
Time zone IST (UTC+5.30)
PIN 723212 (Tulin)
Telephone/STD code 03254
Vehicle registration WB-55, WB-56
Literacy Rate 66.18 per cent
Website http://purulia.gov.in/

Jhalda I is a community development block that forms an administrative division in Purulia Sadar West subdivision of Purulia district in the Indian state of West Bengal.

History[edit]

Background[edit]

The Jaina Bhagavati-Sutra of 5th century AD mentions that Purulia was one of the sixteen mahajanapadas and was a part of the kingdom known as Vajra-bhumi in ancient times. In 1833, Manbhum district was carved out of Jungle Mahals district, with headquarters at Manbazar. In 1838, the headquarters was transferred to Purulia. In 1956, Manbhum district was partitioned between Bihar and West Bengal under the States Reorganization Act and the Bihar and West Bengal (Transfer of Territories) Act 1956.[1]

Red corridor[edit]

106 districts spanning 10 states across India, described as being part of the Left Wing Extremism activities, constitutes the Red corridor. In West Bengal the districts of Paschim Medinipur, Bankura, Purulia and Birbhum are part of the Red corridor. However, as of July 2016, there had been no reported incidents of Maoist related activities from these districts for the previous 4 years.[2]

The CPI (Maoist) extremism affected CD Blocks in Purulia district were: Jhalda I, Jhalda II, Arsha, Baghmundi, Balarampur, Barabazar, Manbazar II and Bandwan.[3] Certain reports also included Manbazar I and Joypur CD Blocks and some times indicted the whole of Purulia district.[4]

The Lalgarh movement, which started attracting attention after the failed assassination attempt on Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee, then chief minister of West Bengal, in the Salboni area of Paschim Medinipur district, on 2 November 2008 and the police action that followed, had also spread over to these areas.[5] The movement was not just a political struggle but an armed struggle that concurrently took the look of a social struggle. A large number of CPI (M) activists were killed. Although the epi-centre of the movement was Lalgarh, it was spread across 19 police stations in three adjoining districts – Paschim Medinipur, Bankura and Purulia, all thickly forested and near the border with Jharkhand. The deployment of CRPF and other forces started on 11 June 2009. The movement came to an end after the 2011 state assembly elections and change of government in West Bengal. The death of Kishenji, the Maoist commander, on 24 November 2011 was the last major landmark.[5][6]

Geography[edit]

Overview[edit]

Purulia is the western-most district of West Bengal.[7] The area forms the lowest step of the Chota Nagpur Plateau. The general scenario is undulating land with scattered hills.[8] The generally flat uplands have spurs projected from the higher plateau in the west. Towards the east the undulatios are less pronounced and the country presents the appearance of rolling downs with isolated conical hills here and there. In the south, the Baghmundi or Ajodhya Hills reaches an elevation of over 2,000 feet at places. The district generally slopes down from the west to the east.[9] Important rivers in the district are: Damodar, Kangsabati, Kumari, Dwarakeswar and Subarnarekha.[10] Purulia district had a total forest cover of 185,726 hectares or 29.69% of the total land area in the district. Natural forest of the district is mainly restricted to the south-west part of the district covering the Ajodhya Hills and to the Panchet Hill in the north-east.[11]

Location[edit]

Pusti, a constituent panchayat of Jhalda I block, is located at 23°15′20″N 85°53′11″E / 23.2555412°N 85.8863068°E / 23.2555412; 85.8863068.

Jhalda I CD Block is bounded by Kasmar and Jaridih CD Blocks, in Bokaro district of Jharkhand, on the north, Jhalda II on the east, Baghmundi CD Block and Kukru CD Block, in Seraikela Kharsawan district of Jharkhand on the south, and Sonahatu and Silli CD Blocks, in Ranchi district of Jharkhand, and Gola CD Block, in Ramgarh district of Jharkhand, on the west.[12][13]

It is located 46 km from Purulia, the district headquarters.[12]

Area and administration[edit]

Jhalda I CD Block has an area of 315.09 km2. It has 1 panchayat samity, 10 gram panchayats, 97 gram sansads (village councils), 143 mouzas, 131 inhabited villages and 1 census town. Jhalda police station serves this block.[14] Headquarters of this CD Block is at Mashina.[15]

Gram panchayats[edit]

Gram panchayats of Jhalda I block/panchayat samiti are: Hensahatu, Ichag, Iloo-Jargo, Jhalda-Darda, Kalma, Maru-Mosina, Mathari-Khamar, Nayadih, Pusti and Tulin.[16]

Demographics[edit]

Population[edit]

As per the 2011 Census of India Jhalda I CD Block had a total population of 137,143, of which 127,759 were rural and 9,384 were urban. There were 70,095 (51%) males and 67,048 (49%) females. Population below 6 years was 20,832. Scheduled Castes numbered 16,988 (12.39%) and Scheduled Tribes numbered 15,608 (11.38%). [17]

As per 2001 census, Jhalda I block had a total population of 115,493, out of which 58,611 were males and 56,882 were females. Jhalda I block registered a population growth of 16.75 per cent during the 1991-2001 decade. Decadal growth for Purulia district was 13.96 per cent.[18] Decadal growth in West Bengal was 17.84 per cent.[19]

Villages[edit]

Large villages (with 4,000+ population) in Jhalda I CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Tulin (9,844), Ichag (4,951) and Jargo (4,083).[17]

Other villages in Jhalda I CD Block are (2011 census figures in brackets): Pusti (2,374), Kalma (2,536), Ilu (3,131), Khamar (1,799), Masina (2,724), Danrda (1,675), Uhatu (660) and Nayadi (1,246).[17]

Jhalda, a municipal town, is included as a census town in the 2011 census figures. It is not included here as a census town.

Literacy[edit]

As per the 2011 census the total number of literates in Jhalda I CD Block was 76,973 (66.18% of the population over 6 years) out of which males numbered 47,591 (80.15% of the male population over 6 years) and females numbered 29,382 (51.61%) of the female population over 6 years). The gender disparity (the difference between female and male literacy rates) was 28.54%.[17]

As per the 2011 census, literacy in Purulia district was 64.48%, up from 55.57 in 2001.[20] Literacy in West Bengal was 77.08% in 2011.[21] Literacy in India in 2011 was 74.04%.[21]

See also – List of West Bengal districts ranked by literacy rate


Languages[edit]

Bengali is the local language in these areas.[12]

Along the western borders of the district the local Bengali dialect spoken in the area often merges with Magahi dialects such as Kurmali, Khotta and Khottahi or even Khotta Bangla. There is a tribal presence in many of the CD Blocks of the district. Santali was spoken by around 14% of the population of the earlier Manbhum district. Some people also speak Mundari or Kolarian languages such as Kurmali, Mundari and the languages of the Bhumij or Mahli. However, the small number of people speaking some of these languages, particularly the Bhumijes, gave rise to doubts that many tribals have been recording Bengali as their language in different censuses, although they still speak their languages amongst themselves.[22]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Jhalda I CD Block
Hindu
  
83.69%
Muslim
  
8.48%
Christian
  
0.24%
Others
  
7.60%

In the 2011 census Hindus numbered 114,769 and formed 83.69% of the population in Jhalda I CD Block. Muslims numbered 11,627 and formed 8.48% of the population. Christians numbered 326 and formed 0.24% of the population. Others numbered 10,421 and formed 7.60% of the population.[23] Others include Addi Bassi, Marang Boro, Santal, Saranath, Sari Dharma, Sarna, Alchchi, Bidin, Sant, Saevdharm, Seran, Saran, Sarin, Kheria,[24] and other religious communities.[23]

In 2011, Hindus numbered 2,373,130 and formed 80.99% of the population in Puruliya district. Muslims numbered 227,249 and formed 7.76% of the population. Christians numbered 8,646 and formed 0.30% of the population. Others numbered 321,090 and formed 10.96% of the population. In West Bengal, Hindus numbered 64,385,546 and formed 70.53% of the population. Muslims numbered 24,654,825 and formed 27.01% of the population.[23]

BPL families[edit]

According to the summary report of the Rural Household Survey 2005, BPL families formed 32.85% of the families in Purulia district. In West Bengal as a whole, BPL families formed 34.12% of the families in the state. In Purulia district, the number of landless families formed 32.70% of the families in the district, agricultural labourers formed 41.03% and 13.76% of the families migrated for casual labour.[25]

Economy[edit]

Infrastructure[edit]

In 2013-14, Jhalda I CD Block had 36.80 km of surfaced roads under PWD, 58.00 km surfaced roads and 17.00 km unsurfaced roads under Zilla Parishad, 48.00 km surfaced roads and 250.00 km unsurfaced roads under Gram Panchayat and Panchayat Samiti and 32.84 km surfaced roads under Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana.[26]

131 mouzas in Jhalda I CD Block were electrified by 31 March 2014. The total consumption of electricity in Purulia district in 2013-14 was 228,350 KWH, out of which 130,376 KWH was domestic consumption and 925 KWH was for agricultural irrigation and dewatering.[26]

Agriculture[edit]

In Purulia district, cultivation is predominantly monocropped and more than half of the nett sown area is upland. Around 73% of the cultivated land is held in small patches by small and marginal farmers.[27] In 2013-14, nett sown area in Purulia district was 309,140 hectares. In Purulia district, 24,882 hectares of vested land was distributed amongst 97,393 beneficiaries up to 31 October 2013.[26]

In 2013-14, persons engaged in agriculture in Jhalda I CD Block could be classified as follows: bargadars 0.78%, patta (document) holders 17.98%, small farmers (possessing land between 1 and 2 hectares) 8.82%, marginal farmers (possessing land up to 1 hectare) 29.94% and agricultural labourers 42.48%.[26]

In 2013-14, the total area irrigated in Jhalda I CD Block was 11,232.60 hectares, out of which 2,585.00 hectares was by canal irrigation, 7,491.95 hectares by tank water, 59.55 hectares by river lift irrigation, 126.00 hectares by open dug wells and 970.00 hectares by other means.[26]

In 2013-14, Jhalda I CD Block produced 42,521 tonnes of Aman paddy, the main winter crop, from 19,041 hectares and 5,555 tonnes of Boro paddy, the spring crop, from 256 hectares. It also produced khesari, gram and mustard.[26]

Pisciculture[edit]

In Jhalda I CD Block, the net area undern effective pisciculture was 539 hectares in 2013-14. 5,367 persons were engaged in the profession. Approxiate annual production was 11,000 quintals.[26]

Banking[edit]

In 2013-14, Jhalda I CD Block had offices of 7 commercial bank and 2 gramin banks.[26]

Transport[edit]

In 2013-14, Jhalda I CD Block had 5 originating/ terminating bus routes.[26]

Both SH 4 running from Jhalda (in Purulia district) to Junput (in Purba Medinipur district) and SH 4A running from Tulin to Chas Morh (both in Purulia district) originate in this block.[28]

The NSC Bose Gomoh-Hatia line of South Eastern Railway passes through this CD Block and there is a station at Tulin.[29]

Education[edit]

In 2013-14, Jhalda I CD Block had 144 primary schools with 10,514 students, 10 middle schools with 694 students and 13 higher secondary schools with 14,746 students. Jhalda I CD Block had 2 general colleges with 1,549 students, 1 professional/ technical institute with 48 students and 249 institutions with 8,841 students for special and non-formal education.[26]

Healthcare[edit]

In 2014, Jhalda I CD Block had 1 block primary health centre and 2 primary health centres, with total 46 beds and 6 doctors. 8,572 patients were treated indoor and 198,949 patients were treated outdoor in the health centres and subcentres of the CD Block.[26]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Historical background". Purulia District. Archived from the original on 2008-01-03. Retrieved 2008-03-02. 
  2. ^ Singh, Vijayita. "Red Corridor to be redrawn". The Hindu, 25 July 2016. Retrieved 29 August 2016. 
  3. ^ "IAP improving lives in Maoist-affected areas". Ideas for India. Retrieved 26 September 2016. 
  4. ^ "Maoists observe 24 hr bandh in five states". UNI, One India. Retrieved 26 September 2016. 
  5. ^ a b "Lalgarh Battle". Frontline. 17 July 2009. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  6. ^ "Kishenji's death a serious blow to Maoist movement". The Hindu. 25 November 2011. Retrieved 23 July 2016. 
  7. ^ "Destination Purulia". Introduction. Purulia district adminstration. Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  8. ^ Houlton, Sir John, Bihar, the Heart of India, 1949, p. 170, Orient Longmans Ltd.
  9. ^ "Bengal District Gazetteers - Manbhum by H. Coupland, ICS". First Published 1911. University of California, San Diego. Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  10. ^ "Brief Industrial Profile of Purulia District, West Bengal" (PDF). Ministry of Micro Small and Medium Industries, Government of India. Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  11. ^ "Destination Purulia". District Profile. Purulia district adminstration. Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  12. ^ a b c "Jhalda I Block". onefivenine. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  13. ^ "Purulia district". Blocks in Purulia district. Purulia district administration. Retrieved 14 September 2016. 
  14. ^ "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Purulia". Tables 2.1, 2.2,. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  15. ^ "District Census Handbook: Puruliya" (PDF). Map of District Puruliya with CD Block HQs and Police Stations (on the fifth page). Directorate of Census Operations, West Bengal, 2011. Retrieved 2 December 2016. 
  16. ^ "Directory of District, Subdivision, Panchayat Samiti/ Block and Gram Panchayats in West Bengal". Paschim Medinipur - Revised in March 2008. Panchayats and Rural Development Department, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  17. ^ a b c d "C.D. Block Wise Primary Census Abstract Data(PCA)". 2011 census: West Bengal – District-wise CD Blocks. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  18. ^ "Provisional population totals, West Bengal, Table 4, Puruliya District". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 28 September 2011. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  19. ^ "Provisional Population Totals, West Bengal. Table 4". Census of India 2001. Census Commission of India. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. Retrieved 17 July 2016. 
  20. ^ "Purulia District: Census 2011 data". 2016 Digital Trends. Census Population 2015 Data. Retrieved 12 September 2016. 
  21. ^ a b "Provisional population tables and annexures" (PDF). Census 2011:Table 2(3) Literates and Literacy rates by sex. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 20 August 2016. 
  22. ^ "Bengal District Gazetteers - Manbhum by H. Coupland, ICS". Section 72, First Published 1911. University of California, San Diego. Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  23. ^ a b c "C1 Population by Religious Community". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  24. ^ "ST-14 A Details Of Religions Shown Under 'Other Religions And Persuasions' In Main Table". West Bengal. Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India. Retrieved 28 September 2016. 
  25. ^ "BPL survey". Department of Panchayats and Rural Development. Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  26. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "District Statistical Handbook 2014 Purulia". Tables 21.1, 8.2, 8.2(a), 5.1, 5.1(b), 17.2, 18.2, 18.1, 18.3, 20.1, 21,2, 4.1, 3.1, 3.3 – arranged as per use. Department of Statistics and Programme Implementation, Government of West Bengal. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  27. ^ "purulia.nic.in". District profile - agriculture. Purulia district administration. Retrieved 20 September 2016. 
  28. ^ "List of State Highways in West Bengal". West Bengal Traffic Police. Retrieved 23 August 2016. 
  29. ^ "58621Adra-Barkakana Passenger". Time Table. indiarailinfo. Retrieved 28 September 2016.