International E-road network

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E-road network
E40 shieldE018 shield
Markers for E40 and E018
 
Map of International E-road network
System information
Formed16 September 1950 (16 September 1950)
Highway names
E-roadEuropean route nn (Enn or E nn)
System links
Transport in Europe
E-Road Network over 1990 borders
Approximate extent of completed motorway network in Europe as of May 2014

The international E-road network is a numbering system for roads in Europe developed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE). The network is numbered from E1 up and its roads cross national borders. It also reaches Central Asian countries like Kyrgyzstan, since they are members of the UNECE.

European main international traffic arteries are defined by ECE/TRANS/SC.1/2016/3/Rev.1 which consider three types of roads: motorways, express roads, and ordinary roads.

In most countries, the roads carry the European route designation alongside national designations. Belgium, Norway and Sweden have roads which only have the European route designations (examples: E18 and E6). The United Kingdom only uses national road designations and does not show the European designations at all. Denmark only uses the European designations on signage, but also has formal names for every motorway (or part of such), by which the motorways are referred to, for instance in news and weather forecasts.

Other continents have similar international road networks, e.g., the Pan-American Highway in the Americas, the Trans-African Highway network, and the Asian Highway Network.

History[edit]

E3 in Denmark, before 1992: Changed to E45; the number E3 was re-attributed.

UNECE was formed in 1947, and their first major act to improve transport was a joint UN declaration no. 1264, the Declaration on the Construction of Main International Traffic Arteries,[1][2] signed in Geneva on 16 September 1950, which defined the first E-road network. Originally it was envisaged that the E-road network would be a motorway system comparable to the US Interstate Highway System.[3] The declaration was amended several times until 15 November 1975, when it was replaced by the European Agreement on Main International Traffic Arteries or "AGR",[4] which set up a route numbering system and improved standards for roads in the list. The AGR last went through a major change in 1992 and in 2001 was extended into Central Asia to include the Caucasus nations.[3] There were several minor revisions since, last in 2008 (as of 2009).

These were the historical roads before 1975:

Number Start via End
E1 London – Southampton – Le Havre – ParisLyonNice – Ventimiglia – Genoa – La Spezia – Pisa – Livorno – RomeNaples – Salerno – Reggio di Calabria – Messina – Palermo
E2 London – Dover – Calais – Reims – Dijon – Dole – Lausanne – Simplon – Milan – Parma – Modena – Bologna – Ancona – Foggia – Bari Brindisi
E3 Lisbon – Salamanca – San Sebastián – Bordeaux – Paris – Lille – Gent – Antwerp – Eindhoven – Venlo – Oberhausen – Bielefeld – Hannover – Hamburg – Flensburg – Kolding – Frederikshavn – Gothenburg – Arboga – Stockholm
E4 Lisbon – Elvas – Mèrida – Madrid – Zaragoza – Barcelona – Nîmes – Chambéry – Genf – Lausanne – Bern – Basel – Karlsruhe – Frankfurt (Main) – Kassel – Göttingen – Hannover – Hamburg – Lübeck – Fehmarn – Vordingborg – Copenhagen – Helsingør – Helsingborg – Jönköping – StockholmUppsala – Sundsvall – Umeå – Tornio – Lahti – Helsinki
E5 London – Dover – Calais – Gent – Brussels – Liège – CologneFrankfurt (Main) – Würzburg – Nuremberg – Passau – Linz – Melk – Wien – Nickelsdorf – Győr – Budapest – Szeged – Belgrade – Djevdjelija – ThessalonikiAlexandroupolis – Peplos – Ipsala – Silivri – Istanbul – İzmit – Bolu – Ankara – Aksaray – Adana – İskenderun – Turkey/Syria border
E6 Rome – Florence – Bologna – Modena – Verona – Trento – BrennerInnsbruck – Griesen – Munich – Nuremberg – Hof – LeipzigBerlin – Stralsund – Sassnitz – Trelleborg – Malmö – Helsingborg – Gothenburg – Svinesund – Oslo – Hamar – Otta – Trondheim Stjørdal
E7 Rome – Perugia – Forlì – Bologna – Ferrara – Padua – Mestre – Cervignano – Udine – Villach – Bruck an der MurWienBrno – Cesky Tesin – Krakow Warsaw
E8 London – Harwich – Hoek von Holland – The Hague – Utrecht – Osnabrück – Hannover – Magdeburg – Berlin – Poznan – Krośniewice – Warsaw Poland/USSR border
E9 Amsterdam – Maastricht – Liège – Arlon – Luxembourg – Metz – Strasbourg – Mülhausen – Basel – Olten – Luzern – Andermatt – (Gotthard) – Lugano – Chiasso – Como – Milan – Tortona – Genoa
E10 Paris – Cambrai – BrusselsAntwerpRotterdamThe Hague Amsterdam
E11 Paris – Saint-Dizier – Nancy – Strasbourg – Karlsruhe – StuttgartMunich Salzburg
E12 Paris – Metz – Saarbrücken – Mannheim – Nuremberg – Pilsen – Prague – Náchod – Kłodzko – ŁódźWarsaw – Białystok – Moscow
E13 Lyon – Modena – Turin – Milan – Brescia – Verona – Padua – Venice
E14 Trieste – Ronchi – Udine – Villach – Salzburg – Linz – Tábor – Prague – Jablonec – Szczecin
E15 Hamburg BerlinDresden – Zinnwald – PragueBrno – Břeclav – Bratislava Budapest
E16 Bratislava – Český Těšín – Katowice – Łódź – Gdańsk Gdynia
E17 Chagny – Dijon – BaselZürich – Winterthur – St. Gallen – St. Margarethen – Innsbruck – Wörgl – Salzburg
E18 Stavanger – Kristiansand – Larvik – Oslo – Karlstad – Arboga – Köping – Stockholm
E19 Albania/Greece border Ioannina – Arta – Agrinio – Antirion – Rion – Corinth
E20 Koritza – Vari – Edessa – Thessaloniki – Sofia
E21 Aosta – Turin – Savona
E21a Martigny – Grosser St. Bernhard – Aosta
E21b Geneva – Bonneville – Mont-Blanc – Aosta
E22 Berlin Wroclaw – Opole – Bytom – Krakow – Rzeszów – Przemyśl – Poland/Ukraine border
E23 Ankara – Kirsehir – Kayseri – Sivas – Erzincan – Erzurum – Agri – Turkey/Iran border
E24 Kömürler – Gaziantep – Urfa – Mardin – Cizre – Hakkari – Bajerge – Turkey/Iran border
E25 Burgos – Madrid – Bailén – Sevilla – Cádiz – Algecires
E26 Barcelona – Tarragona – Castellón de la Plana – Valencia – Granada – Málaga – Algeciras
E31 London – St. Albans – Northampton – Doncaster – Scotch Corner – Carlisle – Abington – Glasgow
E32 Abington Edinburgh
E33 Northampton – Coventry – Cannock – Warrington – Liverpool
E34 Amsterdam – Cannock – Shrewsbury – Corwen – Holyhead
E35 Amsterdam – Amersfoort – Zwolle – Groningen – Winschoten – Oldenburg – Hamburg
E36 Hoek van Holland – Rotterdam – Gouda – Utrecht – Arnhem – Oberhausen – Cologne
E37 Breda – Gorinchem – Utrecht
E38 Breda Eindhoven
E39 Antwerp – Heerlen – Aachen
E40 Brussels – Namur – Bastogne
E41 Calais – Valenciennes – Mons – Charleroi – Namur – Liège
E42 Phalsbourg – Sarreguemines – Saarbrücken – Luxembourg – Echternach – Bitburg – Prüm – Euskirchen – Cologne
E43 Avallon Dijon
E44 Balfort Mülhausen
E45 Dole – La Curs – La Faucille – Gex – Geneva
E46 Lyon – Amberieu – Geneva
E47 Aix-en-Provence Marseille
E48 Nîmes Marseille
E49 Bordeaux – Toulouse – Narbonne
E50 Coimbra – Porto – Vigo – A Coruña – Oviedo – Santander – Bilbao – San Sebastián
E51 Albergaria a Velha – Viseu – Celorico da Beira
E52 Vila Franca de Xira – Pegões – Beja – Vila Verde de Ficalho – Rosal de la Frontera – Sevilla
E53 Turin – Asti – Alessandria – Tortona
E54 Canteggio Piacenza
E55 Pisa – Migliarino – Pistoia
E56 Ponte-Garigliano – Caserta – Foggia
E57 Naples Arienzo
E58 Bari Tarent
E59 Messina Syracuse
E60 Arth Zürich
E61 Bellinzona – San Bernardino – Chur – St. Margrethen – Bregenz – Lindau – Munich
E62 Hof – Karl-Marx-Stadt – Leipzig – Halle – Magdeburg
E63 Hamm – Kassel – Herleshausen – Erfurt – Karl-Marx-Stadt – Dresden
E64 Berlin – Neubrandenburg – Rostock – Warnemünde – Gedser – Nykøbing – Vordingborg – Copenhagen
E65 Lübeck – Rostock – Stralsund
E66 Esbjerg – Kolding – Middelfart – Nyborg – Korsör – Copenhagen – Malmö
E67 Vejle Middelfart
E68 Bergen – Gudvangen – Laerdalsöyra – Nystua – Fagernes – Oslo
E69 Ålesund – Åndalsnes – Dombås
E70 Winterthur – Schaffhausen – Donaueschingen – Tübingen – Stuttgart – Heilbronn – Schwäbisch Hall – Würzburg – Fulda – Hersfeld – Herleshausen
E71 Hannover – Bremen – Bremerhaven
E72 Oldenzaal – Lingen – Bremen
E73 Cologne Hamm
E74 Berlin Szczecin
E75 Stjördal – Storlien – Östersund – Sundvall
E77 Feldkirch Buchs
E78 Tornio Kilpisjärvi
E79 Vaasa – Tampere – Helsinki
E80 Turku – Helsinki – Lappeenranta – Imatra
E81 Gdańsk – Elbląg – Ostróda – Mława – Warsaw – Lublin – Poland/Ukraine border
E82 Piotrkow Warsaw
E83 Jelenia Gora – Wrocław – Poznań – Świecie – Grudziądz
E84 Prague – Jihlava – Znojmo – Wien
E85 Olmütz – Žilina – Prešov – Košice – Romania/Bulgaria border
E86 Wörgl Rosenheim
E87 Ioannina – Trikkala – Larissa – Volos
E88 Ioannina Preveza
E89 Rion Patras
E90 Vevi Kozani
E91 Cervignano Ronchi
E92 Thessaloniki – Aghios Athanasios – Verria – Kozani – Larissa – Lamia – Athens – Corinth – Argos – Kalamai
E93 Bruck an der Mur – Graz – Spielfeld – Sentilj – Maribor – Ljubljana
E94 Klagenfurt – Loibltunnel – Ljubljana – Zagreb – Belgrad – Bela Crkva – Yugoslavia/Romania border
E95 Nis – Dimitrovgrad – Yugoslavia/Bulgaria border
E96 Rijeka – Zagreb – Čakovec – Donja Lendava – Yugoslavia/Hungary border
E97 Bulgaria/Turkey border – Edirne – Büyükkarıştıran – Silivri
E98 Kemerhisar – Niğde – Kayseri
E99 Toprakkale – Kahramanmaraş – Malatya – Elazığ – Tunceli – Selepür
E101 Madrid Valencia

Numbering system[edit]

European Route Sign. This sign is used on the E40.
Intersection of E42 and E451 near Frankfurt Airport

The route numbering system is as follows:[4]

  • Reference roads and intermediate roads, called Class-A roads, have numbers from 1 to 129.
    • North-south routes have odd numbers; east-west routes have even numbers. The two main exceptions are E4 and E6, both north-south routes.
    • Numbers count upward from west to east and from north to south, with some exceptions.
  • Branch, link and connecting roads, called Class-B roads, have three-digit numbers above 130.
  • Reference roads are roads numbered 5-95 ending with 0 or 5 or having odd numbers 101-129. They generally go across Europe and are usually several thousand kilometres long.
    • North-south reference roads have numbers that end with the digit 5 from 5 to 95, or odd numbers from 101 to 129, increasing from west to east.
    • East-west reference roads have two-digit numbers that end with the digit 0, increasing from north to south.
  • Intermediate roads are roads numbered 1 to 99 that are not reference roads. They are usually considerably shorter than the reference roads. They have numbers between those of the reference roads between which they are located. Like reference roads, north-south intermediate roads have odd numbers; east-west roads have even numbers.
  • Class-B roads have three-digit numbers: the first digit is that of the nearest reference road to the north, the second digit is that of the nearest reference road to the west, and the third digit is a serial number.
  • North-south Class-A roads located eastwards of road E99 have three-digit odd numbers from 101 to 129. Other rules for Class-A roads above apply to these roads.
  • Class-B roads located eastwards of E101 have 3-digit numbers beginning with 0, from 001 to 099.

Exceptions[edit]

In the first established and approved version, the road numbers were well ordered. Since then a number of exceptions to this principle have been allowed.

Two Class-A roads, E6 and E4 were originally scheduled to be renamed into E47 and E55, respectively. However, since Sweden and Norway have integrated the E-roads into their national networks, signposted as E6 and E4 throughout, a decision was made to officially keep the pre-1992 numbers for the roads in those two countries. These exceptions were granted because of the excessive expense connected with re-signing not only the long routes themselves, but also the associated road network in the area. The new numbers are, however, used from Denmark and southward, though, as do other European routes within Scandinavia. These two roads are the most conspicuous exceptions to the rule that even numbers signify west-to-east E-roads.

Further exceptions are:

  • E67, going from Finland to the Czech Republic (wrong side of E75 and E77), assigned around year 2000, simply because it was best available number for this new route.
  • Most of E63 in Finland (wrong side of E75) E8 in Finland (partly on the wrong side of E12 after a lengthening around 2002).
  • E82 (Spain and Portugal, wrong side of E80).

These irregularities exist just because it is hard to maintain good order when extending the network, and the UNECE does not want to change road numbers unnecessarily.

Because the Socialist People's Republic of Albania refused to participate in international treaties such as the AGR, it was conspicuously excluded from the route scheme, with E65 and E90 making noticeable detours to go around it. In the 1990s, Albania opened up to the rest of Europe, but only ratified the AGR in August 2006, so its integration into the E-road network remains weak.

Signage[edit]

Where the European routes are signed, green signs with white numbers are used.

The E201 in the Republic of Ireland.

There are different strategies for determining how frequently to signpost the roads.

  • Sweden, Norway and Denmark have integrated the E-road numbers into their networks, meaning that the roads usually have no other national number.
  • In Belgium, E-numbers are traditionally associated with highways, even though other grade E-roads pass through the country. As a result, the E-number is signposted (and referred to) only on the highway portions of the E-road network, while for non-motorways only the national number (if any) is shown. On the highway portions of the E-network, the E-numbers are the standard and thus referred to in news bulletins rather than the national number. Serbia and Italy have a similar principle.
  • In most of the countries the E-roads form a network on top of the national network. The green signs are frequent enough to show how to follow the roads, but do not usually show how to reach them.
  • In some countries, like Croatia and Bulgaria E-roads are well signposted, but they sometimes follow the old state routes instead of highways. State highways are signposted best.
  • In some countries, like Germany, Italy and Greece, E-roads are signposted only on motorways and main road itineraries.
  • In Ireland the signposting of E-roads is specified in Chapter 2 of the 2010 Traffic Signs Manual published by the Department of Transport, and specifies that E-roads are to be signed on route confirmation signs only.[5] The first E-road numbers were signed in July 2007 on the N11 bypass in Gorey. Since then they have gradually spread across the E-road network in Ireland.
  • In a few countries, such as the United Kingdom[6] and Uzbekistan, the E-roads are not signposted at all.

Road design standards[edit]

The following design standards should be applied to Euroroutes unless there are exceptional circumstances (such as mountain passes etc.):[4]

  • Built-up areas shall be by-passed if they constitute a hindrance or a danger.
  • The roads should preferably be motorways or express roads (unless traffic density is low so that there is no congestion on an ordinary road).
  • They should be homogeneous and be designed for at least 80 km/h (50 mph) (see Design speed). Motorways for at least 100 km/h (60 mph).
  • Gradients should not exceed 8% on roads designed for 80 km/h (50 mph), decreasing to 4% on roads designed for 120 km/h (75 mph) traffic.
  • The radius of curved sections of road should be a minimum of 120 m (390 ft) on roads designed for 60 km/h (35 mph) rising to 1,000 m (3,300 ft) on roads designed for 140 km/h (85 mph).
  • "Stopping distance visibility" should be at least 70 m (230 ft) on roads designed for 60 km/h (35 mph), rising to 300 m (980 ft) on roads designed for 140 km/h (85 mph).
  • Lane width should be at least 3.5 m (11 ft) on straight sections of road. This guarantees adequate clearance for any vehicle having a superstructure of width 2.5 m (8.2 ft) which is the maximum specified width in Directive 2002/7/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council which recognise some specific tolerances for some specific countries.
  • The shoulder is recommended to be at least 2.5 m (8.2 ft) on ordinary roads and 3.25 m (10.7 ft) on motorways.
  • Central reservations should be at least 3 m (9.8 ft) unless there is a barrier between the two carriageways.
  • Overhead clearance should be not less than 4.5 m (15 ft).
  • Railway intersections should be at different levels.

These requirements are meant to be followed for road construction. When new E-roads have been added these requirements have not been followed stringently. For example, the E45 in Sweden, added in 2006, has long parts with 6 m (20 ft) width or the E22 in eastern Europe forcing drivers to slow down to 30 km/h (20 mph) by taking the route through villages. In Norway, parts of the E10 are 5 m (16 ft) wide and in Central Asia even some gravel roads have been included.

Cultural significance[edit]

In Belgium, for example, motorway E-numbers have taken on the same kind of persistent cultural integration and significance as M-numbers in the UK, or Interstate numbers in the United States. Local businesses will refer to, or even incorporate the road designator in their business name. The annual road cycling race "E3 Harelbeke" takes part of its name from the former E3 (the part between Antwerp and Lille was renamed E17 in 1992). The same applies to the retail chain "E5-mode" (E5-fashion) that started with shops easily accessible from the former E5 (renamed E40 in 1992).

List of roads[edit]

Notes to the listings[edit]

In the road listings below,[4] a dash ('–') indicates a land road connection between two towns/cities—the normal case—while an ellipsis ('…') denotes a stretch across water. Not all such places are connected by ferry, and operating ferry connections are usually run by private companies without support from the respective governments, i.e. they may cease operating at any time.

A Class roads[edit]

The E-road network in Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan. However, the border between Armenia and Azerbaijan is closed due to strained relations between Armenia and Azerbaijan.
The E-road network in Belarus.
The E-road network in Belgium.
The E-road network in Bulgaria.
The E-road network in Finland.
The E-road network in Georgia.
The E-road network in Germany.
The E-road network in Lithuania.
The E-road network in the Netherlands.
The E-road network in Poland.
The E-road network in Romania.
The E-road network in Russia (includes the disputed Crimea).
The E-road network in Turkey.
The E-road network in the United Kingdom and Ireland.
The E-road network in Ukraine (includes the disputed Crimea).

North-South reference[edit]

West-East reference[edit]

North-South intermediate[edit]

West-East intermediate[edit]

B Class roads[edit]

Notable E-roads[edit]

An aerial view of the European route E12 between the cities of Tampere and Helsinki in Finland
  • E80, together with Asian Highway 1, crosses all of Europe and Asia, linking Lisbon with Tokyo.
  • The longest E-road is E40, which is more than 8,500 km (5,300 mi) long, connecting France with Kazakhstan.
  • The shortest E-road is E844, 22 km (14 mi), in the Italian region of Calabria
  • Northernmost is E69, North Cape, Norway, 71°10' N
  • Westernmost is E1, Lisbon, Portugal, 9°10' W
  • Southernmost is E75, Crete, Greece, 35°6' N
  • Easternmost is E127, Maykapshagay, Kazakhstan, 85°36' E
  • The highest E-road is E008 which reaches 4,272 m (14,016 ft) altitude in the Pamir Mountains in Tajikistan.
  • The highest E-road in Europe is E62 reaching 2,005 m (6,578 ft) at the Simplon Pass, Switzerland.
  • The lowest E-road is E39 which reaches 262 m (860 ft) below sea level in the Bømlafjord Tunnel, Norway.
  • The longest bridge on an E-road is the Øresund Bridge (in Sweden and Denmark) on E20 which is 7,845 metres (25,738 ft).
  • The longest tunnel on an E-road is the Lærdal Tunnel (in Norway) on E16 which is 24,510 metres (80,410 ft), the longest road tunnel in the world. As of 2015 E16 includes 60 tunnels, covering about 15% of the road's 630 km (391 mi) within Norway.
  • The E39 includes 9 ferry crossings.
  • The E39 includes 90 tunnels, 6% of the road's 1,140 km (708 mi) within Norway.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Declaration on the Construction of Main International Traffic Arteries, signed at Geneva" (PDF). United Nations - Treaty Series. 16 September 1950. Archived from the original (PDF) on 12 August 2014. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  2. ^ "Declaration on the Construction of Main International Traffic Arteries, signed at Geneva" (PDF). United Nations - Treaty Series. 16 September 1950. Retrieved 1 July 2012.
  3. ^ a b "E-Roads". Archived from the original on 3 March 2012. Retrieved 5 September 2012.
  4. ^ a b c d "European Agreement on Main International Traffic Arteries" (PDF). United Nations Economic and Social Council. 14 March 2008. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  5. ^ "2. Directional Information Signs" (PDF). Traffic Signs Manual 2010. Ireland: Department of Transport, Tourism and Sport. November 2010. §§2.3.34–36, 2.4.108, 2.4.116, 2.5.87. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  6. ^ "Statutory Instrument 2002 No. 3113: The Traffic Signs Regulations and General Directions 2002". HMSO. Retrieved 27 December 2010.

External links[edit]