Tirukkuṛaḷ

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Thirukural)
Jump to: navigation, search
Tirukkural
திருக்குறள்
Author Thiruvalluvar
Country India
Language Tamil
Genre Poetry
Topics in Sangam literature
Sangam literature
Akattiyam Tolkāppiyam
Patiṉeṇmēlkaṇakku
Eṭṭuttokai
Aiṅkurunūṟu Akanaṉūṟu
Puṟanāṉūṟu Kalittokai
Kuṟuntokai Naṟṟiṇai
Paripāṭal Patiṟṟuppattu
Pattuppattu
Tirumurukāṟṟuppaṭai Kuṟiñcippāṭṭu
Malaipaṭukaṭām Maturaikkāñci
Mullaippāṭṭu Neṭunalvāṭai
Paṭṭiṉappālai Perumpāṇāṟṟuppaṭai
Poruṇarāṟṟuppaṭai Ciṟupāṇāṟṟuppaṭai
Patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku
Nālaṭiyār Nāṉmaṇikkaṭikai
Iṉṉā Nāṟpatu Iṉiyavai Nāṟpatu
Kār Nāṟpatu Kaḷavaḻi Nāṟpatu
Aintiṇai Aimpatu Tiṉaimoḻi Aimpatu
Aintinai Eḻupatu Tiṉaimalai Nūṟṟu Aimpatu
Tirukkuṛaḷ Tirikaṭukam
Ācārakkōvai Paḻamoḻi Nāṉūṟu
Ciṟupañcamūlam Mutumoḻikkānci
Elāti Kainnilai
Tamil people
Sangam Sangam landscape
Tamil history from Sangam literature Tamil literature
Ancient Tamil music Sangam society
edit

The Tirukkural or Thirukkural (Tamil Name: திருக்குறள்), or shortly the Kural, is a classic Tamil sangam literature consisting of 1330 couplets or Kurals, dealing with the everyday virtues of common man.[1][2] Considered one of the greatest works ever written on ethics and morality, it is known for its universality and non-denominational nature. It was authored by Thiruvalluvar.

Considered as chef d'oeuvre of both Indian and world literature,[3] the Thirukkuṛaḷ is one of the most important works in the Tamil language. This is reflected in some of the other names by which the text is given by such as Tamiḻ Maṟai (Tamil concept); Poyyāmoḻi (words that never fail); and Daiva nūl (divine text).[4] The work is dated to sometime between the third and first centuries BCE and is considered to precede Manimekalai and Silappatikaram, since they both acknowledge the Kural text.[5]

Etymology[edit]

Tirukkural was originally known as 'Muppaal', meaning three-sectioned book, since it contained three sections, viz., 'Aram', 'Porul' and 'Inbam'. 'Thiru' is a term denoting divine respect, literally meaning holy or sacred. 'Kural' is a very short Tamil poetic form consisting of two lines, the first line consisting of four words (known as cirs) and the second line consisting of three. It should also conform to the grammar of Venpa. It is one of the most important forms of classical Tamil language poetry. Since the work was written in this poetic form, it came to be known as 'Tirukkural', meaning 'sacred couplets'.

Author[edit]

There are claims and counter claims as to the authorship of the book and to the exact number of couplets written by Thiruvalluvar. The first instance of the author's name mentioned as Thiruvalluvar is found to be several centuries later in a song of praise called the Garland of Thiruvalluvar in Thiruvalluva Malai.[6]

There were some claims that he was born in Thirunayanar Kuruchi, a village in Kanyakumari district of Tamil Nadu and looks like he would have belonged to Vaishnavite religion of Hinduism, based on Kural No. 1103 and notes in writings regarding to avi soriyum velvi (Yagna) and notes on Thiru (Lakshmi) in many of the Kurals. Also its first commentary (known as Urai) was written by Parimel Azhagar, who was a Vaishnavaite based on his name (referring to God of Alagar Kovil).[citation needed]

Sections[edit]

The Tirukkural is structured into 133 chapters, each containing 10 couplets (or kurals), for a total of 1330 couplets.[7] The 133 chapters are grouped into three sections:.[7][8]

  • Aṟam (Tamilஅறத்துப்பால், Aṟattuppāl ?) (Dharma) dealing with virtue (Chapters 1-38)
  • Poruḷ (Tamilபொருட்பால், Poruṭpāl ?) (Artha) dealing with wealth or polity (Chapters 39-108)
  • Inbam (Tamilகாமத்துப்பால், Kāmattuppāl ?) (Kama) dealing with love (Chapters 109-133)

Each Kural or couplet contains exactly seven words (cirs), with four cirs on the first line and three on the second. A cir is a single or a combination of more than one Tamil word. For example, Tirukkural is a cir formed by combining the two words tiru and kuṛaḷ. Aram contains 380 verses, Porul with 700 and Inbam with 250.[7]

Below is the outline of the book:

Section I: Virtue (அறத்துப்பால் Aṟattuppāl): 38 chapters

  • Chapter 1. The Praise of God (கடவுள் வாழ்த்து kaṭavuḷ vāḻttu): Couplets 1–10
  • Chapter 2. The Excellence of Rain (வான் சிறப்பு vāṉ ciṟappu): 11–20
  • Chapter 3. The Greatness of Ascetics (நீத்தார் பெருமை nīttār perumai): 21–30
  • Chapter 4. Assertion of the Strength of Virtue (அறன் வலியுறுத்தல் aṟaṉ valiyuṟuttal): 31–40
  • Chapter 5. Domestic Life (இல்வாழ்க்கை ilvāḻkkai): 41–50
  • Chapter 6. The Goodness of the Help to Domestic Life (வாழ்க்கைத்துணை நலம் vāḻkkaittuṇai nalam): 51–60
  • Chapter 7. The Obtaining of Sons (புதல்வரைப் பெறுதல் putalvaraip peṟutal): 61–70
  • Chapter 8. The Possession of Love (அன்புடைமை aṉpuṭaimai): 71–80
  • Chapter 9. Cherishing Guests (விருந்தோம்பல் viruntōmpal): 81–90
  • Chapter 10. The Utterance of Pleasant Words (இனியவை கூறல் iṉiyavai kūṟal): 91–100
  • Chapter 11. The Knowledge of Benefits Conferred: Gratitude (செய்ந்நன்றி அறிதல் ceynnaṉṟi aṟital): 101–110
  • Chapter 12. Impartiality (நடுவு நிலைமை naṭuvu nilaimai): 111–120
  • Chapter 13. The Possession of Self-restraint (அடக்கமுடைமை aṭakkamuṭaimai): 121–130
  • Chapter 14. The Possession of Decorum (ஒழுக்கமுடைமை oḻukkamuṭaimai): 131–140
  • Chapter 15. Not coveting another's Wife (பிறனில் விழையாமை piṟaṉil viḻaiyāmai): 141–150
  • Chapter 16. The Possession of Patience, Forbearance (பொறையுடைமை poṟaiyuṭaimai): 151–160
  • Chapter 17. Not Envying (அழுக்காறாமை aḻukkāṟāmai): 161–170
  • Chapter 18. Not Coveting (வெஃகாமை veḵkāmai): 171–180
  • Chapter 19. Not Backbiting (புறங்கூறாமை puṟaṅkūṟāmai): 181–190
  • Chapter 20. The Not Speaking Profitless Words (பயனில சொல்லாமை payaṉila collāmai): 191–200
  • Chapter 21. Dread of Evil Deeds (தீவினையச்சம் tīviṉaiyaccam): 201–210
  • Chapter 22. The knowledge of what is Befitting a Man's Position (ஒப்புரவறிதல் oppuravaṟital): 211–220
  • Chapter 23. Giving (ஈகை īkai): 221–230
  • Chapter 24. Renown (புகழ் pukaḻ): 231–240
  • Chapter 25. The Possession of Benevolence (அருளுடைமை aruḷuṭaimai): 241–250
  • Chapter 26. The Renunciation of Flesh (புலான் மறுத்தல் pulāṉmaṟuttal): 251–260
  • Chapter 27. Penance (தவம் tavam): 261–270
  • Chapter 28. Inconsistent Conduct (கூடாவொழுக்கம் kūṭāvoḻukkam): 271–280
  • Chapter 29. The Absence of Fraud (கள்ளாமை kaḷḷāmai): 281–290
  • Chapter 30. Veracity (வாய்மை vāymai): 291–300
  • Chapter 31. The not being Angry (வெகுளாமை vekuḷāmai): 301–310
  • Chapter 32. Not doing Evil (இனனா செய்யாமை iṉṉāceyyāmai): 311–320
  • Chapter 33. Not killing (கொல்லாமை kollāmai): 332–330
  • Chapter 34. Instability (நிலையாமை nilaiyāmai): 331–340
  • Chapter 35. Renunciation (துறவு tuṟavu): 341–350
  • Chapter 36. Knowledge of the True (மெய்யுணர்தல் meyyuṇartal): 351–360
  • Chapter 37. The Extirpation of Desire (அவாவறுத்தல் avāvaṟuttal): 361–370
  • Chapter 38. Fate (ஊழ் ūḻ): 371–380

Section II: Wealth (பொருட்பால் Poruṭpāl): 70 chapters

  • Chapter 39. The Greatness of a King (இறைமாட்சி iṟaimāṭci): 381–390
  • Chapter 40. Learning (கல்வி kalvi): 391–400
  • Chapter 41. Ignorance (கல்லாமை kallāmai): 401–410
  • Chapter 42. Hearing (கேள்வி kēḷvi): 411–420
  • Chapter 43. The Possession of Knowledge (அறிவுடைமை aṟivuṭaimai): 421–430
  • Chapter 44. The Correction of Faults (குற்றங்கடிதல் kuṟṟaṅkaṭital): 431–440
  • Chapter 45. Seeking the Aid of Great Men (பெரியாரைத் துணைக்கோடல் periyārait tuṇaikkōṭal): 441–450
  • Chapter 46. Avoiding mean Associations (சிற்றினஞ்சேராமை ciṟṟiṉañcērāmai): 451–460
  • Chapter 47. Acting after due Consideration (தெரிந்து செயல்வகை terintuceyalvakai): 461–470
  • Chapter 48. The Knowledge of Power (வலியறிதல் valiyaṟital): 471–480
  • Chapter 49. Knowing the fitting Time (காலமறிதல் kālamaṟital): 481–490
  • Chapter 50. Knowing the Place (இடனறிதல் iṭaṉaṟital): 491–500
  • Chapter 51. Selection and Confidence (தெரிந்து தெளிதல் terintuteḷital): 501–510
  • Chapter 52. Selection and Employment (தெரிந்து வினையாடல் terintuviṉaiyāṭal): 511–520
  • Chapter 53. Cherishing one's Kindred (சுற்றந்தளால் cuṟṟantaḻāl): 521–530
  • Chapter 54. Unforgetfulness (பொச்சாவாமை poccāvāmai): 531–540
  • Chapter 55. The Right Sceptre (செங்கோன்மை ceṅkōṉmai): 541–550
  • Chapter 56. The Cruel Sceptre (கொடுங்கோன்மை koṭuṅkōṉmai): 551–560
  • Chapter 57. Absence of Terrorism (வெருவந்த செய்யாமை veruvantaceyyāmai): 561–570
  • Chapter 58. Benignity (கண்ணோட்டம் kaṇṇōṭṭam): 571–580
  • Chapter 59. Detectives (ஒற்றாடல் oṟṟāṭal): 581–590
  • Chapter 60. Energy (ஊக்கமுடைமை ūkkamuṭaimai): 591–600
  • Chapter 61. Unsluggishness (மடியின்மை maṭiyiṉmai): 601–610
  • Chapter 62. Manly Effort (ஆள்வினையுடைமை āḷviṉaiyuṭaimai): 611–620
  • Chapter 63. Hopefulness in Trouble (இடுக்கண் அழியாமை iṭukkaṇ aḻiyāmai): 621–630
  • Chapter 64. The Office of Minister of State (அமைச்சு amaiccu): 631–640
  • Chapter 65. Power in Speech (சொல்வன்மை colvaṉmai): 641–650
  • Chapter 66. Purity in Action (வினைத்தூய்மை viṉaittūymai): 651–660
  • Chapter 67. Power in Action (வினைத்திட்பம் viṉaittiṭpam): 661–670
  • Chapter 68. The Method of Acting (வினை செயல்வகை viṉaiceyalvakai): 671–680
  • Chapter 69. The Envoy (தூது tūtu): 681–690
  • Chapter 70. Conduct in the Presence of the King (மன்னரைச் சேர்ந்தொழுதல் maṉṉaraic cērntoḻutal): 691–700
  • Chapter 71. The Knowledge of Indications (குறிப்பறிதல் kuṟippaṟital): 701–710
  • Chapter 72. The Knowledge of the Council Chamber (அவையறிதல் avaiyaṟital): 711–720
  • Chapter 73. Not to dread the Council (அவையஞ்சாமை avaiyañcāmai): 721–730
  • Chapter 74. The Land (நாடு nāṭu): 731–740
  • Chapter 75. The Fortification (அரண் araṇ): 741–750
  • Chapter 76. Way of Accumulating Wealth (பொருள் செயல்வகை poruḷceyalvakai): 751–760
  • Chapter 77. The Excellence of an Army (படைமாட்சி paṭaimāṭci): 761–770
  • Chapter 78. Military Spirit (படைச்செருக்கு paṭaiccerukku): 771–780
  • Chapter 79. Friendship (நட்பு naṭpu): 781–790
  • Chapter 80. Investigation in forming Friendships (நட்பாராய்தல் naṭpārāytal): 791–800
  • Chapter 81. Familiarity (பழைமை paḻaimai): 801–810
  • Chapter 82. Evil Friendship (தீ நட்பு tī naṭpu): 811–820
  • Chapter 83. Unreal Friendship (கூடா நட்பு kūṭānaṭpu): 821–830
  • Chapter 84. Folly (பேதைமை pētaimai): 831–840
  • Chapter 85. Ignorance (புல்லறிவாண்மை pullaṟivāṇmai): 841–850
  • Chapter 86. Hostility (இகல் ikal): 851–860
  • Chapter 87. The Might of Hatred (பகை மாட்சி pakaimāṭci): 861–870
  • Chapter 88. Knowing the Quality of Hate (பகைத்திறந்தெரிதல் pakaittiṟanterital): 871–880
  • Chapter 89. Enmity Within (உட்பகை uṭpakai): 881–890
  • Chapter 90. Not Offending the Great (பெரியாரைப் பிழையாமை periyāraip piḻaiyāmai): 891–900
  • Chapter 91. Being led by Women (பெண்வழிச் சேறல் peṇvaḻiccēṟal): 901–910
  • Chapter 92. Wanton Women (வரைவின் மகளிர் varaiviṉmakaḷir): 911–920
  • Chapter 93. Not Drinking Palm-Wine (கள்ளுண்ணாமை kaḷḷuṇṇāmai): 921–930
  • Chapter 94. Gaming (Gambling) (சூது cūtu): 931–940
  • Chapter 95. Medicine (மருந்து maruntu): 941–950
  • Chapter 96. Nobility (குடிமை kuṭimai): 951–960
  • Chapter 97. Honour (மானம் māṉam): 961–970
  • Chapter 98. Greatness (பெருமை perumai): 971–980
  • Chapter 99. Perfectness (சான்றாண்மை cāṉṟāṇmai): 981–990
  • Chapter 100. Courtesy (பண்புடைமை paṇpuṭaimai): 991–1000
  • Chapter 101. Wealth without Benefaction (நன்றியில் செல்வம் naṉṟiyilcelvam): 1001–1010
  • Chapter 102. Shame (நாணுடைமை nāṇuṭaimai): 1011–1020
  • Chapter 103. The Way of Maintaining the Family (குடிசெயல்வகை kuṭiceyalvakai): 1021–1030
  • Chapter 104. Agriculture (உழவு uḻavu): 1031–1040
  • Chapter 105. Poverty (நல்குரவு nalkuravu): 1041–1050
  • Chapter 106. Mendicancy (இரவு iravu): 1051–1060
  • Chapter 107. The Dread of Mendicancy (இரவச்சம் iravaccam): 1061–1070
  • Chapter 108. Baseness (கயமை kayamai): 1071–1080

Section III: Love (காமத்துப்பால் kāmattuppāl or இன்பத்துப்பால் iṉpattuppāl): 25 chapters

  • Chapter 109. Mental Disturbance Caused by the Beauty of the Princess (தகையணங்குறுத்தல் takaiyaṇaṅkuṟuttal): 1081–1090
  • Chapter 110. Recognition of the Signs (of Mutual Love) (குறிப்பறிதல் kuṟippaṟital): 1091–1100
  • Chapter 111. Rejoicing in the Embrace (புணர்ச்சி மகிழ்தல் puṇarccimakiḻtal): 1101–1110
  • Chapter 112. The Praise of Her Beauty (நலம் புனைந்துரைத்தல் nalampuṉainturaittal): 1111–1120
  • Chapter 113. Declaration of Love's Special Excellence (காதற் சிறப்புரைத்தல் kātaṟciṟappuraittal): 1121–1130
  • Chapter 114. The Abandonment of Reserve (நாணுத் துறவுரைத்தல் nāṇuttuṟavuraittal): 1131–1140
  • Chapter 115. The Announcement of the Rumour (அலரறிவுறுத்தல் alaraṟivuṟuttal): 1141–1150
  • Chapter 116. Separation Unendurable (பிரிவாற்றாமை pirivāṟṟāmai): 1151–1160
  • Chapter 117. Complainings (படர் மெலிந்திரங்கல் paṭarmelintiraṅkal): 1161–1170
  • Chapter 118. Eyes Consumed with Grief (கண்விதுப்பழிதல் kaṇvituppaḻital): 1171–1180
  • Chapter 119. The Pallid Hue (பசப்பறு பருவரல் pacappaṟuparuvaral): 1181–1190
  • Chapter 120. The Solitary Anguish (தனிப்படர் மிகுதி taṉippaṭarmikuti): 1191–1200
  • Chapter 121. Sad Memories (நினைந்தவர் புலம்பல் niṉaintavarpulampal): 1201–1210
  • Chapter 122. The Visions of the Night (கனவுநிலையுரைத்தல் kaṉavunilaiyuraittal): 1211–1220
  • Chapter 123. Lamentations at Eventide (பொழுதுகண்டிரங்கல் poḻutukaṇṭiraṅkal): 1221–1230
  • Chapter 124. Wasting Away (உறுப்பு நலனழிதல் uṟuppunalaṉaḻital): 1231–1240
  • Chapter 125. Soliloquy (நெஞ்சொடு கிளத்தல் neñcoṭukiḷattal): 1241–1250
  • Chapter 126. Reserve Overcome (நிறையழிதல் niṟaiyaḻital): 1251–1260
  • Chapter 127. Mutual Desire (அவர்வயின் விதும்பல் avarvayiṉvitumpal): 1261–1270
  • Chapter 128. The Reading of the Signs (குறிப்பறிவுறுத்தல் kuṟippaṟivuṟuttal): 1271–1280
  • Chapter 129. Desire for Reunion (புணர்ச்சி விதும்பல் puṇarccivitumpal): 1281–1290
  • Chapter 130. Expostulation with Oneself (நெஞ்சொடு புலத்தல் neñcoṭupulattal): 1291–1300
  • Chapter 131. Pouting (புலவி pulavi): 1301–1310
  • Chapter 132. Feigned Anger (புலவி நுணுக்கம் pulavi nuṇukkam): 1311–1320
  • Chapter 133. The Pleasures of 'Temporary Variance' (ஊடலுவகை ūṭaluvakai): 1321–1330

Universality[edit]

The Tirukkural is praised for its universality across the globe. The ancient Tamil poet Avvaiyar observed, "Thiruvalluvar pierced an atom and injected seven seas into it and compressed it into what we have today as Kural." The Russian philosopher Alexander Pyatigorsky calls it chef d'oeuvre of both Indian and world literature "due not only to the great artistic merits of the work but also to the lofty humane ideas permeating it which are equally precious to the people all over the world, of all periods and countries."[3] According to Albert Schweitzer, "there hardly exists in the literature of the world a collection of maxims in which we find so much of lofty wisdom."[9] Leo Tolstoy was inspired by the concept of non-violence found in Tirukkural when he read a German version of the book, who in turn instilled the concept in Mahatma Gandhi through his A Letter to a Hindu when young Gandhi sought his advice.[9] Mahatma Gandhi calls it "a textbook of indispensable authority on moral life" and goes on to say, "The maxims of Valluvar have touched my soul. There is none who has given such a treasure of wisdom like him."[9] Sir A. C. Grant said, "Humility, charity and forgiveness of injuries, being Christian qualities, are not described by Aristotle. Now these three are everywhere forcibly inculcated by the Tamil Moralist."[10] E. J. Robinson said that Tirukkural contains all things and there is nothing which it does not contain. Rev. J. Lazarus said, "No Tamil work can ever approach the purity of the Kural. It is a standing repute to modern Tamil." According to K. M. Munshi, "Thirukkural is a treatise par excellence on the art of living." Sri Aurobindo stated, "Thirukkural is gnomic poetry, the greatest in planned conception and force of execution ever written in this kind."[9] Monsieur Ariel, who translated and published the third part of the Kural to French in 1848, called it "a masterpiece of Tamil literature, one of the highest and purest expressions of human thought."[10] According to Rev. Emmons E. White, "Thirukkural is a synthesis of the best moral teachings of the world." Rajaji commented, "it is the gospel of love and a code of soul-luminous life. The whole of human aspiration is epitomized in this immortal book, a book for all ages." Zakir Hussain, former President of India, said, "Thirukkural is a treasure house of worldly knowledge, ethical guidance and spiritual wisdom."[9]

Although it has been widely acknowledged that Thiruvalluvar was of Jain origin and the Tirukkural to its most part was inspired from Jain, Hindu and other ancient Indian philosophies, owing to its universality and non-denominational nature, almost every religious group in India and across the world, including Christianity, has claimed the work for itself. For example, G. U. Pope speaks of the book as an "echo of the 'Sermon on the Mount.'" In the Introduction to his English translation of the Kural, Pope even claims "I cannot feel any hesitation in saying that the Christian Scriptures were among the sources from which the poet derived his inspiration." However, the chapters on the ethics of Vegetarianism (Chapter 26) and non-killing (Chapter 33), which the Kural emphasizes unambiguously unlike other religious texts, suggest that the ethics of the Kural is rather a reflection of the Jaina moral code than of Christian ethics.[11]

Other names[edit]

Thirukural is known by many names such as:[11]

  1. பொய்யாமொழி (Poyyāmoḻi) - "Statements Devoid of Untruth"
  2. வாயுரை வாழ்த்து (Vāyurai Vāḻttu) - "Truthful Utterances"
  3. தெய்வநூல் (Teyvanūl) - "The Holy Book"
  4. பொதுமறை (Potumaṟai) - "The Universal Veda" or "Book for All"
  5. முப்பால் (Muppāl) - "The Three-Chaptered"
  6. தமிழ் மறை (Tamiḻ Maṟai) - "The Tamil Veda"
  7. முப்பானூல் (Muppāṉūl) - "The Three-Chaptered Book"
  8. திருவள்ளுவம் (Thiruvalluvam) - "Thiruvalluvarism" or "The Work of Thiruvalluvar"

Commentaries and translations[edit]

There have been several commentaries written on the Tirukkuṛaḷ over the centuries. The pioneer commentator is Manakkudavur. The earliest commentaries on the Tirukkuṛaḷ were by Manakkudavar and Pari Perumal belong to the 11th century, Kaalingar belongs to the 12th century, Parimelazhagar belongs to the 13th century. In 1935, V. O. Chidambaranar had written commentary on the First Part of the Tirukkuṛaḷ - Virtue and was published in the different title. In 2008, complete work of Commentary on the Tirukkuṛaḷ was published, as manuscript of V. O. C. was provided by his son AmarJothi. V. O. C. was scholared in Tolkappiyam, the Tirukkuṛaḷ and many other Tamil literature and had done deep and wide research in the Tirukkuṛaḷ and has done the excellent job of comparative study of all the preceding Commentaries and has provided a proven new unequalled version. His commentary is helpful to all and precious to who doing research in the Tirukkuṛaḷ and Tamil literature.

Barring the Bible and the Quran, the Kural is considered the most translated work in the world. The Christian missionaries who came to India during the British era, inspired by the similarities of the Christian ideals found in the Kural, started translating the text into various European languages.[12] The Latin translation of the Tirukkuṛaḷ was made by Constanzo Beschi in 1730.[citation needed] An English Translation of Thirukural by George Uglow Pope brought the Tirukkuṛaḷ to the western world in 1886.[13] This work is the first translation to the English language. The Tirukkuṛaḷ has been translated to more than 37[14] languages across the world by various authors. By the end of the Twentieth Century, there were about twenty-four translations of the Kural in English alone, by both native and non-native scholars.[12]

Memorials[edit]

To honor the author of Tirukkural, a 133-feet (40.6 m) Thiruvalluvar's statue was built in stone. It is located atop a small island near the town of Kanyakumari on the southernmost Coromandel Coast of the Indian peninsula, where two seas and an ocean, viz., the Bay of Bengal, the Arabian Sea, and the Indian Ocean meet.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Blackburn, Cutler (2000). "Corruption and Redemption: The Legend of Valluvar and Tamil Literary History" (PDF). Modern Aian Studies 34 (2): 449–482. doi:10.1017/S0026749X00003632. Retrieved 20 August 2007. 
  2. ^ Pillai, MS (1994). Tamil literature. Asian Education Service. ISBN 81-206-0955-7. 
  3. ^ a b Pyatigorsky, Alexander. quoted in K. Muragesa Mudaliar's "Polity in Tirukkural". Thirumathi Sornammal Endowment Lectures on Tirukkural. p. 515. 
  4. ^ Cutler, Norman (1992). "Interpreting Thirukkural: the role of commentary in the creation of a text". The Journal of the American Oriental Society 122. Retrieved 20 August 2007. 
  5. ^ Some Contributions of South India to Indian Culture. Asian Educational Services. 1995. p. 125. ISBN 81-206-0999-9.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help)
  6. ^ "Tirukkural". Retrieved 8 October 2007. 
  7. ^ a b c Ravindra Kumar (1 January 1999). Morality and Ethics in Public Life. Mittal Publications. pp. 92–. ISBN 978-81-7099-715-3. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  8. ^ Sujit Mukherjee (1 January 1999). A dictionary of Indian literature. Orient Blackswan. pp. 393–. ISBN 978-81-250-1453-9. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  9. ^ a b c d e Rajaram, M. (2009). Thirukkural: Pearls of Inspiration. New Delhi: Rupa Publications. pp. xviii–xxi. 
  10. ^ a b Pope, G. U. The Sacred Kurral of Tiruvalluva Nayanar. pp. xxxi. 
  11. ^ a b Kamil Zvelebil (1973). The smile of Murugan on Tamil literature of South India. BRILL. pp. 156–. ISBN 978-90-04-03591-1. Retrieved 11 December 2010. 
  12. ^ a b Ramasamy, V. (2001). On Translating Tirukkural (First ed.). Chennai: International Institute of Tamil Studies. 
  13. ^ GU Pope (1886). Thirukkural English Translation and Commentary (PDF). W.H. Allen, & Co. p. 160. 
  14. ^ http://www.oocities.org/nvkashraf/kur-trans/languages.htm

Further reading[edit]

  • Subramaniyam, Ka Naa, Tiruvalluvar and his Tirukkural. Bharatiya Jnanpith: New Delhi 1987.
  • P. S. Sundaram, The Kural. Penguin Books: London, 1990.
  • Blackburn, Stuart. (2000). Corruption and Redemption: The Legend of Valluvar and Tamil Literary History. Modern Asian Studies, vol. 34, no. 2, pp. 449–82, May 2000.
  • Yogi Shuddhananda Bharati (1897), Thirukkural with English Couplets - Tamil Chandror Peravai: Chennai.(15 May 1995)
  • Thirukkural with English Couplets by Tamil Chandror Peravai (Translated by Yogi Shuddhananda Bharati [1897]), Tamil Chandror Peravai, 26 Sardar Patel Road, Adyar, Chennai - 600 020
  • Drew, W.H, Translated by John Lazarus, Thirukkural (Original in Tamil with English Translation), ISBN 81-206-0400-8
  • Thirukkural with English Couplets by Editions ASSA, L'Auberson, ISBN 978-2-940393-17-6

External links[edit]