|Part of a series on|
Neo-nationalism or new nationalism is a type of nationalism that rose in the mid-2010s in Europe and North America and to some degree in other regions. It is associated with several positions, such as right-wing populism, anti-globalization, nativism, protectionism, opposition to immigration, Islamophobia, Sinophobia, and Euroscepticism where applicable. According to one scholar, "nationalist resistance to global liberalism turned out to be the most influential force in Western politics" in 2016. Particularly notable expressions of new nationalism include the vote for Brexit in the 2016 United Kingdom European Union membership referendum and the 2016 election of Donald Trump as the 45th President of the United States.
Overview and characteristics
Writing for Politico, Michael Hirsh described new nationalism as "a bitter populist rejection of the status quo that global elites have imposed on the international system since the Cold War ended, and which lower-income voters have decided—understandably—is unfair." Michael Brendan Dougherty wrote in The Week that new nationalism is a "broad nativist revolt" against post-Cold War politics long "characterized by an orthodoxy of free trade, nurturing the service economy, neoliberal trading arrangements, and liberalized immigration policies."
The Economist wrote in November 2016 that "new nationalists are riding high on promises to close borders and restore societies to a past homogeneity." Clarence Page wrote in the Las Vegas Sun that "a new neo-tribal nationalism has boiled up in European politics and to a lesser degree in the United States since the global economic meltdown of 2008," and Ryan Cooper in The Week and researchers with the Centre for Economic Policy Research have linked 21st-century right-wing populism to the Great Recession. According to Harvard political theorist Yascha Mounk, "economic stagnation among lower- and middle-class whites [has been] a main driver for nationalism's rise around the globe." According to religion scholar Mark L. Movesian, new nationalism "sets the nation-state against supranational, liberal regimes like the EU or NAFTA, and local customs and traditions, including religious traditions, against alien, outside trends."
David Brog and Yoram Hazony wrote in National Review that some conservatives view the new nationalism associated with Brexit and Donald Trump as a betrayal of conservative ideology, while they see it as a "return". According to conservative commentator Jonah Goldberg, the nationalism associated with Trump is "really little more than a brand name for generic white identity politics."
Writing for The Week, Damon Linker called the idea of neo-nationalism being racist "nonsense" and went on to say that "the tendency of progressives to describe it as nothing but 'racism, Islamophobia, and xenophobia'—is the desire to delegitimize any particularistic attachment or form of solidarity, be it national, linguistic, religious, territorial, or ethnic."
Regarding new nationalism, The Economist said that "Mr Trump needs to realise that his policies will unfold in the context of other countries’ jealous nationalism," and called nationalism itself a "slippery concept" that is "easy to manipulate". They also repeatedly contrasted ethnic nationalism and civic nationalism and implied new nationalism could become "angry" and difficult to control, citing Chinese nationalism as an example.
Associated politicians, parties and events
The President of Brazil Jair Bolsonaro of the country's Social Liberal Party has been described as a leading new nationalist. Bolsonaro's ideology and policies have been heavily influenced by his adviser, nationalist thinker Olavo de Carvalho.
China's paramount leader Xi Jinping assumed the position of General Secretary of the Communist Party of China in 2012. His concept of "Chinese Dream" has been described as an expression of new nationalism. His form of nationalism stresses pride in the historic Chinese civilisation, embracing the teachings of Confucius and other ancient Chinese sages, and thus rejecting the anti-Confucius campaign of Chairman Mao Zedong.
The Hong Kong nationalism evolved from the localist movement in Hong Kong stresses the distinct Hong Kong identity as opposed to Chinese national identity promoted by the Beijing government and its growing encroachment on the city's management of its own political, economic and social affairs. The localist rhetorics, often mix with the nation's right to self-determination as well as anti-immigration stances against mainland immigrants and tourists, preserving local identity and culture similar to the Western new nationalism.
Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi (assumed office in 2014) and his Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) have been referred to as new nationalist. Modi is a member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh (RSS), a right-wing paramilitary organisation aligned with the BJP, which has also been said to advocate a new nationalist ideology. Modi's nationalist campaigns have been directed by BJP strategist Amit Shah, who currently serves as the Indian Home Minister (assumed office in 2019), and has been touted as a potential successor to Modi as Prime Minister.
Yogi Adityanath, Chief Minister of the Indian state of Uttar Pradesh (assumed office in 2017), has also been identified as a new nationalist. He has also been touted as a future Prime Minister of the country.
Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu (assumed office in 2009), the leader of the Likud party, has been described both as promoting new nationalism, and as pursuing a foreign policy of close ties with other new nationalist leaders, including Trump, Orbán, Salvini, Putin, Modi, Bolsonaro, Duterte and Sisi.
Italian Prime Minister Giuseppe Conte (assumed office in 2018), head of the populist coalition Government of Change, and in particular former Deputy Prime Minister and Interior Minister and the League's leader Matteo Salvini (2018–2019), were often described as new nationalists. Salvini has been described by some media outlets as the most powerful politician in the country, and a "de facto prime minister".
The 63rd and current Prime Minister Shinzō Abe (assumed office in 2012), a member of the right-wing organisation Nippon Kaigi, has promoted ideas of new nationalism, as does the Liberal Democratic Party of Japan, which he leads.
The sixth and current President of Poland Andrzej Duda (assumed office in August 2015) is regularly cited as being a leading figure in the new nationalist movement within Poland. Furthermore, the ruling Law and Justice party and its United Right alliance, led by Jarosław Kaczyński, promoted nationalist views to win an outright majority in the national elections of 2015 (a feat never before accomplished). Despite not holding a government office, Kaczyński has been described as the figure who makes the "final call" on all major political issues in Poland.
President of Russia Vladimir Putin (second President of Russia from 2000 to 2008 and fourth President of Russia from 2012) has been labelled a new nationalist. Putin has been described by Hirsh as "the harbinger of this new global nationalism". Charles Clover, the Moscow bureau chief of the Financial Times from 2008 to 2013, wrote a book in 2016 titled Black Wind, White Snow: The Rise of Russia's New Nationalism. Russian nationalist thinker Aleksandr Dugin in particular has had influence over the Kremlin, serving as an adviser to key members of the ruling United Russia party, including now-SVR Director Sergey Naryshkin.
Russia has been accused of supporting new nationalist movements across Europe and in the United States.
The Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia, Mohammad bin Salman (assumed office in 2017), has been described by Kristin Diwan of The Arab Gulf States Institute as being attached to a "strong new nationalism". The "new Saudi nationalism" has been used to bolster support for the Kingdom's economic and foreign policies, and represents a shift away from the Kingdom's earlier dependence on religion for legitimacy. Many of the country's foreign policy actions from 2017 onwards, such as its blockade of Qatar and its diplomatic dispute with Canada have been described as motivated by this nationalism. The policies of Mohammad bin Salman's administration have been heavily influenced by his adviser Saud al-Qahtani, who has been described as a "nationalist ideologue" and whose role has been compared to that formerly of Steve Bannon.
In 2014, Mustafa Akyol wrote of a new "brand of Turkish neonationalism" promoted by Justice and Development Party (AKP), the country's ruling party, the leader of which is President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan (assumed office in 2014). The Turkish "new nationalism" replaces the secular character of traditional forms of Turkish nationalism with an "assertively Muslim" identity.
Devlet Bahçeli, the leader of the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), has been described as creating a "new nationalist front" by forming the People's Alliance with Erdoğan's AKP in 2018. The MHP is affiliated with the Grey Wolves paramilitary organisation, which Erdoğan has also expressed support for.
United Arab Emirates
The United Arab Emirates, under the leadership of Crown Prince of Abu Dhabi Mohammed bin Zayed (assumed office in 2004), has been described as propagating a "new Arab nationalism", which replaces the older, leftist form of the Arab nationalist ideology with a more conservative form, through its strong support for the rise of the respective new leaders of Egypt and Saudi Arabia, Abdel Fattah el-Sisi and Prince Mohammad bin Salman, as a means of countering Iranian and Turkish influence in the Arab states.
The 23 June 2016 referendum in the United Kingdom to leave the European Union ("Brexit") has been described as a milestone of new nationalism. Owen Matthews noted similarities in motives for support of the Brexit movement and Trump. He wrote in Newsweek that supporters of both are motivated by "a yearning to control immigration, reverse globalization and restore national greatness by disengaging from the wide, threatening world".
Matt O'Brien wrote of the Brexit as "the most shocking success for the new nationalism sweeping the Western world". Leaders of the Brexit campaign, such as Nigel Farage, the former leader of the eurosceptic UK Independence Party (now of the Brexit Party); London Mayor (now Prime Minister and Conservative Party leader) Boris Johnson; Vote Leave Co-Convenor Michael Gove; former Brexit Secretary David Davis; and European Research Group chairman Jacob Rees-Mogg, have been called "new nationalists".
Donald Trump's rise to the Republican candidacy was widely described as a sign of growing new nationalism in the United States. A Chicago Sun-Times editorial on the day of the inauguration of Donald Trump called him "our new nationalist president". The appointment of Steve Bannon, the executive of Breitbart News (later cofounding The Movement), as White House Chief Strategist, was described by one analyst as arousal of a "new world order, driven by patriotism and a fierce urge to look after your own, a neo-nationalism that endlessly smears Muslims and strives to turn back the clock on free trade and globalization, a world where military might counts for far more than diplomacy and compromise".
In the wake of Trump's election, U.S. Senator Marco Rubio has called for the Republican Party to embrace a "new nationalism" to oppose "economic elitism that has replaced a commitment to the dignity of work with a blind faith in financial markets and that views America simply as an economy instead of a nation."
The following politicians have all been described in some way as being new nationalists:
- Hamid Chabat, former Mayor of Fez (2003–2015) and leader of the Moroccan Istiqlal Party
- Uhuru Kenyatta, President of Kenya (assumed office in 2013) and leader of the Jubilee Party of Kenya
- Mmusi Maimane, Leader of the Opposition (South Africa) and party leader of Democratic Alliance
- Herman Mashaba, Mayor of Johannesburg (assumed office in 2016) and member of the Democratic Alliance
- Jair Bolsonaro, President of Brazil and member of the Social Liberal Party.
- Olavo de Carvalho, Brazilian political pundit and journalist.
- Mario Abdo Benítez, President of Paraguay (2018–) and candidate from the Colorado Party
- Chi Hyun Chung, Presidential candidate of 2019 Bolivian general election
- Maxime Bernier, MP, 2017 candidate for the leadership of the Conservative Party of Canada and leader of the People's Party of Canada
- Nayib Bukele, former Mayor of San Salvador (2015–2018) and President of El Salvador (2019–)
- Horacio Cartes, former President of Paraguay (2013–2018) and candidate from the Colorado Party
- Andrés Chadwick, Interior Minister of Chile (2012–2014; 2018–) and member of the Independent Democratic Union
- Juan Orlando Hernández, President of Honduras (assumed office in 2014) and candidate from the National Party of Honduras
- José Antonio Kast, Member of the Chamber of Deputies of Chile (2002–2018), independent presidential candidate in the 2017 presidential election and leader of Republican Action
- François Legault, Premier of Quebec (assumed office in 2018) and leader of the Canadian Coalition Avenir Québec
- Kellie Leitch, MP and 2017 candidate for the leadership of the Conservative Party of Canada
- Iván Duque Márquez, President of Colombia (assumed office in 2018) and candidate from the Democratic Center
- Jimmy Morales, President of Guatemala (assumed office in 2016) and candidate from the National Convergence Front
- Alejandro Giammattei, President-elect of Guatemala (assumed office in 2020)
- Fabricio Alvarado Muñoz, the candidate from the Costa Rican National Restoration Party in the 2018 presidential election
- Andrés Manuel López Obrador, Preisdent of Mexico and founder of the National Regeneration Movement.
- Kevin O'Leary, businessman and 2017 candidate for the leadership of the Conservative Party of Canada
- Donald Trump, businessman, television personality and current President of the United States who represents the Republicans.
- Marco Rubio, U.S. Senator from Florida and member of the Republican Party.
- Steve Bannon, American political figure, former White House Chief Strategist and former executive chairman of Breitbart News.
- Tucker Carlson, American political commentator and host for Fox News.
- Josh Hawley, U.S. Senator from Missouri and member of the Republican Party
- Tony Abbott, former Prime Minister of Australia (2013–2015) and former leader of the Liberal Party of Australia
- Xi Jinping, Paramount leader of China and General Secretary of the Communist Party of China.
- Khaltmaagiin Battulga, President of Mongolia (assumed office in 2017) and candidate of the Mongolian Democratic Party
- Prayut Chan-o-cha, Prime Minister of Thailand (assumed office in 2014) and prime ministerial candidate of the Phalang Pracharat Party in the 2019 general election
- Peter Dutton, Home Affairs Minister of Australia (assumed office in 2017) and member of the Liberal Party of Australia
- Park Geun-hye, former President of South Korea (2013–2017) and former leader of the Saenuri Party
- Kim Jong-un, Supreme Leader of North Korea (assumed office in 2011) and leader of the Workers' Party of Korea
- Hong Jun-pyo, former leader of the Liberty Korea Party and candidate in the 2017 presidential election
- Narendra Modi, Prime Minister of India and member of the Bharatiya Janata Party.
- Shinzō Abe, Prime Minister of Japan and leader of the Liberal Democratic Party.
- Imran Khan, Prime Minister of Pakistan (assumed office in 2018) and leader of Pakistan Tehreek-e-Insaf
- Rodrigo Duterte, President of the Philippines and leader of PDP–Laban.
- Winston Peters, Deputy Prime Minister of New Zealand (assumed office in 2017) and leader of New Zealand First
- Najib Razak, former Prime Minister of Malaysia (2009–2018) and former leader of Barisan Nasional and the United Malays National Organisation
- Hun Sen, Prime Minister of Cambodia (assumed office in 1998) and leader of the Cambodian People's Party
- Prabowo Subianto, Defense Minister of Indonesia (assumed office in 2019), leader of the Great Indonesia Movement Party and candidate in the 2019 presidential election
- Abdulla Yameen, former President of the Maldives (2013–2018) and leader of the Progressive Party of Maldives
- Sebastian Kurz, former Chancellor of Austria and leader of the Austrian People's Party
- Heinz-Christian Strache, former Vice Chancellor of Austria (2017–2019) and former leader of the Freedom Party of Austria
- Norbert Hofer, former Transport, Innovation and Technology Minister of Austria (2017–2019), leader of the Freedom Party of Austria and candidate in the 2016 presidential election.
- Tom Van Grieken, leader of the Belgian Vlaams Belang.
- Theo Francken, member of the Belgian Chamber of Representatives and former Secretary of State for Asylum, member of N-VA.
- Mischaël Modrikamen, Belgian politician and lawyer, former leader of the People's Party and former executive director of The Movement
- Tomislav Karamarko, Deputy Prime Minister of Croatia (2016) and former leader of the Croatian Democratic Union
- Boyko Borisov, Prime Minister of Bulgaria (assumed office in 2009) and leader of GERB
- Krasimir Karakachanov, Defence Minister of Bulgaria, leader of IMRO – Bulgarian National Movement and spokesperson for United Patriots.
- Veselin Mareshki, Bulgarian businessman and leader of Volya.
- Miloš Zeman, President of the Czech Republic (assumed office in 2013) and leader of the Party of Civic Rights.
- Andrej Babiš, Prime Minister of the Czech Republic (assumed office in 2017) and leader of ANO 2011
- Tomio Okamura, leader of the Czech Freedom and Direct Democracy
- Kristian Thulesen Dahl, Member of the Folketing and leader of the Danish People's Party.
- Mart Helme, Deputy Prime Minister and Interior Minister of Estonia (assumed office in 2019) and leader of the Conservative People's Party of Estonia
- Jussi Halla-aho, Member of the Finnish Parliament and leader of the Finns Party.
- Marine Le Pen, leader of the French National Rally and candidate in the 2017 presidential election
- Alexander Gauland, Member of the German Bundestag and co-leader of Alternative for Germany.
- Jörg Meuthen, Member of the German Bundestag and co-leader of Alternative for Germany.
- Alice Weidel, Member of the German Bundestag and parliamentary leader of Alternative For Germany.
- Panos Kammenos, former Defence Minister of Greece (2015–2019) and leader of the Independent Greeks
- Kyriakos Velopoulos, Greek television personality, politician and leader of the Greek Solution party.
- Failos Kranidiotis, Greek lawyer and leader of New Right.
- Viktor Orbán, Prime Minister of Hungary and leader of Fidesz.
- Sigmundur Davíð Gunnlaugsson, former Prime Minister of Iceland (2013–2016) and leader of the Centre Party
- Matteo Salvini, former Deputy Prime Minister of Italy (2018–2019) and current leader of League.
- Giorgia Meloni, member of the Italian Chamber of Deputies and leader of Brothers of Italy.
- Raivis Zeltīts, Latvian politician and Secretary General of National Alliance.
- Rolandas Paksas, former Prime Minister and President of Lithuania, former leader of Order and Justice.
- Nebojša Medojević, candidate in the 2008 Montenegrin presidential election and leader of Movement for Changes.
- Geert Wilders, leader of the Dutch Party for Freedom
- Thierry Baudet, member of the House of Representatives and leader of Forum for Democracy.
- Siv Jensen, Norwegian Minister of Finance and current leader of the Progress Party.
- Jarosław Kaczyński, former Prime Minister of Poland and leader of Law and Justice.
- Andrzej Duda, President of Poland and member of Law and Justice.
- Janusz Korwin-Mikke, Polish politician, philosopher, writer, former member of the European Parliament and leader of Confederation.
- Victor Ponta, former Prime Minister of Romania (2012–2015) and former leader of the Social Democratic Party
- Vladimir Putin, President of Russia, former Prime Minister of Russia and leader of United Russia.
- Aleksandar Vučić, President of Serbia (assumed office in 2017) and leader of the Serbian Progressive Party
- Robert Fico, former Prime Minister of Slovakia and leader of Direction-Social Democracy 
- Andrej Danko, Speaker of the Slovak National Council and leader of the Slovak National Party.
- Janez Janša, former Prime Minister of Slovenia and leader of the Slovenian Democratic Party
- Santiago Abascal, former member of Basque Parliament, and leader of VOX.
- Jimmie Åkesson, Member of the Swedish Riksdag and leader of the Sweden Democrats.
- Christoph Blocher, former member of the Swiss Federal Council and former vice president of the Swiss People's Party.
- Nigel Farage, British Member of the European Parliament, former leader of the UK Independence Party, current leader of the Brexit Party.
- Gerard Batten, Deputy leader of the UK Independence Party, former Member of the European Parliament and former leader of the UK Independence Party.
- Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, President of Egypt and former Minister of Defence.
- Muqtada al-Sadr, leader of the Iraqi Sadrist Movement
- Benjamin Netanyahu, Prime Minister of Israel and leader of Likud.
- Naftali Bennett, former Israeli Minister of Education, former leader of The Jewish Home and current member of New Right.
- Khalifa Haftar, commander of the Libyan National Army (assumed office in 2015)
- Tamim bin Hamad, Emir of Qatar (assumed office in 2013)
- Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, President of Turkey and leader of the Justice and Development Party.
- Mohammad bin Salman, Crown Prince of Saudi Arabia and Deputy Prime Minister.
- Saud al-Qahtani, Saudi Arabian consultant and former Royal Court Advisor.
- Devlet Bahçeli, former Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey and leader of the Nationalist Movement Party.
- Mohammed bin Zayed Al Nahyan, Crown Prince of the United Arab Emirates.
The following parties have all been described in some way as being new nationalist parties:
- Alternative for Germany
- The Danish People's Party, which provided parliamentary support for the governing coalition in Denmark (2015–2019)
- The Finns Party, a former member of the governing coalition in Finland (from 2015 until party split in 2017)
- The Dutch Forum for Democracy
- The National Alliance, a member of the governing coalition in Latvia (since 2016)
- The Slovak National Party, a member of the governing coalition in Slovakia (since 2016)
- The Sweden Democrats
- The Swiss People's Party, a member of the governing coalition in Switzerland (since 2003)
- The United Patriots, a member of the governing coalition in Bulgaria (since 2014)
- The Flemish Vlaams Belang
- The Portuguese Enough
- Stephens, Bret (21 November 2016). "Trump's Neo-Nationalists". The Wall Street Journal.
- Eger, Maureen A.; Valdez, Sarah (2014). "Neo-nationalism in Western Europe". European Sociological Review. 31 (1): 115–130. doi:10.1093/esr/jcu087.
Based on our combined analyses, we conclude that contemporary anti-immigrant parties constitute a new and distinct party family, which we term neo-nationalist.
- Hirsh, Michael (27 June 2016). "Why the New Nationalists Are Taking Over". Politico.
- Goldberg, Jonah (16 August 2016). "'New nationalism' amounts to generic white identity politics". Newsday.
To listen to both his defenders and critics, Donald Trump represents the U.S. version of a new nationalism popping up around the world.
- Barber, Tony (11 July 2016). "A renewed nationalism is stalking Europe". Financial Times.
...the rise of rightwing populist nativism.
- Stokes, Bruce (19 December 2016). "Analysis: Europe's far-right anger is moving mainstream". Chicago Tribune. Retrieved 7 March 2018.
- Crouch, Colin; Sakalis, Alex; Bechler, Rosemary (2 October 2016). "Educating for democracy". openDemocracy.
Some protagonists of the new nationalism - such as Donald Trump and Marine Le Pen - also advocate a retreat from the global economy into individual protectionist nation states.
- Bangstad, Sindre (2018). "The New Nationalism and its Relationship to Islam". Diversity and Contestations over Nationalism in Europe and Canada. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK. pp. 285–311. doi:10.1057/978-1-137-58987-3_11. ISBN 978-1-137-58986-6.
- Movesian, Mark L. (8 December 2016). "The New Nationalism". libertylawsite.org. Online Library of Law and Liberty.; cited in Veith, Gene (9 December 2016). "The triumphs of nationalism". Patheos.
- "Trump's world: The new nationalism". The Economist. 19 November 2016.
- Persaud, Avinash (20 September 2016). "Brexit, Trump and the new nationalism are harbingers of a return to the 1930s". blogs.lse.ac.uk. London School of Economics.
- Rushkoff, Douglas (7 July 2016). "The New Nationalism Of Brexit And Trump Is A Product Of The Digital Age". Fast Company.
- Dougherty, Michael Brendan (26 July 2016). "A new nationalism is rising. Don't let Donald Trump destroy it". The Week.
- "League of nationalists". The Economist. 19 November 2016.
- Page, Clarence (2 July 2016). "Could Brexit foreshadow a victory by Trump?". Las Vegas Sun.
- Ryan Cooper (15 March 2017). "The Great Recession clearly gave rise to right-wing populism". The Week.
- Manuel Funke; Moritz Schularick; Christoph Trebesch (21 November 2015). "The political aftermath of financial crises: Going to extremes". Voxeu.org.
- Detrow, Scott (25 June 2016). "From 'Brexit' To Trump, Nationalist Movements Gain Momentum Around World". NPR.
- Brog, David; Hazony, Yoram (7 December 2016). "The Nationalist Spirit of 2016: A Conservative Spring". National Review.
- "Liberals keep denigrating the new nationalism as racist. This is nonsense". Theweek.com. 21 September 2016. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "The new nationalism". Economist.com. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "La nouvelle Internationale planétaire des nationalistes". Slate.fr. 2 March 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Cook, Nancy (19 March 2019). "Right-wing movements merge as Bolsonaro visits Trump". Politico.
- Dom Phillips. "'Same rhetoric': Bolsonaro's US visit to showcase populist alliance with Trump". The Guardian.
- Wang, Zheng (10 May 2016). "The New Nationalism: 'Make My Country Great Again'". The Diplomat.
- "Xi Jinping Thought Explained: A New Ideology for a New Era". New York Times. 26 February 2018.
- "Hong Kong suffers identity crisis as China's influence grows". The Guardian. 18 April 2016.
- "Localism: Why is support for the political perspective growing - and who's behind it?". Timeout.com.hk. 1 July 2015.
- "League of nationalists". Economist.com. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "Army chief Sisi, Egypt's new nationalist icon - Middle East Institute". www.mei.edu. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Kaylan, Melik (4 March 2016). "Merkel And Former Communists Versus Orban And The New Nationalists". Forbes.
- "The RSS and BJP's blueprint of a new nationalism for 2019". www.dailyo.in. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "The Man Stoking Nationalism in India Could Succeed Modi One Day". Bloomberg. 28 November 2019.
- "Patriotism Vs Jingoism". Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Suhasini Raj. "Firebrand Hindu Cleric Ascends India's Political Ladder". The New York Times.
- "The unraveling of Israeli democracy". Times of Israel. 21 December 2015.
- "Nationalists of the World, Unite!". Foreign Policy. 8 January 2018.
- "Is Netanyahu making deals with the devil?". Jewish News Syndicate. 7 February 2019.
- "New world disorder: Trump's nationalist axis has upended global politics". Middle East Eye. 27 July 2018.
- "Netanyahu's Negotiating With Neo-Fascists for a 'Consensus View' of the Holocaust". The Daily Beast. 12 December 2018.
- "Bibi Was Right". The Atlantic. 18 December 2018.
- "Top Posts for Merging With Kahanists: Netanyahu, Far-right Party Reach Deal". Haaretz. 20 February 2018.
- "Market turmoil hits Conte's road to Rome". Financial Times. 25 May 2018.
- "Salvini tra Russia, nazionalismo e fascismo padano". Huff Post. 28 October 2014. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "Blog - Salvini con Casapound: ma la nuova Lega nazionalista aspira davvero a governare? - Il Fatto Quotidiano". Ilfattoquotidiano.it. 9 March 2015. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "La svolta a destra di Salvini. Errori e contraddizioni del programma economico della nuova Lega". Ilfoglio.it. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Politi, James (19 June 2018). "Combative Salvini Seizes Control of Italy's Political Agenda". Financial Times. Retrieved 21 June 2018.
- "How Matteo Salvini is Dominating Italian Politics". The Economist. 21 June 2018. Retrieved 25 June 2018.
- Tondo, Lorenzo; Kirchgaessner, Stephanie (3 July 2018). "Matteo Salvini backed by politician 'with links to mafia'". the Guardian. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Meloni: «Astensione sulla fiducia, ma voteremo i provvedimenti buoni»".
- Wolfram Nordsieck (2013). "Parties and Elections in Europe – Italy". Retrieved 24 January 2014.
- Binnie, Isla. "Leading lady of Italy's right campaigns for a baby boom". Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Tisdall, Simon (27 November 2013). "Is Shinzo Abe's 'new nationalism' a throwback to Japanese imperialism?". The Guardian. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Andrés Martinez (29 November 2018). "Andrés Manuel López Obrador and Trump Make an Odd Pair". The Atlantic.
- Jones, James R. (2 July 2018). "Mexico's new president is a nationalist, but he's not anti-American". The Washington Post.
- "How Neo-Nationalism Went Global". U.S. News & World Report. 15 March 2018.
- "The new nationalism: Eastern Europe turns right". Prospect. 18 February 2016.
- Zamoyski, Adam (27 January 2016). "The Problem With Poland's New Nationalism". Foreign Policy.
- "Jarosław Kaczyński". Politico.eu. Retrieved 7 December 2016.
- Clover, Charles (2016). Black Wind, White Snow: The Rise of Russia's New Nationalism. Yale University Press. ISBN 9780300120707.
- "Aleksandr Dugin Wants to See a Return to Russian Imperialism". Vice Media. 28 April 2018.
- "Russia's plot against the West". Politico. 17 March 2017.
- "Lebanon the next battlefield as Saudis escalate bitter struggle with Iran". Sydney Morning Herald. 12 November 2017.
- "Saudi Royals Turn to Flag Waving and Fireworks to Marshal Support". Wall Street Journal. 24 September 2018.
- "Saudi Arabia picks a pointless fight with Canada". The Economist. 9 August 2018.
- "Spotlight: Inside the stricken court of crown prince Mohammed Bin Salman". GQ. 27 December 2018.
- "Saudi 'Mr. Hashtag' becomes fall guy in Khashoggi case, but is he really down?". France 24. 25 October 2018.
- Akyol, Mustafa (23 June 2014). "AKP pushes its own brand of Turkish neonationalism". Al-Monitor.
- "Is Turkey Experiencing a New Nationalism?". Center for American Progress. 11 February 2018.
- "Turkey: Toward a third 'Nationalist Front' government". Hürriyet Daily News. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Stevenson, Tom (21 July 2018). "'Our bodies are Turkish, our souls Islamic!' The rise of Turkey's ultra-nationalists". Middle East Eye.
- "The UAE Is Helping America By Propagating A Warped Form Of Arab Nationalism". Oriental Review. 28 December 2017.
- Toubeau, Simon (24 June 2016). "Brexit: Europe's new nationalism is here to stay". The Sydney Morning Herald.
- Khatun, Fahmida (27 June 2016). "Brexit: Rise of neo-nationalism and protectionism?". The Daily Star.
- Matthews, Owen (28 June 2016). "Beyond Brexit: Europe's Populist Backlash Against Immigration and Globalization". Newsweek.
- O'Brien, Matt (27 June 2016). "The world's losers are revolting, and Brexit is only the beginning". The Washington Post.
- Ahmad, Naveed (27 June 2016). "Brexit: a call for xenophobia and neo-nationalism". The Express Tribune.
- Collins, Philip (14 September 2017). "Britain's new Gaullists". Prospect.
- "Editorial: Our new nationalist president". Chicago Sun-Times. 20 January 2017.
- Law, Bill (18 November 2016). "First we take the White House: The rise and rise of Steve Bannon". Middle East Eye.
- "Rubio Goes Nationalist". The Weekly Standard. 10 August 2018.
- "Hamid Chabat: from union activist to leader of Morocco's Istiqlal". The North Africa Post. 3 October 2012.
- "NIGERIA Buhari returns from sick leave to raging battles on economic policy - Blog Post - Africa Confidential". Africa-confidential.com. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "WATCH: Maimane wants soldiers to help secure SA's borders - IOL News". Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Herman Mashaba is South Africa's Donald Trump – Nehanda Radio". 2 November 2017. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "La nouvelle Internationale planétaire des nationalistes". Slate.fr.
- Blair, Laurence (24 April 2018). "Paraguay election: Mario Abdo Benítez victory recalls brutal dictatorship". the Guardian. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Elecciones en Bolivia: Chi Hyun Chung, el Bolsonaro boliviano que busca destronar a Evo Morales". 10 October 2019. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "A 'Mad Max' Candidate Offers a Far-Right Jolt to the Canadian Election". New York Times. 15 October 2019.
- Melissa Vida (16 June 2019). "El Salvador's Trump Takes Office". Foreignpolicy.com.
- "Paraguay elects controversial president Horacio Cartes". www.irishtimes.com. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "Chile president-elect reveals hardline cabinet with ties to Pinochet". The Guardian.
- "Honduran President Begins Second Term amid Scandal, Unrest". Geopolitical Monitor. 1 February 2018.
- "José Antonio Kast lanza su movimiento Acción Republicana "para despertar a la gran mayoría silenciosa"". La Tercera. 20 April 2018.
- "Midway through their mandate, embattled Quebec Liberals ride an airplane high". Montreal Gazette. 1 May 2016.
- "Did France put an end to the new nationalism?". Troy Media. 9 May 2017.
- Turley, Steve (20 June 2018). "Ivan Duque Wins! Colombia Turns to the Populist Right!!!". Turley Talks. Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- "In Guatemala, anti-establishment presidential candidate benefits from corruption scandals". The Tico Times. 10 June 2015.
- "Alejandro Giammattei: La educación es el mejor anticonceptivo – Prensa Libre" (in Spanish). Retrieved 21 August 2019.
- http://www.washingtontimes.com, The Washington Times. "Fabricio Alvarado, evangelical Christian, Costa Rica's presidential front-runner". Retrieved 21 July 2018.
- Hirsh, Michael (27 June 2016). "Why the New Nationalists Are Taking Over". Politico.com.
- "Brexit: Europe's new nationalism is here to stay". Smh.com.au.
- "First we take the White House: The rise and rise of Steve Bannon". Middle East Eye. 20 November 2016.
- Ruse, Austin (19 July 2019). "Social Conservatism and the New Nationalism". Crisis Magazine.
- "The Nationalists Take Washington". The Atlantic. 17 July 2019.
- "'Team Australia': a nationalism framed in terms of external threats". Sbs.com.au. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Wang, Zheng (10 May 2016). "The New Nationalism: 'Make My Country Great Again'". The Diplomat.
- "Machine guns are child's play during Thai National Children's Day". RT. 15 January 2017.
- Ndhlovu, Finex (2018). Language, Vernacular Discourse and Nationalisms. Springer. p. 330.
- "New Leader Promises Reforms at Korean Film Council". Variety. 18 February 2018.
- "Kim Jong Un's New Year's Day Speech: Understanding 'Sovereignty' Is the Key". The National Interest. 8 January 2019.
- "Meet the South Korean Presidential Candidate Who Wants Trump to Give Him Nukes". Weekly Standard. 5 April 2017.
- "League of nationalists - Global politics". The Economist. 19 November 2016.
- Simon Tisdall. "Is Shinzo Abe's 'new nationalism' a throwback to Japanese imperialism?". The Guardian.
- "Pakistan's Populist Triumph". The Atlantic. 27 July 2018.
- Pearlman, Jonathan (19 October 2017). "Jacinda Ardern, 37, finds out she is New Zealand's prime minister from TV as kingmaker says 'voters deserved to know first'". Retrieved 21 July 2018 – via www.telegraph.co.uk.
- "Trump's hosting of Malaysia's prime minister marks another setback for the rule of law". Washington Post. 3 September 2017.
- "Hun Sen flirts with dictatorship". Japan Times. 12 September 2017.
- Bourchier, David (2014). Illiberal Democracy in Indonesia. Routledge. p. 255.
- "'Questionable USD1 mln in Yameen's bank account not held by ACC' – Mihaaru". en.mihaaru.com. Retrieved 27 March 2018.
- "Austria heads for a new, conservative-nationalist government". The Economist. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "Can Europe's new xenophobes reshape the continent?". The Guardian. 3 February 2018.
- "Who is Vlaams Belang leader Van Grieken?". vrtnws.be. 27 May 2019.
- Cas Mudde. "Why 'good populism' is the wrong strategy to fight 'bad populism'". The Guardian.
- Liphshiz, Cnaan (17 November 2018). "A Jewish lawyer is Steve Bannon's main ally in uniting Europe's right". The Times of Israel.
- Stojic, Marko (2017). Party Responses to the EU in the Western Balkans. Springer. p. 50.
- "EU warily welcomes Boyko Borisov's embrace". Financial Times. 14 January 2018.
- "Borissov appoints nationalist deputies to his third cabinet". Euractiv. 4 May 2017.
- Rick Lyman. "In Bulgaria, a Businessman Who Talks (and Acts) Like Trump". The New York Times.
- "Czech Republic elects billionaire nationalist skeptical of the EU, immigration". Theweek.com. 23 October 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Rapoza, Kenneth. "Europe's New Political Equation: Anti-Open Borders Plus Tax Cuts Equals Winning". Forbes.com. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- Simon Tisdall. "Danish rightwinger Kristian Thulesen Dahl rides high on populist tide". The Guardian.
- "Estonia joins the far-right club". Politico. 30 April 2019.
- "Jussi Halla-aho, quiet hardliner behind Finland's populist uproar". =Euractiv.com.
- Alex Pearson (13 November 2019). "The AfD's Alexander Gauland: From conservative to nationalist". DW.
- "AfD: Meet the far-right bosses". DW.
- Dagmar Breitenbach (14 November 2018). "AfD′s Alice Weidel: The pride of the populists, a mystery to everyone else". DW.
- "For Trump adviser at center of Russia probe, a rapid rise and dramatic fall in his ancestral land". Washington Post. 10 December 2017.
- "Small Euroskeptic, far-right Greek Solution party may squeeze into Euro Parliament". ekathimerini.com. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- "Ex-aide to former PM forms far-right party". ekathimerini.com. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- "Merkel And Former Communists Versus Orban And The New Nationalists". Forbes.com. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- "Panama Papers: Iceland's prime minister had offshore holdings in collapsed banks". Irish Times. 6 April 2019.
- "Salvini tra Russia, nazionalismo e fascismo padano". Huffingtonpost.it. 18 October 2014.
- "Leading lady of Italy's right campaigns for a baby boom". 31 January 2018 – via www.reuters.com.
- "Post". Ģimene Tauta Valsts.
- "Defiant impeached former Lithuanian President launches campaign to restore litas". Bnn-news.com.
- "Montenegro Opposition Leader to Join Steve Bannon 'Movement'". 4 February 2019.
- "How the Suave New Dutch Far Right Nearly Won an Election". Bloomberg. Retrieved 19 November 2019.
- "Siv Jensen Promises a Far Tougher FRP against Immigration for the Next Election in Norway". Tnp.no. 16 October 2013.
- Adam Zamoyski (27 January 2016). "The Problem With Poland's New Nationalism". Foreignpolicy.com.
- "The new nationalism: Eastern Europe turns right". Prospect Magazine.
- "The Kremlin's Influence Reaches Warsaw". Visegradinsight.eu.
- "Romania Bucks Nationalist Wave With Election Shock". Bloomberg. 19 November 2014.
- "The new nationalism - Trump's world". Economist.com. 19 November 2016.
- "Serbia's Brand of Reconciliation: Embracing Old War Criminals". New York Times. 23 November 2017.
- Pirro, Andrea L. P. (5 June 2015). The Populist Radical Right in Central and Eastern Europe: Ideology, impact, and electoral performance. ISBN 9781317557111.
- "Slovenia's President Wins Second Term in Runoff Election". New York Times. 12 November 2017.
- "Leader of Spanish populist party aims to become 'new Trump'". Voice of Europe. 9 November 2018. Retrieved 10 November 2018.
- "Who is Jimmie Åkesson, the architect of Sweden's rising far-right?". Thelocal.se. 5 September 2018.
- "The Trump Before Trump". The American Interest. 17 December 2018.
- "UKIP aiming to be 'radical, populist' party - Gerard Batten". BBC News. 21 September 2018.
- "Moqtada al-Sadr: In Iraq, a fiery cleric redefines himself as nationalist patriot". Christian Science Monitor. 3 May 2017.
- "The unraveling of Israeli democracy". Blogs.timesofisrael.com. 21 December 2015.
- "Israel's Bennett and Shaked announce 'New Right' political party". Al Jazeera. 30 December 2018.
- "Khalifa Haftar: Libya's military strongman". Deutsche Welle. 5 April 2019.
- "A Renewed Sense of Nationalism Takes Root in Qatar". Stratfor. 29 December 2017.
- Mustafa Akyol (23 June 2014). "AKP pushes its own brand of Turkish neonationalism". Al-monitor.com.
- "Lebanon the next battlefield as Saudis escalate bitter struggle with Iran". Smh.com.au. 11 November 2017.
- "Crown prince Mohammed Bin Salman: Inside the stricken court". Gq-magazine.co.uk.
- "Turkey: Toward a third 'Nationalist Front' government". Hurriyetdailynews.com. 8 November 2016.
- "The UAE Is Helping America By Propagating A Warped Form Of Arab Nationalism". Orientalreview.org. 28 December 2017.
- Keddie, Amanda (2017). Supporting and Educating Young Muslim Women. Taylor & Francis. p. 6.
- Meaney, Thomas (3 October 2016). "The New Star of Germany's Far-Right". The New Yorker.
This article appears in other versions of the October 3, 2016, issue, with the headline “Germany’s New Nationalists.”
- Kosmin, Barry A. (2007). Secularism & Secularity: Contemporary International Perspectives. ISSSC. p. 134.
- "Brexit: Europe's New Nationalism Is Here to Stay". Alternet. 24 June 2016.
- "Europe's populists are waltzing into the mainstream". The Economist. 3 February 2018.
- Flamm, Lazlo (2012), The Crisis and Eurosceptism in Central and Eastern Europe, International Centre for European Studies, p. 312
- Teitelbaum, Benjamin (2017), Lions of the North: Sounds of the New Nordic Radical Nationalism, OUP
- "Wer hat Platz in diesem Land?". Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung. 20 November 2016.
- "Nationalism the big winner in Bulgarian election". Reuters.com. 23 March 2017. Retrieved 28 January 2018.
- "Portugal election result cements modest gains for Europe's centre-left". The Guardian. 7 October 2019.