List of sovereign states in the 2000s

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This is a list of sovereign states in the 2000s, giving an overview of states around the world during the period between 1 January 2000 and 31 December 2009. It contains 213 entries, arranged alphabetically, with information on the status and recognition of their sovereignty. It includes 193 widely recognized sovereign states and 15 entities which claim an effective sovereignty but are considered de facto dependencies of other powers by the general international community.

States[edit]

Name and capital city Information on status and recognition of sovereignty

A[edit]


 Abkhazia – Republic of Abkhazia
Capital: Sukhumi
Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity.[1] Claimed by Georgia as the Autonomous Republic of Abkhazia.

Afghanistan Afghanistan  Afghanistan
Capital: Taloqan (to 6 September 2000), Fayzabad (from 6 September 2000 to 13 November 2001), Kabul (from 13 November 2001)
Widely recognized UN member state.[4] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Afghanistan but only controlled a small portion of the country until 13 November 2001.

Afghanistan Afghanistan, Islamic Emirate of (to 7 December 2001)[5]
Capital: Kabul (to 13 November 2001), Kandahar (from 13 November 2001)
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[6] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Afghanistan but only controlled a small portion of the country after 13 November 2001.

 Albania – Republic of Albania
Capital: Tirana
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Algeria – People's Democratic Republic of Algeria
Capital: Algiers
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Andorra – Principality of Andorra
Capital: Andorra la Vella
Widely recognized UN member state. The President of France and Bishop of Urgell were ex officio Co-Princes of Andorra. The defense of Andorra was the responsibility of France and Spain.

 Angola – Republic of Angola
Capital: Luanda
Widely recognized UN member state.

Anjouan – State of Anjouan (to 10 March 2002)[7]
Capital: Mutsamudu
De facto self-governing entity. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by the Comoros.

 Antigua and Barbuda
Capital: St. John's
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Antigua and Barbuda had two dependencies, Barbuda and Redonda.

 Argentina – Argentine Republic[8]
Capital: Buenos Aires
Widely recognized UN member state. Argentina was a federation of 23 provinces and an autonomous city.[9] It had a claim over Argentine Antarctica, which was suspended under the Antarctic Treaty. It also claimed the Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, both of which were British overseas territories.

 Armenia – Republic of Armenia
Capital: Yerevan
Widely recognized UN member state.[10]

 Australia – Commonwealth of Australia
Capital: Canberra
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Australia was a federation of six states and three territories.[11] It had sovereignty over the following external territories:

 Austria – Republic of Austria
Capital: Vienna
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Austria was a federation of nine states.[12]

 Azerbaijan – Republic of Azerbaijan
Capital: Baku
Widely recognized UN member state. Azerbaijan had one autonomous republic, Nakhchivan. It included the disputed region of Nagorno-Karabakh, where a partially recognized breakaway republic had declared independence.

B[edit]


 The Bahamas – Commonwealth of the Bahamas
Capital: Nassau
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

Bahrain  Bahrain
Capital: Manama
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Bangladesh – People's Republic of Bangladesh
Capital: Dhaka
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Barbados
Capital: Bridgetown
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Belarus – Republic of Belarus
Capital: Minsk
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Belgium – Kingdom of Belgium
Capital: Brussels
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Belgium was a federation of three communities and three regions.[14]

 Belize
Capital: Belmopan
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Benin – Republic of Benin
Capital: Porto-Novo (official), Cotonou (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Bhutan – Kingdom of Bhutan
Capital: Thimphu
Widely recognized UN member state. Bhutan was officially guided by India in its foreign affairs, but effectively pursued an independent foreign policy. The Indo-Bhutanese Friendship Treaty was revised on 8 February 2007, confirming Bhutan's full independence in this area.

 Bolivia
Capital: Sucre (official), La Paz (administrative)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Bosnia and Herzegovina
Capital: Sarajevo
Widely recognized UN member state. Bosnia and Herzegovina was a federation of two constituent entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska.

 Botswana – Republic of Botswana
Capital: Gaborone
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Brazil – Federative Republic of Brazil
Capital: Brasília
Widely recognized UN member state. Brazil was a federation of 26 states and one federal district.[16]

 Brunei – State of Brunei, Abode of Peace
Capital: Bandar Seri Begawan
Widely recognized UN member state. Brunei claimed part of the Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Malaysia).

 Bulgaria – Republic of Bulgaria
Capital: Sofia
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 January 2007).

 Burkina Faso
Capital: Ouagadougou
Widely recognized UN member state.

Burma → Myanmar

 Burundi – Republic of Burundi
Capital: Bujumbura
Widely recognized UN member state.

C[edit]


 Cambodia – Kingdom of Cambodia
Capital: Phnom Penh
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Cameroon – Republic of Cameroon
Capital: Yaoundé
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Canada
Capital: Ottawa
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Canada was a federation of ten provinces and three territories.[17]

 Cape Verde – Republic of Cape Verde
Capital: Praia
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Central African Republic
Capital: Bangui
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Chad – Republic of Chad
Capital: N'Djamena
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Chechnya – Chechen Republic of Ichkeria (to 6 February 2000)[18]
Capital: Dzhokhar-Ghala
Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity.[19] Claimed by Russia as the Republic of Chechnya.

 Chile – Republic of Chile
Capital: Santiago
Widely recognized UN member state. Chile had two special territories after 30 July 2007, Easter Island and the Juan Fernández Islands. It had a claim over Chilean Antarctic Territory, which is suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

 China, People's Republic of
Capital: Beijing
Widely recognized UN member state.[20] The People's Republic of China had five autonomous regions: Guangxi, Inner Mongolia, Ningxia, Xinjiang and Tibet. Additionally, it had sovereignty over two special administrative regions:

The People's Republic of China claimed Taiwan, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, the Pratas Islands and Itu Aba, all of which were governed by the Republic of China. It also claimed the Paracel Islands (disputed by the Republic of China and Vietnam), the Spratly Islands (disputed by the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, Malaysia and Brunei), and South Tibet (controlled by India). The People's Republic of China administered Aksai Chin and the Trans-Karakoram Tract, which were within the disputed region of Kashmir.


 China, Republic of
Capital: Taipei (seat of government)
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[20] The Republic of China claimed to be the sole legitimate government of China, but only administered Taiwan, Kinmen, the Matsu Islands, the Pratas Islands and Itu Aba. The Republic of China had territorial claims over Mongolia (to 2002[21]); the Russian republic of Tuva; the Sixty-Four Villages East of the River (administered by Russia); The majority of Gorno-Badakhshan (administered by Tajikistan); The eastern tip of the Wakhan Corridor (administered by Afghanistan); a small portion of Gilgit-Baltistan (administered by Pakistan and part of the disputed Kashmir region); Aksai Chin (administered by the People's Republic of China and part of the disputed Kashmir region); eastern Bhutan; South Tibet (controlled by India); and Kachin State (administered by Myanmar) (to mid 2000s[22]).

 Colombia – Republic of Colombia
Capital: Bogotá
Widely recognized UN member state. Colombia administered Serranilla Bank and claimed Bajo Nuevo Bank (disputed by Nicaragua and the United States)

Comoros  Comoros
Capital: Moroni
Widely recognized UN member state. The Comoros was a federation of three islands (autonomous islands since 23 December 2001): Grande Comore, Mohéli, and Anjouan. Anjouan and Mohéli were de facto independent states until 10 March 2002. Comoros also claimed sovereignty over the French overseas territories of Mayotte and the Glorioso Islands. Comoros also claimed Banc du Geyser (disputed by Madagascar and France).

Democratic Republic of the Congo  Congo, Democratic Republic of the
Capital: Kinshasa
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Congo, Republic of the
Capital: Brazzaville
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Cook Islands
Capital: Avarua
A state in free association with New Zealand, recognized by China. The Cook Islands is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It shares a head of state with New Zealand as well as having shared citizenship.

 Costa Rica – Republic of Costa Rica
Capital: San José
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Ivory Coast – Republic of Ivory Coast
Capital: Yamoussoukro (official), Abidjan (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Croatia – Republic of Croatia
Capital: Zagreb
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Cuba – Republic of Cuba
Capital: Havana
Widely recognized UN member state. The Cuban area of Guantánamo Bay was under the permanent control of the United States.

 Cyprus – Republic of Cyprus
Capital: Nicosia
Widely recognized UN member state.[24] EU member (from 1 May 2004). The northeastern part of the island was the de facto independent state of Northern Cyprus, recognized only by Turkey.

 Czech Republic
Capital: Prague
Widely recognized UN member state.[25] EU member (from 1 May 2004).

D[edit]


 Denmark – Kingdom of Denmark
Capital: Copenhagen
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. The Danish Realm also included two constituent countries:

 Djibouti – Republic of Djibouti
Capital: Djibouti
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Dominica – Commonwealth of Dominica
Capital: Roseau
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Dominican Republic
Capital: Santo Domingo
Widely recognized UN member state.

E[edit]


East Timor → Timor-Leste

 Ecuador – Republic of Ecuador
Capital: Quito
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Egypt – Arab Republic of Egypt
Capital: Cairo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 El Salvador – Republic of El Salvador
Capital: San Salvador
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Equatorial Guinea – Republic of Equatorial Guinea
Capital: Malabo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Eritrea – State of Eritrea
Capital: Asmara
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Estonia – Republic of Estonia
Capital: Tallinn
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).

 Ethiopia – Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
Capital: Addis Ababa
Widely recognized UN member state. Ethiopia was a federation of nine regions and two chartered cities.[26]

F[edit]


 Fiji – Republic of the Fiji Islands
Capital: Suva
Widely recognized UN member state. Fiji had an autonomous dependency, Rotuma.

 Finland – Republic of Finland
Capital: Helsinki
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Finland had a neutral and demilitarised region:

 France – French Republic
Capital: Paris
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. France included four overseas departments: French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique and Réunion. It also had sovereignty over the following overseas territories:

France also claimed Banc du Geyser (disputed by Madagascar and the Comoros).


G[edit]


 Gabon – Gabonese Republic
Capital: Libreville
Widely recognized UN member state.

 The Gambia – Republic of the Gambia
Capital: Banjul
Widely recognized UN member state.

Georgia (country)  Georgia
Capital: Tbilisi
Widely recognized UN member state. Georgia had two autonomous republics: Adjara and Abkhazia. The latter republic was home to a de facto independent state. Georgia also included the disputed region of South Ossetia, where a partially recognized breakaway republic had declared independence.

 Germany – Federal Republic of Germany
Capital: Berlin
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Germany was a federation of sixteen states.[27]

 Ghana – Republic of Ghana
Capital: Accra
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Greece – Hellenic Republic
Capital: Athens
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Greece had sovereignty over Mount Athos, an autonomous monastic state that was jointly governed by the multi-national "Holy Community" on the mountain and the Civil Governor appointed by the Greek Ministry of Foreign Affairs, and spiritually came under the direct jurisdiction of the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

 Grenada
Capital: St. George's
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Grenada had one autonomous dependency, Carriacou and Petite Martinique.

 Guatemala – Republic of Guatemala
Capital: Guatemala City
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Guinea – Republic of Guinea
Capital: Conakry
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Guinea-Bissau – Republic of Guinea-Bissau
Capital: Bissau
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Guyana – Co-operative Republic of Guyana
Capital: Georgetown
Widely recognized UN member state.

H[edit]


 Haiti – Republic of Haiti
Capital: Port-au-Prince
Widely recognized UN member state. Haiti claimed the uninhabited United States possession of Navassa Island.

Holy See → Vatican City

 Honduras – Republic of Honduras
Capital: Tegucigalpa
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Hungary – Republic of Hungary
Capital: Budapest
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).

I[edit]


 Iceland – Republic of Iceland
Capital: Reykjavík
Widely recognized UN member state.

 India – Republic of India
Capital: New Delhi
Widely recognized UN member state. India was a federation of twenty-eight states and seven union territories. Indian sovereignty over South Tibet was disputed by the People's Republic of China. India administered part of the disputed region of Kashmir as the state of Jammu and Kashmir.[28]

 Indonesia – Republic of Indonesia
Capital: Jakarta
Widely recognized UN member state. Indonesia had five special provinces: Aceh, Jakarta, Papua (from 21 November 2001), West Papua (from 14 November 2003), and Yogyakarta

 Iran – Islamic Republic of Iran
Capital: Tehran
Widely recognized UN member state.

Iraq Iraq  Iraq – Republic of Iraq
Capital: Baghdad
Widely recognized UN member state. Iraq was occupied by the United States, the United Kingdom, and other members of the Multinational force in Iraq from 21 April 2003 to 28 June 2004. After 15 October 2005, Iraq was constitutionally designated as a federation of autonomous regions, but only one region (Iraqi Kurdistan) had been established.

 Ireland[29]
Capital: Dublin
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

 Israel – State of Israel
Capital: Jerusalem
Widely recognized UN member state.[30] Israel occupied East Jerusalem, the Gaza Strip, the Golan Heights, the Israeli Security Zone in Southern Lebanon (to 22 May 2000), and the West Bank. These areas were not generally recognized as being part of Israel.

 Italy – Italian Republic
Capital: Rome
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Italy had 5 autonomous regions: Aosta Valley, Friuli-Venezia Giulia, Sardinia, Sicily, and Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol.

Ivory Coast → Ivory Coast

J[edit]


 Jamaica
Capital: Kingston
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Japan
Capital: Tokyo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Jordan – Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan
Capital: Amman
Widely recognized UN member state.

K[edit]


 Kazakhstan – Republic of Kazakhstan
Capital: Astana
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Kenya – Republic of Kenya
Capital: Nairobi
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Kiribati – Republic of Kiribati
Capital: South Tarawa
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Korea, North – Democratic People's Republic of Korea
Capital: Pyongyang
Widely recognized UN member state.[31] Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

 Korea, South – Republic of Korea
Capital: Seoul
Widely recognized UN member state.[32] South Korea had one autonomous region: Jeju-do (from 1 July 2006). Claimed to be the sole legitimate government of Korea.

Kosova – Republic of Kosova (until February 1, 2000)
Capital: Pristina
Partially recognized de jure state.[33]

 Kosovo – Republic of Kosovo (from 17 February 2008)[34]
Capital: Pristina
Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity.[35] Claimed by Serbia as the Autonomous Province of Kosovo and Metohija under UN administration

 Kuwait – State of Kuwait
Capital: Kuwait City
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Kyrgyzstan – Kyrgyz Republic
Capital: Bishkek
Widely recognized UN member state.

L[edit]


 Laos – Lao People's Democratic Republic
Capital: Vientiane
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Latvia – Republic of Latvia
Capital: Riga
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).

 Lebanon – Lebanese Republic
Capital: Beirut
Widely recognized UN member state. Lebanon was occupied by Syria (to 25 April 2005). Some of Southern Lebanon was occupied by Israel (to 22 May 2000).

Lesotho  Lesotho – Kingdom of Lesotho
Capital: Maseru
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Liberia – Republic of Liberia
Capital: Monrovia
Widely recognized UN member state.

Libya Libya – Great Socialist People's Libyan Arab Jamahiriya
Capital: Tripoli
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Liechtenstein – Principality of Liechtenstein
Capital: Vaduz
Widely recognized UN member state.[25] The defense of Liechtenstein was the responsibility of Switzerland.

Lithuania  Lithuania – Republic of Lithuania
Capital: Vilnius
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).

 Luxembourg – Grand Duchy of Luxembourg
Capital: Luxembourg
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

M[edit]


 Macedonia – Republic of Macedonia[36]
Capital: Skopje
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Madagascar – Republic of Madagascar
Capital: Antananarivo
Widely recognized UN member state. Madagascar claimed the French possessions of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands and Juan de Nova Island. It also claimed Banc du Geyser (disputed by Comoros and France)

 Malawi – Republic of Malawi
Capital: Lilongwe
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Malaysia
Capital: Kuala Lumpur (official), Putrajaya (administrative)
Widely recognized UN member state. Malaysia was a federation of thirteen states and three federal territories.[37] Malaysia claimed part of the Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Brunei).

 Maldives – Republic of Maldives
Capital: Malé
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Mali – Republic of Mali
Capital: Bamako
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Malta – Republic of Malta
Capital: Valletta
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).

 Marshall Islands – Republic of the Marshall Islands
Capital: Majuro
Widely recognized UN member state under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The Marshall Islands claimed the United States territory of Wake Island.

 Mauritania – Islamic Republic of Mauritania
Capital: Nouakchott
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Mauritius – Republic of Mauritius
Capital: Port Louis
Widely recognized UN member state. Mauritius had one autonomous dependency: Rodrigues (from 12 October 2002). Mauritius also had three (later two) other dependencies: Agalega Islands, Cargados Carajos and Rodrigues (to 12 October 2002). It claimed the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French territory of Tromelin Island.

 Mexico – United Mexican States
Capital: Mexico City
Widely recognized UN member state. Mexico was a federation of 31 states and one federal district.[38]

 Federated States of Micronesia – Federated States of Micronesia
Capital: Palikir
Widely recognized UN member state under Compact of Free Association with the United States. The FSM was a federation of four states.[39]

Mohéli – Democratic Republic of Mohéli (to 10 March 2002)[7]
Capital: Fomboni
De facto self-governing entity. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by the Comoros.

 Moldova – Republic of Moldova
Capital: Chişinău
Widely recognized UN member state. Moldova had two autonomous territorial units: Gagauzia and Transnistria. The latter was home to a de facto independent state.

 Monaco – Principality of Monaco
Capital: Monaco
Widely recognized UN member state. The defense of Monaco was the responsibility of France.

 Mongolia
Capital: Ulaanbaatar
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Montenegro
Capital: Podgorica
  • Republic of Montenegro (from 3 June 2006 to 22 October 2007)[40][41]
  • Montenegro (from 22 October 2007)[41]
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 28 June 2006).

 Morocco – Kingdom of Morocco
Capital: Rabat
Widely recognized UN member state. Morocco claimed sovereignty over and controlled most of the disputed Western Sahara, which was home to the de facto independent Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic. Morocco disputed the Spanish sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla, and Peñón de Alhucemas.

 Mozambique – Republic of Mozambique
Capital: Maputo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Myanmar – Union of Myanmar[42]
Capital: Yangon (to 6 November 2005), Naypyidaw (from 6 November 2005)
Widely recognized UN member state.

N[edit]


 Nagorno-Karabakh – Nagorno-Karabakh Republic
Capital: Stepanakert
De facto self-governing entity. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Azerbaijan.

 Namibia – Republic of Namibia
Capital: Windhoek
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Nauru – Republic of Nauru
Capital: Yaren (unofficial)
Widely recognized UN member state. The defense of Nauru was the responsibility of Australia.

   Nepal
Capital: Kathmandu
  • Kingdom of Nepal (to 15 January 2007)[43]
  • State of Nepal (from 15 January 2007 to 28 May 2008)[43][44]
  • Federal Democratic Republic of Nepal (from 28 May 2008)[44]
Widely recognized UN member state. Nepal was designated as a federation after 28 May 2008, but its federal units had not yet been created.

 Netherlands – Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital: Amsterdam (official), The Hague (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state. The Kingdom of the Netherlands consisted of three autonomous countries:

The Kingdom of the Netherlands as a whole was a member of the EU, but Aruba and the Netherlands Antilles were not.


 New Zealand
Capital: Wellington
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. New Zealand had responsibilities for the two free associated states of:

It also had sovereignty over two dependent territories:

The government of Tokelau claimed Swains Island, part of American Samoa (a U.S. dependence). New Zealand did not recognize this claim.


 Nicaragua – Republic of Nicaragua
Capital: Managua
Widely recognized UN member state. Nicaragua had two autonomous regions: Región Autónoma del Atlántico Norte and Región Autónoma del Atlántico Sur.

 Niger – Republic of Niger
Capital: Niamey
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Nigeria – Federal Republic of Nigeria
Capital: Abuja
Widely recognized UN member state. Nigeria was a federation of 36 states and one federal territory.[45]

 Niue
Capital: Alofi
A state in free association with New Zealand, recognized by China (from 12 December 2007). Niue is a member of multiple UN agencies with full treaty making capacity. It had shared citizenship with New Zealand.

 Northern Cyprus – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus
Capital: Lefkoşa
Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity.[46] Claimed by the Republic of Cyprus.

 Norway – Kingdom of Norway
Capital: Oslo
Widely recognized UN member state. Norway had two integral overseas areas: Jan Mayen and Svalbard. The latter of area had a special status due to the Spitsbergen Treaty. Norway had sovereignty over the following dependencies:

O[edit]


 Oman – Sultanate of Oman
Capital: Muscat, Oman
Widely recognized UN member state.

P[edit]


 Pakistan – Islamic Republic of Pakistan
Capital: Islamabad
Widely recognized UN member state. Pakistan was a federation of four provinces and four territories. It administered part of the disputed region of Kashmir as the territories of Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas. The latter territory was autonomous under the name Gilgit-Baltistan after 29 August 2009.[47]

 Palau – Republic of Palau
Capital: Koror (to 7 October 2006), Ngerulmud (from 7 October 2006)
Widely recognized UN member state under Compact of Free Association with the United States.

 Palestine[dubious ][citation needed] [48]
(non-sovereign, non-UN member nation)
Capital: Ramallah (administrative), Gaza City (administrative), Jerusalem (claimed)
Disputed region consisting of three occupied territories: the West Bank, the Gaza Strip, and East Jerusalem. The declared State of Palestine, which claimed independence for all the Palestinian territories, was recognized by a large number of countries. In foreign relations, Palestine was represented by the Palestine Liberation Organization, which was a permanent observer at the United Nations. The Palestinian National Authority was an interim administrative body that exercised limited control over parts of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip. From 12 September 2005 to 15 June 2007, the PNA controlled all of Gaza. After 15 June 2007, Gaza was under the control of Hamas.

 Panama – Republic of Panama
Capital: Panama City
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Papua New Guinea – Independent State of Papua New Guinea
Capital: Port Moresby
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. After 15 June 2005, Papua New Guinea had one autonomous region: Bougainville.

 Paraguay – Republic of Paraguay
Capital: Asunción
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Peru – Republic of Peru
Capital: Lima
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Philippines – Republic of the Philippines
Capital: Manila
Widely recognized UN member state. The Philippines had one autonomous region: Muslim Mindanao. The Philippines administered Scarborough Shoal, which was disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China. It also claimed sovereignty over the Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Vietnam, Brunei, and Malaysia) and the Malaysian territory of Sabah.

 Poland – Republic of Poland
Capital: Warsaw
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).

 Portugal – Portuguese Republic
Capital: Lisbon
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Portugal had two autonomous regions: the Azores and Madeira. Portugal claimed the Spanish municipalities of Olivenza and Táliga.

 Puntland – Puntland State of Somalia (to 1 July 2001)[49]
Capital: Garowe
De facto self-governing entity. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Somalia.

Q[edit]


 Qatar – State of Qatar
Capital: Doha
Widely recognized UN member state.

R[edit]


 Romania
Capital: Bucharest
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 January 2007).

 Russia – Russian Federation
Capital: Moscow
Widely recognized UN member state. Russia was a federation of 21 republics, 49 oblasts, 9 krais, 2 federal cities, 1 autonomous oblast, and 10 autonomous okrugs.[50]

Rwanda  Rwanda
Capital: Kigali
  • Rwandese Republic (to 26 May 2003)[51]
  • Republic of Rwanda (from 26 May 2003)[51]
Widely recognized UN member state.

S[edit]


 Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic
Capital: Bir Lehlou (official), Rabouni (seat of government-in-exile), El Aaiún (claimed)
Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity.[52] The Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic claimed the disputed territory of Western Sahara, most of which was under control of Morocco. The territories under its control, the so-called Free Zone, were claimed by Morocco. Its government resided in exile in Tindouf, Algeria.

 Saint Kitts and Nevis – Federation of Saint Kitts and Nevis
Capital: Basseterre
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm. Saint Kitts and Nevis was a federation of fourteen parishes within two islands.[53] Nevis (which was one of the islands) had autonomy.

Saint Lucia  Saint Lucia
Capital: Castries
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines
Capital: Kingstown
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Samoa – Independent State of Samoa
Capital: Apia
Widely recognized UN member state.

 San Marino – Republic of San Marino
Capital: San Marino
Widely recognized UN member state.

 São Tomé and Príncipe – Democratic Republic of São Tomé and Príncipe
Capital: São Tomé
Widely recognized UN member state. São Tomé and Príncipe had one autonomous province: Príncipe.

 Saudi Arabia – Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
Capital: Riyadh
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Senegal – Republic of Senegal
Capital: Dakar
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Serbia – Republic of Serbia (from 5 June 2006)[54]
Capital: Belgrade
Widely recognized UN member state. Serbia had two autonomous provinces: Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija. The latter province was governed by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo. After 17 February 2008, it was home to a partially recognized de facto independent republic.

Serbia and Montenegro → Yugoslavia

 Seychelles – Republic of Seychelles
Capital: Victoria
Widely recognized UN member state. The Seychelles claimed the British Indian Ocean Territory and the French territories of Tromelin Island and the Glorioso Islands.

 Sierra Leone – Republic of Sierra Leone
Capital: Freetown
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Singapore – Republic of Singapore
Capital: Singapore
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Slovakia – Slovak Republic
Capital: Bratislava
Widely recognized UN member state.[25] EU member (from 1 May 2004).

 Slovenia – Republic of Slovenia
Capital: Ljubljana
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member (from 1 May 2004).

 Solomon Islands
Capital: Honiara
Widely recognized UN member state. Commonwealth realm.

 Somalia
Capital: Mogadishu
  • Somalia (to 16 July 2000)[55]
  • Somali Republic (from 16 July 2000)[55]
Widely recognized UN member state. Somalia did not have a recognized central government until April 2000, when the Transitional National Government (after November 2004, the Transitional Federal Government) was established. Over the course of the Somali Civil War, several autonomous regional governments were established in the de jure territory of Somalia. Although these states did not claim independence from Somalia, they were de facto self-governing:

There were also areas of the country which at various times had no effective government at all or which were ruled by local clans. In addition, there were two states which had declared and established de facto independence from Somalia: Puntland (to 1 July 2001) and Somaliland.


 Somaliland – Republic of Somaliland
Capital: Hargeisa
De facto self-governing entity. Not recognized by any other state. Claimed by Somalia.

 South Africa – Republic of South Africa
Capital: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), Bloemfontein (judicial)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 South Ossetia – Republic of South Ossetia
Capital: Tskhinvali
Partially recognized de facto independent state.[1] Claimed by Georgia (as the Provisional Administrative Entity of South Ossetia from April 2007).

 Spain – Kingdom of Spain
Capital: Madrid
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. Spain was divided into seventeen autonomous communities and two autonomous cities.[56] Its sovereignty over Ceuta, Isla de Alborán, Isla Perejil, Islas Chafarinas, Melilla and Peñón de Alhucemas was disputed by Morocco. Its sovereignty over Olivenza and Táliga was disputed by Portugal. It claimed the British overseas territory of Gibraltar.

 Sri Lanka – Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka
Capital: Sri Jayawardenapura-Kotte
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Sudan – Republic of the Sudan
Capital: Khartoum
Widely recognized UN member state. Sudan was a federation of 26 states, ten of which formed the autonomous region of Southern Sudan after 9 January 2005.[57]

 Suriname – Republic of Suriname
Capital: Paramaribo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Swaziland – Kingdom of Swaziland
Capital: Mbabane (administrative), Lobamba (royal and legislative)
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Sweden – Kingdom of Sweden
Capital: Stockholm
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member.

  Switzerland – Swiss Confederation
Capital: Bern
Widely recognized independent state. Permanent observer at the UN (to 10 September 2002). UN member state (from 10 September 2002). Switzerland was a federation of 26 cantons.[58]

 Syria – Syrian Arab Republic
Capital: Damascus
Widely recognized UN member state. Syria included the Golan Heights, which were occupied by Israel. It disputed the Turkish sovereignty over Hatay Province.

T[edit]


Taiwan → China, Republic of

 Tajikistan – Republic of Tajikistan
Capital: Dushanbe
Widely recognized UN member state. Tajikistan had one autonomous province: Gorno-Badakhshan.

 Tamil Eelam (to 18 May 2009)[59]
Capital: Trincomalee
Unrecognized de facto self-governing entity. Claimed by Sri Lanka.

 Tanzania – United Republic of Tanzania
Capital: Dodoma (official), Dar es Salaam (seat of government)
Widely recognized UN member state. Tanzania had one autonomous region: Zanzibar.

 Thailand – Kingdom of Thailand
Capital: Bangkok
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Timor-Leste – Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste[60] (from 20 May 2002)[61]
Capital: Dili
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 27 September 2002).

 Togo – Togolese Republic
Capital: Lomé
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Tonga – Kingdom of Tonga
Capital: Nukuʻalofa
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Transnistria – Pridnestrovian Moldovan Republic
Capital: Tiraspol
Partially recognized de facto self-governing entity.[62] Claimed by Moldova.

 Trinidad and Tobago – Republic of Trinidad and Tobago
Capital: Port of Spain
Widely recognized UN member state. Trinidad and Tobago had one autonomous island: Tobago.

 Tunisia – Tunisian Republic
Capital: Tunis
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Turkey – Republic of Turkey
Capital: Ankara
Widely recognized UN member state.

Turkmenistan  Turkmenistan
Capital: Ashgabat
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Tuvalu
Capital: Funafuti
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 5 September 2000). Commonwealth realm.

U[edit]


 Uganda – Republic of Uganda
Capital: Kampala
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Ukraine
Capital: Kiev
Widely recognized UN member state. Ukraine had one autonomous republic: Crimea.

 United Arab Emirates
Capital: Abu Dhabi
Widely recognized UN member state. The United Arab Emirates was a federation of seven emirates.[63]

 United Kingdom – United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
Capital: London
Widely recognized UN member state. EU member. The United Kingdom was composed of four countries: England, Northern Ireland, Scotland, and Wales. It had sovereignty over the following dependent territories ("overseas territories" after 26 February 2002):

In addition, the British Monarch had direct sovereignty over three self-governing Crown dependencies:


 United States – United States of America
Capital: Washington, D.C.
Widely recognized UN member state. The United States was a federation of 50 states, one federal district, and one incorporated territory.[64] It asserted sovereignty over the following inhabited insular areas:

It also asserted sovereignty over eight uninhabited unincorporated territories:[65]

The United States claimed Bajo Nuevo Bank and Serranilla Bank. Its claim to Serranilla was disputed by Colombia and Nicaragua and its claim to Bajo Nuevo was disputed by Colombia, Jamaica, and Nicaragua. Some government sources stated that these two areas were unincorporated territories of the United States.


 Uruguay – Eastern Republic of Uruguay
Capital: Montevideo
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Uzbekistan – Republic of Uzbekistan
Capital: Tashkent
Widely recognized UN member state. Uzbekistan had one autonomous republic: Karakalpakstan.

V[edit]


 Vanuatu – Republic of Vanuatu
Capital: Port Vila
Widely recognized UN member state.

  Vatican City – Vatican City State
Capital: Vatican City
Widely recognized independent state. Vatican City was administered by the Holy See, a sovereign entity recognized by a large number of countries and a Permanent observer at the United Nations. The Holy See also administered a number of extraterritorial properties in Italy. The Pope was the ex officio head of state of Vatican City.

Venezuela  Venezuela
Capital: Caracas
  • Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (to 12 April 2002)[66]
  • Republic of Venezuela (from 12 April 2002 to 13 April 2002)[66][67]
  • Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (from 13 April 2002)[67]
Widely recognized UN member state. Venezuela was a federation of 23 states, one federal dependency, and one federal district.[68]

 Vietnam – Socialist Republic of Vietnam
Capital: Hanoi
Widely recognized UN member state. Vietnam claimed sovereignty over the Paracel Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China and the Republic of China) and Spratly Islands (disputed by the People's Republic of China, the Republic of China, Brunei, the Philippines, and Malaysia).

Y[edit]


 Yemen – Republic of Yemen
Capital: Sana'a
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Yugoslavia / Serbia and Montenegro (to 5 June 2006)
Capital: Belgrade
  • Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (to 4 February 2003)[69]
  • State Union of Serbia and Montenegro (from 4 February 2003 to 5 June 2006)[54][69]
Widely recognized independent state. UN member state (from 1 November 2000). Yugoslavia was a federation of two republics (Montenegro and Serbia) and two autonomous provinces within Serbia (Vojvodina and Kosovo and Metohija). The latter province was under the administration of the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo.

Z[edit]


 Zambia – Republic of Zambia
Capital: Lusaka
Widely recognized UN member state.

 Zimbabwe – Republic of Zimbabwe
Capital: Harare
Widely recognized UN member state.

Other entities[edit]

Excluded from the list above are the following noteworthy entities which either were not fully sovereign or did not claim to be independent:

  • Antarctica as a whole had no government and no permanent population. Seven states claimed portions of Antarctica and five of these had reciprocally recognised one another's claims.[70] These claims, which were regulated by the Antarctic Treaty System, were neither recognised nor disputed by any other signatory state.[71]
  • European Union The European Union was a sui generis supranational organisation which had 15 (later 27) member states. The member states had transferred a measure of their legislative, executive, and judicial powers to the institutions of the EU, and as such the EU had some elements of sovereignty, without generally being considered a sovereign state. The European Union did not claim to be a sovereign state and had only limited capacity for relations with other states.
  • Sovereign Military Order of Malta The Sovereign Military Order of Malta was a United Nations observer. The order had bi-lateral diplomatic relations with a large number of states, but has no territory other than extraterritorial areas within Rome.[72] The order's Constitution stated: "The Order is a subject of international law and exercises sovereign functions." [73] Although the order frequently asserted its sovereignty, it did not claim to be a sovereign state. It lacked a defined territory. Since all its members were citizens of other states, almost all of them lived in their native countries, and those who resided in the order's extraterritorial properites in Rome did so only in connection with their official duties, the order lacked the characteristic of having a permanent population.
  • United Nations The United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor was a transitional non-independent territory governed by the United Nations. It was neither sovereign nor under the sovereignty of any other state. It became the independent state of Timor-Leste on 20 May 2002.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b Abkhazia was recognized by South Ossetia (from 17 November 2006), Transnistria (from 17 November 2006), Russia (from 26 August 2008), Nicaragua (from 5 September 2008), Venezuela (from 10 September 2009), and Nauru (from 15 December 2009).
  2. ^ a b A transitional government for Afghanistan was appointed on 13 June 2002 by loya jirga. [1]
  3. ^ a b Afghanistan ratified a new constitution on 26 Jan 2004
  4. ^ The Islamic State of Afghanistan was not recognized by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, or the United Arab Emirates until 7 December 2001.
  5. ^ Kandahar, the last major city under Taliban control, fell to the Islamic State of Afghanistan on 7 December 2001. [2]
  6. ^ The Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan was recognized by Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
  7. ^ a b Anjouan and Moheli became autonomous islands of the Comoros after a referendum on 10 March 2002. [3]
  8. ^ The name "Argentine Nation" was also used for the purposes of legislation.
  9. ^ 23 Provinces: Buenos Aires, Catamarca, Chaco, Chubut, Córdoba, Corrientes, Entre Ríos, Formosa, Jujuy, La Pampa, La Rioja, Mendoza, Misiones, Neuquén, Río Negro, Salta, San Juan, San Luis, Santa Cruz, Santa Fe, Santiago del Estero, Tierra del Fuego, Tucumán. 1 Autonomous City: Buenos Aires.
  10. ^ Armenia was not recognized by Pakistan.
  11. ^ 6 States: New South Wales, Queensland, South Australia, Tasmania, Victoria, Western Australia. 3 Territories: Australian Capital Territory, Jervis Bay Territory, Northern Territory.
  12. ^ 9 States: Burgenland, Carinthia, Lower Austria, Salzburg, Styria, Tyrol, Upper Austria, Vorarlberg, Vienna.
  13. ^ a b Bahrain enacted a new constitution on 14 February 2002. Hamad ibn Isa Al Khalifah, the Emir of Bahrain, was declared a King. s:Constitution of the Kingdom of Bahrain (2002)
  14. ^ 3 Communities: Flemish Community, French Community, German-speaking Community. 3 Regions: Brussels-Capital Region, Flemish Region, Walloon Region.
  15. ^ a b Bolivia enacted a new constitution on 7 February 2009, changing the official name of the state. [4]
  16. ^ 26 States: Acre, Alagoas, Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia, Ceará, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Maranhão, Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Minas Gerais, Pará, Paraíba, Paraná, Pernambuco, Piauí, Rio Grande do Norte, Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Rondônia, Roraima, Santa Catarina, São Paulo, Sergipe, Tocantins. 1 Federal District: Brazilian Federal District.
  17. ^ 10 Provinces: Alberta, British Columbia, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland (renamed Newfoundland and Labrador on 6 December 2001), Nova Scotia, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan. 3 Territories: Northwest Territories, Nunavut, Yukon.
  18. ^ Grozny fell to the Russians on 6 February 2000, ending the de facto independence of Chechnya. [5]
  19. ^ Chechnya was recognized by the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan.
  20. ^ a b The People's Republic of China and the Republic of China did not recognize each other, as both states claimed to be the sole legitimate government of China. The following states recognized the ROC instead of the PRC: Belize, Burkina Faso, Chad (to 6 August 2006), Costa Rica (to 1 June 2007), Dominica (to 31 March 2004), Dominican Republic, El Salvador, the Gambia, Guatemala, Grenada (to 20 January 2005), Haiti, Honduras, Kiribati (from 29 November 2003), Malawi (to 28 December 2007), Marshall Islands, Nauru (to 21 July 2002 and then again from 31 May 2005), Nicaragua, Palau, Panama, Paraguay, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia (5 May 2007), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal (to 25 October 2005), Solomon Islands, Swaziland, Tuvalu, and Vatican City. Until 11 October 2003, Liberia recognized both the ROC and the PRC, which led to the PRC severing diplomatic relations. After 11 October 2003, Liberia only recognized the PRC.
  21. ^ Mongolia–Taiwan relations
  22. ^ "Maps and list of administrative divisions covering above places were published until 2005." History of the administrative divisions of China (1912–49)
  23. ^ a b [6].za/hr_docs/constitutions/docs/ComorosC%20(english%20summary)(rev).doc The Comoros adopted a new constitution on 23 December 2001]
  24. ^ Cyprus was not recognized by Turkey or Northern Cyprus
  25. ^ a b c Owing to a dispute over lands seized during World War II, Liechtenstein did not recognize the Czech Republic or Slovakia, and neither country recognized Liechtenstein. Liechtenstein established diplomatic relations with the Czech Republic on 13 July 2009 and with Slovakia on 9 December 2009.
  26. ^ 9 Regions: Afar, Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambela, Harari, Oromiya, Somali, Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region, Tigray. 2 Chartered Cities: Addis Ababa, Dire Dawa.
  27. ^ 16 States: Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Berlin, Brandenburg, Bremen, Hamburg, Hesse, Lower Saxony, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, North Rhine-Westphalia, Rhineland-Palatinate, Saarland, Saxony, Saxony-Anhalt, Schleswig-Holstein, Thuringia
  28. ^ 28 States: Andhra Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Bihar, Chhattisgarh (from 1 November 2000), Goa, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jammu and Kashmir, Jharkhand (from 15 November 2000), Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, Orissa, Punjab, Rajasthan, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, Uttaranchal (from 9 November 2000, renamed Uttarakhand in 2007), West Bengal. 7 Union Territories: Andaman and Nicobar Islands, Chandigarh, Dadra and Nagar Haveli, Daman and Diu, Lakshadweep, National Capital Territory of Delhi, Pondicherry (spelled Puducherry from 2006).
  29. ^ Ireland also had the legal description of "Republic of Ireland", although this was not its constitutional name.
  30. ^ Israel was not recognized by Afghanistan, Algeria, Bahrain, Bangladesh, Chad, Cuba, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Malaysia, North Korea, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria, the United Arab Emirates, or Yemen.
  31. ^ North Korea was not recognized by Estonia, France, Japan, or South Korea.
  32. ^ South Korea was not recognized by North Korea.
  33. ^ Only recognized by Albania.
  34. ^ Kosovo unilaterally declared independence from Serbia on 17 February 2008. [7]
  35. ^ Kosovo was recognized by Afghanistan (from 18 February 2008), Albania (from 18 February 2008), Australia (from 19 February 2008), Austria (from 28 February 2008), Bahrain (from 19 May 2009), Belgium (from 24 February 2008), Belize (from 7 August 2008), Bulgaria (from 20 March 2008), Burkina Faso (from 24 April 2008), Canada (from 18 March 2008), Colombia (from 6 August 2008), Comoros (from 14 May 2009), Costa Rica (from 18 February 2008), Croatia (from 19 March 2008), the Czech Republic (from 21 May 2008), Denmark (from 21 February 2008), Dominican Republic (from 10 July 2009), Estonia (from 21 February 2008), Finland (from 7 March 2008), France (from 18 February 2008), the Gambia (from 7 April 2009), Germany (from 20 February 2008), Hungary (from 19 March 2008), Iceland (from 5 March 2008), Ireland (from 29 February 2008), Italy (from 21 February 2008), Japan (from 18 March 2008), Jordan (from 7 July 2009), Latvia (from 20 February 2008), Liberia (from 30 May 2008), Liechtenstein (from 25 March 2008), Lithuania (from 6 May 2008), Luxembourg (from 21 February 2008), Macedonia (from 9 October 2008), Malawi (from 14 December 2009), Malaysia (from 31 October 2008), Maldives (from 19 February 2009), Malta (from 21 August 2008), Marshall Islands (from 17 April 2008), Federated States of Micronesia (from 5 December 2008), Monaco (from 19 March 2008), Montenegro (from 9 October 2008), Nauru (from 23 April 2008), Netherlands (from 4 March 2008), New Zealand (from 9 November 2009), Norway (from 28 March 2008), Palau (from 6 March 2009), Panama (from 16 January 2009), Peru (from 22 February 2008), Poland (from 26 February 2008), Portugal (from 7 October 2008), the Republic of China (from 18 February 2008), Samoa (from 15 September 2008), San Marino (from 11 May 2008), Saudi Arabia (from 20 April 2000), Senegal (from 19 February 2008), Sierra Leone (from 13 June 2008), Slovenia (from 5 March 2008), South Korea (from 28 March 2008), Sweden (from 4 March 2008), Switzerland (from 27 February 2008), Turkey (from 18 February 2008), the United Arab Emirates (from 14 October 2008), the United Kingdom (from 18 February 2008), and the United States (from 18 February 2008).
  36. ^ Provisionally referred to by the UN and a number of countries and international organizations as "the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia", see Macedonia naming dispute.
  37. ^ 13 States: Johor, Kedah, Kelantan, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Pahang, Perak, Perlis, Penang, Sabah, Sarawak, Selangor, Terengganu. 3 Federal Territories: Kuala Lumpur, Labuan, Putrajaya (from 1 February 2001).
  38. ^ 31 States: Aguascalientes, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Campeche, Chiapas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Colima, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Hidalgo, Jalisco, México, Michoacán, Morelos, Nayarit, Nuevo León, Oaxaca, Puebla, Querétaro, Quintana Roo, San Luis Potosí, Sinaloa, Sonora, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Tlaxcala, Veracruz, Yucatán, Zacatecas. 1 Federal District: Federal District
  39. ^ 4 States: Chuuk, Kosrae, Pohnpei, Yap.
  40. ^ Montenegro declared independence from Serbia and Montenegro on 3 June 2006. [8]
  41. ^ a b The Republic of Montenegro adopted a new constitution on 22 October 2007, shortening its official name to "Montenegro". [9]
  42. ^ Commonly known in English as "Burma".
  43. ^ a b Nepal adopted an interim constitution on 15 January 2007, changing its official name to "State of Nepal" [10]
  44. ^ a b The Nepalese monarchy was formally abolished on 28 May 2008
  45. ^ 36 States: Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nasarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara. 1 Federal Territory: Federal Capital Territory
  46. ^ Northern Cyprus was recognized only by Turkey.
  47. ^ 4 Provinces: Balochistan, North-West Frontier Province, Punjab, Sindh. 4 Territories: Azad Kashmir, Federally Administered Tribal Areas, Islamabad Capital Territory, Northern Areas (renamed Gilgit-Baltistan on 29 August 2009).
  48. ^ See the following on statehood criteria:
  49. ^ Puntland's "temporary independence" came to an end on 1 July 2001, when it adopted a new constitution and declared itself to be an integral part of Somalia. [11]
  50. ^ 21 Republics: Adygea, Altai, Bashkortostan, Buryatia, Chechnya, Chuvash Republic, Dagestan, Ingushetia, Kabardino-Balkaria, KalmykiaKarachay–Cherkessia, Karelia, Khakassia, Komi, Mari El, Mordovia, North Ossetia–Alania, Sakha, Tatarstan, Tuva, Udmurtia. 49 Oblasts: Amur, Arkhangelsk, Astrakhan, Belgorod, Bryansk, Chelyabinsk, Chita (to 1 March 2008), Irkutsk, Ivanovo, Kaliningrad, Kaluga, Kamchatka (to 1 July 2007), Kemerovo, Kirov, Kostroma, Kurgan, Kursk, Leningrad, Lipetsk, Magadan, Moscow, Murmansk, Nizhny Novgorod, Novgorod, Novosibirsk, Omsk, Orenburg, Oryol, Penza, Perm (to 1 December 2005), Pskov, Rostov, Ryazan, Sakhalin, Samara, Saratov, Smolensk, Sverdlovsk, Tambov, Tomsk, Tula, Tver, Tyumen, Ulyanovsk, Vladimir, Volgograd, Vologda, Voronezh, Yaroslavl. 9 Krais: Altai, Kamchatka (from 1 July 2007), Khabarovsk, Krasnodar, Krasnoyarsk, Perm (from 1 December 2005), Primorsky, Stavropol, Zabaykalsky (from 1 March 2008). 2 Federal Cities: Moscow, St. Petersburg. 1 Autonomous Oblast: Jewish Autonomous Oblast. 10 Autonomous Okrugs: Agin-Buryatia (to 1 March 2008), Chukotka, Evenkia (to 1 January 2007), Khanty–Mansi, Koryakia (to 1 July 2007), Nenetsia, Permyakia (to 1 December 2005), Taymyria (to 1 January 2007), Ust-Orda Buryatia (to 1 January 2008), Yamalia.
  51. ^ a b On 26 May 2003, Rwanda adopted a new constitution, changing its official French name from "République rwandaise" to "République du Rwanda" [12] [13]. The former name can be translated into English as "Rwandese Republic" s:CIA World Fact Book, 2004/Rwanda, "Rwandan Republic" [14], or "Republic of Rwanda" [15]. The name in Kinyarwanda has always been "Republika y'u Rwanda".
  52. ^ the Sahrawi Arab Democratic Republic was recognized by Afghanistan (to 12 July 2002), Albania (to 11 November 2004), Algeria, Angola, Antigua and Barbuda, Barbados, Belize, Bolivia, Botswana, Burundi (to 5 May 2006 and then again from 17 June 2008), Cambodia, Cape Verde (to 30 July 2007), Chad (from 17 July 2007), Colombia, Costa Rica, Cuba, Dominica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador (to 19 June 2004 and then again from 8 February 2006), Ethiopia, Ghana, Grenada, Guatemala, Guinea-Bissau (from 30 May 2009), Guyana, Haiti (from 23 November 2006), Honduras, India (to 26 June 2000), Iran, Jamaica, Kenya (to 22 October 2006), Kiribati (to 15 September 2000), Laos, Lesotho, Libya, Madagascar, Mali, Malawi (to 16 September 2008), Mauritania, Mauritius, Mexico, Mozambique, Namibia, Nauru (to 15 September 2000), Nicaragua (to 21 July 2000 then again 12 January 2007), Nigeria, North Korea, Panama, Papua New Guinea, Paraguay (from 9 February 2000), Rwanda, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (from 14 February 2002), Seychelles (to 17 April 2008), Sierra Leone, South Africa (from 15 September 2004), Suriname, Syria, Tanzania, Timor-Leste (from 20 May 2002), Trinidad and Tobago, Tuvalu (to 15 September 2000), Uganda, Uruguay (from 28 December 2005), Vanuatu (to November 2000 and then again from August 2008), Venezuela, Vietnam, Zambia, Zimbabwe.
  53. ^ 2 Islands: Saint Kitts, Nevis.14 parishes: Christ Church Nichola Town (Saint Kitts), Saint Anne Sandy Point (Saint Kitts), Saint George Basseterre (Saint Kitts), Saint George Gingerland (Nevis), Saint James Windward (Nevis), Saint John Capesterre (Saint Kitts), Saint John Figtree (Nevis), Saint Mary Cayon (Saint Kitts), Saint Paul Capisterre (Saint Kitts), Saint Paul Charlestown (Nevis), Saint Peter Basseterre (Saint Kitts), Saint Thomas Lowland (Nevis), Saint Thomas Middle Island (Saint Kitts), Trinity Palmetto Point (Saint Kitts)
  54. ^ a b The Serbian parliament declared independence from Serbia and Montenegro on 5 June 2006, ending the union. [16]
  55. ^ a b The Transitional National Government of Somalia adopted a Federal Charter on 16 July 2000. [17]
  56. ^ 17 Autonomous Communities: Andalusia, Aragon, Asturias, Balearic Islands, Basque Country, Canary Islands, Cantabria, Castile-La Mancha, Castile and León, Catalonia, Extremadura, Galicia, Madrid, Murcia, Navarre, La Rioja, Valencian Community. 2 Autonomous Cities: Ceuta, Melilla.
  57. ^ 26 States: Blue Nile, Central Equatoria, Eastern Equatoria, Al Jazirah, Jonglei, Kassala, Khartoum, Lakes, Northern Bahr el Ghazal, North Darfur, North Kurdufan, Northern, Al Qadarif, Red Sea, River Nile, Sennar, South Darfur, South Kurdufan, Unity, Upper Nile, Western Equatoria, Western Bahr el Ghazal, West Darfur, West Kurdufan (to 16 August 2005), White Nile, Warrap
  58. ^ 26 Cantons: Aargau, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Basel-Stadt, Basel-Landschaft, Bern, Fribourg, Geneva, Glarus, Graubünden, Jura, Lucerne, Neuchâtel, Nidwalden, Obwalden, Schaffhausen, Schwyz, Solothurn, St. Gallen, Thurgau, Ticino, Uri, Valais, Vaud, Zug, Zürich
  59. ^ Liberation Tigers of Tamil Eelam defeated in the Sri Lankan Civil War
  60. ^ Commonly known in English as "East Timor".
  61. ^ Timor-Leste declared independence from United Nations administration on 20 May 2002. [18]
  62. ^ Transnistria was recognized by Abkhazia (from 17 November 2006) and South Ossetia (from 17 November 2006).
  63. ^ 7 Emirates: Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Dubai, Fujairah, Ras al-Khaimah, Sharjah, and Umm al-Qaiwain.
  64. ^ 50 States: Alabama, Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Connecticut, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Minnesota, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, North Carolina, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, Oregon, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, South Dakota, Tennessee, Texas, Utah, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming. 1 Federal District: District of Columbia. 1 Incorporated Territory: Palmyra Atoll.
  65. ^ These islands were sometimes designated for statistical purposes as the United States Minor Outlying Islands
  66. ^ a b After being installed as interim president of Venezuela on 14 April 2002, Pedro Carmona issued a decree which voided the 1999 constitution. [19]
  67. ^ a b Hugo Chávez returned to power on 13 April 2002 and restored the Constitution of Venezuela. [20]
  68. ^ 23 States: Amazonas, Anzoátegui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Carabobo, Cojedes, Delta Amacuro, Falcón, Guárico, Lara, Mérida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Táchira, Trujillo, Vargas, Yaracuy, Zulia. 1 Federal District: Capital District. 1 Federal Dependency: Federal Dependencies.
  69. ^ a b The Federal Republic of Yugolsavia reconstituted itself as Serbia and Montenegro on 4 February 2003. [21]
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