|Country||People's Republic of China|
|Municipal seat||Huancui District
|• CPC Secretary||Cui Yuechen (崔曰臣)|
|• Mayor||Wang Peiyan (王培廷)|
|• Prefecture-level city||5,436 km2 (2,099 sq mi)|
|• Urban||731 km2 (282 sq mi)|
|• Metro||731 km2 (282 sq mi)|
|Population (2010 census)|
|• Prefecture-level city||2,804,800|
|• Density||520/km2 (1,300/sq mi)|
|• Urban density||810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)|
|• Metro density||810/km2 (2,100/sq mi)|
|Time zone||China Standard (UTC+8)|
|GDP||RMB178 billion (2008)|
|GDP per capita||RMB63,519 (2008)|
|License Plate Prefix||鲁K|
|Administrative division code||371000|
|City Flower: Sweet Osmanthus, Osmanthus fragrans
City Tree: Silk Tree, Albizia julibrissin
Weihai (Chinese: 威海; pinyin: Wēihǎi) is a city in eastern Shandong province, People's Republic of China. It is the easternmost prefecture-level city of the province and a major seaport. Weihai borders Yantai to the west and the Yellow Sea to the east.
Weihaiwei's population is 2,804,800 at the 2010 census. Of those, 591,982 live in the built up area (Huancui urban district). Rongcheng, a county level city within Weihai, has a built up area with 1,006,795 inhabitants.
Between 1898 and 1930, the city was part of the British leased territory known as Weihaiwei or the Weihai Garrison (traditional Chinese: 威海衛; simplified Chinese: 威海卫; pinyin: Wēihǎi Wèi), and also between 1898 and 1930 the city itself was known as Port Edward and served as the capital of Weihaiwei.
|This section does not cite any references or sources. (October 2010)|
Weihaiwei port was the base for the Beiyang Fleet during the Qing Dynasty. In 1895, the Japanese captured it in the Battle of Weihaiwei, which is regarded as the last major battle of the First Sino-Japanese War. The Japanese then evacuated in 1898.
British leased territory
||It has been suggested that this section be split into a new article titled Weihaiwei (British colony). (Discuss) Proposed since December 2012.|
After Russia leased Port Arthur (130 kilometres (81 mi) across the Yellow Sea near modern-day Dalian) from China for 25 years in March 1898, the United Kingdom obtained a lease for Weihaiwei. This lease was to be in force as long as the Russians occupied Port Arthur. In 1905, the Japanese defeated the Russians in the Russo-Japanese War and the Japanese took over Port Arthur. The British lease was extended as long as the Japanese occupied Port Arthur. The British agreed to return the city to China in 1930. Weihaiwei was thus a British leased territory from 1898 until October 1, 1930. It was a summer station for the British naval China Station and it was also used as a health resort. It served as a port of call for ships of the Royal Navy in the Far East (well behind Hong Kong in the south).
At the beginning of the lease, the territory was administered by a Senior Naval Officer of the Royal Navy (Sir Edward Hobart Seymour). In 1899, administration was transferred to a military and civil commissioner (Arthur Robert Ford Dorward 1899–1901 and John Dodson Daintree 1901–1902) appointed by the War Office in London. The territorial garrison consisted of 200 British troops and a specially constituted Chinese Regiment with British officers. In 1901, it was decided that this base should not be fortified, and administration was transferred to the U.K.'s Colonial Office. The Chinese Regiment was disbanded in 1903.
A Civil Commissioner was appointed in 1902 to administer the territory. The post was held by Sir James Haldane Stewart Lockhart until 1921. After Lockhart, Arthur Powlett Blunt (1921–1923) and Walter Russell Brown (1923–1927) were appointed Commissioners in Weihaiwei. The last Commissioner was the outstanding sinologist Reginald Johnston (previously tutor to the last Chinese emperor) who served from 1927 to 1930.
In 1909, the Hong Kong governor Sir Frederick Lugard, proposed that Britain return Weihaiwei to Chinese rule and, in return, receive perpetual rule of the New Territories of Hong Kong which had also been leased in 1898. This proposal was never adopted.
Weihaiwei was not developed in the way that Hong Kong and other British colonies in the region were. This was because Shandong Province, of which Weihaiwei was part, was inside Germany's (and after World War I Japan's) sphere of influence. It was normal practice for British colonies to be administered under the provisions of the British Settlements Act 1887. However, Weihaiwei was actually administered under the Foreign Jurisdiction Act 1890 which was the law which granted extraterritorial powers over British subjects in China and other countries where Britain had extraterritorial rights. The reason for this was that as a leased territory, subject to rendition at any time, it was not considered appropriate to treat Weihaiwei as a full colony.
No special postage stamps were ever issued for Weihaiwei. Just as in the treaty ports, Hong Kong stamps were used. From 1917, these were overprinted with the word CHINA. Despite this, the city did have its own revenues from 1921 onwards. There were also never any special coins or banknotes issued for circulation in Weihaiwei. The various currencies in circulation in China at the time were used.
The nickname British sailors gave to this port was "Way High"; it was also sometimes referred to as Port Edward in English.
British High Court of Weihaiwei
In 1903, the British established a High Court of Weihaiwei. The judges of the court were chosen from individuals serving as a judge or Crown Advocate of the British Supreme Court for China in Shanghai. The three judges of the court from 1903 to 1930 were:
- Frederick Samuel Augustus Bourne (1903–1916), Assistant Judge of HBM Supreme Court for China
- Hiram Parkes Wilkinson (1916–1925), Crown Advocate of HBM Supreme Court for China
- Peter Grain (1925–1930), Assistant Judge, and from 1927, Judge of HBM Supreme Court for China
The Commissioner could also exercise judicial powers if the judges of the court were not available.
Appeals from the High Court for Weihaiwei could be made to the Hong Kong Supreme Court. It appears that no appeal was ever heard in Hong Kong.
Weihaiwei became a special administrative region after it was returned to the Republic of China in 1930. In 1949, Weihaiwei City was established, and was renamed Weihai City after the Communist revolution.
|This section requires expansion with: history after 1949. (March 2009)|
Geography and climate
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Weihai is located on the north-eastern seashore of Shandong, and its administrative area includes Chengshantou (成山头), the eastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula. The city is surrounded by sea on three sides and its harbour is protected by Liugong Island.
Weihai lies in the transition zone between a Humid subtropical and humid continental climate (Köppen Cwa/Dwa), but as it is at the eastern end of the Shandong Peninsula, its climate is strongly influenced by the surrounding Yellow Sea: springtime warming and autumn cooling are delayed by one month, winds are generally high, and the average diurnal temperature throughout the year is small—at only 6.73 °C (12.1 °F). Winters are cold and dry, but still warmer than inland places located at the same latitude; the average temperature in January is −0.9 °C (30.4 °F). Summers are hot and humid, and August averages 24.7 °C (76.5 °F); the annual mean is 12.48 °C (54.5 °F). More than two-thirds of the annual precipitation occurs from June to September, and there are nearly 2,540 hours of sunshine per year.
|Climate data for Weihai (1971–2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||2.0
|Average low °C (°F)||−3.4
|Precipitation mm (inches)||12.9
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||6.5||5.1||4.6||5.8||6.9||7.9||11.5||10.2||6.9||6.4||7.8||8.2||87.8|
|Source: Weather China|
Weihai is a commercial port and major fishing center with some light industries. Due to its close proximity to South Korea, Weihai also has a large Korean business community and receives many Korean tourists. Weihai is also a key production area for peanuts and fruit.
Weihai Economic & Technological Development Zone
Weihai Economic and Technological Development Zone is a state-level development zone approved by the State Council on October 21, 1992. The administrative area has an area of 194 km2 (75 sq mi), including the programmed area of 36 km2 (14 sq mi) and an initial area of 11.88 km2 (4.59 sq mi). Its nearest port is Weihai Port, and the airport closest to the zone is Wuhai Airport.
Weihai Export Processing Zone
Weihai Export & Processing Zone (EPZ) was set up by the approval of the State Council on April 27, 2000. Weihai EPZ is located in Weihai Economic & Technological Development Zone with programmed area of 2.6 km2 (1.0 sq mi). Weihai EPZ belongs to comprehensive export & processing zone. The EPZ is located 30 km (19 mi) from Weihai Airport, 3 km (1.9 mi) to Weihai Railway Station and 4 km (2.5 mi) from Weihai Harbor.
Weihai Torch Hi-Tech Science Park
Weihai Torch Hi-Tech Science Park is a state-level development zone approved by the State Council on March 1991. Located in Weihai's northwest zone of culture, education and science, the Park has the total area of 111.9 km2 (43.2 sq mi), a coastline of 30.5 km (19.0 mi) and 150,000 residents. It is 3 km (1.9 mi) away from the city center, 4 km (2.5 mi) away from Weihai Port, 10 km (6.2 mi) away from Weihai Railway Station, 30 km (19 mi) away from Weihai Airport and 80 km (50 mi) away from Yantai Airport.
Weihai Airport serves the city with regular service to Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou, Harbin domestically and the Korean cities of Seoul and Pusan. The K8262 and K8264 trains depart every day at 7:17 AM and 9:52 PM respectively for Jinan, the provincial capital, the K412 goes directly to Beijing at 7:49 PM, and the No. 1064 train leaves at 8:27 AM for Hankou, one of the two railway stations of Wuhan, Hubei. Internally, the city is served by about 50 bus routes.
- Cheltenham, United Kingdom (since May 21, 1987)
- Ube, Yamaguchi Prefecture, Japan (May 18, 1992)
- Santa Barbara, California, United States (December 8, 1994)
- Yeosu, South Korea, (February 17, 1995)
- Sochi, Russia (October 18, 1996)
- Biella, Italy (October 22, 1996)
- Timaru, New Zealand (July 30, 1998)
- Brazzaville, Republic of the Congo (May 24, 2004)
- Novopolotsk, Belarus (April 25, 2006)
- Vines, Stephen (30 June 1997). "How Britain lost chance to keep its last major colony". The Independent.
- See Tan, Carol G.S. (2008) British Rule in China: Law and Justice in Weihaiwei 1898-1930. London: Wildy, Simmonds & Hill for a comprehensive history of British justice in the Weihaiwei leased territory.
- RightSite.asia | Weihai Economic & Technological Development Zone
- RightSite.asia | Weihai Export Processing Zone
- RightSite.asia | Weihai Torch Hi-Tech Science Park
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Weihai.|
- Government website of Weihai (available in Chinese, English, Japanese and Korean)
- "Weihaiwei". New International Encyclopedia. 1905.