Mudanjiang

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Mudanjiang
牡丹江市
Prefecture-level city
Night of mudanjiang, china.jpg
Mudanjiang City (red) in Heilongjiang (orange)
Mudanjiang City (red) in Heilongjiang (orange)
Mudanjiang is located in Heilongjiang
Mudanjiang
Mudanjiang
Location of the city centre in Heilongjiang
Coordinates: 44°33′N 129°38′E / 44.550°N 129.633°E / 44.550; 129.633Coordinates: 44°33′N 129°38′E / 44.550°N 129.633°E / 44.550; 129.633
Country People's Republic of China
Province Heilongjiang
County-level divisions 10
Government
 • Type Prefecture-level city
 • CPC Mudanjaing Secretary Zhang Jingchuan (张晶川)
 • Mayor Lin Kuanhai (林宽海)
Area
 • Prefecture-level city 40,435 km2 (15,612 sq mi)
 • Urban 1,608 km2 (621 sq mi)
 • Metro 1,608 km2 (621 sq mi)
Elevation 233 m (764 ft)
Population (2010 census)[1]
 • Prefecture-level city 2,798,723
 • Density 69/km2 (180/sq mi)
 • Urban 805,584
 • Urban density 500/km2 (1,300/sq mi)
 • Metro 805,584
Time zone China Standard (UTC+8)
Postal Code 157000
Area code(s) 453
Licence plates 黑C
ISO 3166-2 cn-23-10
Website http://www.mudanjiang.gov.cn/
Mudanjiang
Chinese name
Chinese 牡丹江
Manchu name
Manchu script ᠮᡠᡩ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠪᡳᡵᠠ
Russian name
Russian Муданьцзян

Mudanjiang (Chinese: 牡丹江; pinyin: Mǔdānjiāng; Manchu: Mudan bira ᠮᡠᡩ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠪᡳᡵᠠ) is a prefecture-level city in southernmost Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. It was called Botankou when it was under Japanese occupation. It serves as a regional communications hub with a railway junction and an international airport connecting with several major Chinese cities as well as Seoul, Korea. Mudanjiang is also an important border city, located only 248 km (154 mi) from Vladivostok, Russia. In 2011 Mudanjiang had a GDP of RMB 93.48 billion with a 15.1% growth rate.

Its population is 2,798,723 at the 2010 census whom 805,584 live in the built up area made of 4 urban districts.[1]

History[edit]

Mudanjiang Railway Station during the 1900s

Mudanjiang was originally the nomadic area of the Manchu herdsmen from 2,300 years ago. Ancient Sushen(肃慎) lies in nowaday valley of Mudan River, established Mo State(貊国).[2] During Tang Dynasty, Balhae established their permanent capital Sanggyeong near Lake Jingpo in the south of today's Mudanjiang city around 755 AD. On January 14, 926, Sanggyeong was fallen while Balhae was defeated by the Khitans.[3][4]

The city of Mudanjiang is named after for the Mudan River (literally, "Peony River") flowing through it. Czarist Russia built a train station for the Chinese Eastern Railway(КВЖД, KVZhD) in Mudanjiang in 1903, after which local development started boosting. Both Chinese and Russian settlers established themselves here. Mudanjiang was little more than a large village until the 1920s. By that time, Mudanjiang was strongly overshadowed by the nearby county town of Ningan (Former Ninguta).[5] However, merchants from several countries including France, Russia, Britain and Denmark set up sub-agencies in Mudanjiang during this period, which led the trade area of the city to a rapid expansion.

Ginza street of Mudanjiang, 1942

After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 19, 1931, the whole Manchuria was seized by Japan following the Mukden Incident. Mudanjiang experienced a substantial growth in the 1930s under the Japanese occupation. Mudanjiang also became a military and administrative center going by the name Botankou, particularly after the railway from Tumen to Jiamusi was constructed in 1933. By that time several light industries including light engineering, lumbering, and food processing was established in the town. On December 1, 1937, Botankou City was established by Manchukuo government, administerring five counties. On October 15, 1938, Japanese Government set up a consulate in Botankou and promoted Botankou as a municipality directly under the Manchukuo Government. As Manchukuo collapsed, Mudanjiang was captured by Soviet Army on August 14, 1945.[6]

Mudanjiang was controlled by the Communist force and became the capital of Songjiang Province in 1948. However, after Songjiang Province was merged into Heilongjiang Province on June 19, 1954, Mudanjiang was reduced to a prefecture-level city.

Geography[edit]

Mudanjiang
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
4.7
 
−11
−23
 
 
5.5
 
−5
−18
 
 
11
 
3
−9
 
 
26
 
14
0
 
 
54
 
21
7
 
 
91
 
25
14
 
 
121
 
28
18
 
 
109
 
27
17
 
 
60
 
21
9
 
 
35
 
13
0
 
 
13
 
1
−10
 
 
7.9
 
−8
−19
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: CMA [7]

Mudanjiang, spanning from 128° 02' to 131° 18' E longitude and 43° 24' to 45° 59' N latitude, is located in southeastern Heilongjiang province. It is also the province's southernmost prefecture. Neighbouring prefectures are:

It also borders Russia's Primorsky Krai to the east. The average elevation in the prefecture is 230 metres (755 ft), with the terrain primarily consisting of mountains and hills. The east of the prefecture begins to ascend to the Changbai Mountains, while the central parts belong to the Hegu Basin. The lowest part of the prefecture is Suifenhe City, bordering Russia, at a minimum elevation of 86.5 metres (283.8 ft), while the highest point is Zhangguangcai, at 1,686.9 metres (5,534 ft).

Climate[edit]

Mudanjiang features a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Köppen Dwa) with hot, humid summers and very cold and dry winters; spring and autumn are brief. However, winter temperatures here are far warmer than much of the rest of the province, and the city's basin location helps protect it from biting winds. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −17.3 °C (0.9 °F) in January to 22.3 °C (72.1 °F) in July; the annual mean is 4.28 °C (39.7 °F). Close to three-fifths of the annual rainfall occurs from June to August. With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 46% in July to 62% in February and March, the city receives 2,368 hours of bright sunshine annually. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −35.1 °C (−31 °F) to 38.4 °C (101 °F). 、

Administrative divisions[edit]

Mudanjiang mcp.png
# Name Hanzi Hanyu Pinyin Population (2003 est.) Area (km²) Density (/km²)
1 Aimin District 爱民区 Àimín Qū 230,000 359 641
2 Dong'an District 东安区 Dōng'ān Qū 180,000 566 318
3 Yangming District 阳明区 Yángmíng Qū 160,000 358 447
4 Xi'an District 西安区 Xī'ān Qū 210,000 325 646
5 Muling City 穆棱市 Mùlíng Shì 330,000 6,094 54
6 Suifenhe City 绥芬河市 Suífēnhé Shi 60,000 427 141
7 Hailin City 海林市 Hǎilín Shì 440,000 9,877 45
8 Ning'an City 宁安市 Níng'ān Shì 440,000 7,870 56
9 Dongning County 东宁县 Dōngníng Xiàn 210,000 7,368 29
10 Linkou County 林口县 Línkǒu Xiàn 450,000 7,191 63

Economy[edit]

In 2010, the city's GDP rose 18.5% to RMB 78.1 billion, ranked fourth in Heilongjiang Province after Harbin, Daqing and Qiqihar.[8] Tourist industry and light manufacturing are the mainstays of Mudanjiang's economy. Mudanjiang's pillar industries include accessory industry for automobiles, paper making, forest industry, petrochemicals, new materials, pharmacy and energy industry.[9] The foreign trade value increased 71.8% to US$9 billion in 2010, making up three-fourth of Heilongjiang Province's gross.

Development Zones[edit]

  • Mudanjiang to Russia Economic and Technological Development Zone
  • Sino-Russian Information Industrial Garden
  • Mudanjiang Jiangnan Economic and Technological Development Area
  • Mudanjiang Bioindustry Development Zone
  • Heilongjiang Northern Pharmaceutical Technological Development Zone

Transport[edit]

Railway[edit]

Mudanjiang railway station, lunar new year 2008

Mudanjiang is a railway hub in eastern Heilongjiang Province. Binsui(Harbin-Suifenhe) Railway and Tujia(Tumen-Jiamusi) Railway meet here. Trains from Mudanjiang Railway Station connect the city with Beijing, Jinan, Dalian, Harbin, Changchun and several other cities in China.

Air[edit]

Mudanjiang Hailang Airport is the second largest international airport in Heilongjiang Province. It operates daily flights to Beijing, Dalian and several other major cities in China. In addition there are also scheduled international flights between Mudanjiang and Seoul and Inchoen in South Korea.

Highway[edit]

Mudanjiang is linked to the national highway network through the G11 Hegang–Dalian Expressway and Manzhouli-Suifenhe Highway.

International relations[edit]

Mudanjiang is twinned with:

References[edit]

External links[edit]