|This article may be expanded with text translated from the corresponding article in the Chinese Wikipedia. (March 2009)|
Mudanjiang (Chinese: 牡丹江; pinyin: Mǔdānjiāng; Manchu: Mudan bira ᠮᡠᡩ᠋ᠠᠨ ᠪᡳᡵᠠ) is a prefecture-level city in southernmost Heilongjiang province, People's Republic of China. It was called Botankou when it was under Japanese occupation. It serves as a regional communications hub with a railway junction and an international airport connecting with several major Chinese cities as well as Seoul, Korea. Mudanjiang is also an important border city, located only 248 km (154 mi) from Vladivostok, Russia. In 2011 Mudanjiang had a GDP of RMB 93.48 billion with a 15.1% growth rate.
Its population is 2,798,723 at the 2010 census whom 805,584 live in the built up area made of 4 urban districts.
Mudanjiang was originally the nomadic area of the Manchu herdsmen from 2,300 years ago. Ancient Sushen(肃慎) lies in nowaday valley of Mudan River, established Mo State(貊国). During Tang Dynasty, Balhae established their permanent capital Sanggyeong near Lake Jingpo in the south of today's Mudanjiang city around 755 AD. On January 14, 926, Sanggyeong was fallen while Balhae was defeated by the Khitans.
The city of Mudanjiang is named after for the Mudan River (literally, "Peony River") flowing through it. Czarist Russia built a train station for the Chinese Eastern Railway(КВЖД, KVZhD) in Mudanjiang in 1903, after which local development started boosting. Both Chinese and Russian settlers established themselves here. Mudanjiang was little more than a large village until the 1920s. By that time, Mudanjiang was strongly overshadowed by the nearby county town of Ningan (Former Ninguta). However, merchants from several countries including France, Russia, Britain and Denmark set up sub-agencies in Mudanjiang during this period, which led the trade area of the city to a rapid expansion.
After the Japanese invasion of Manchuria began on September 19, 1931, the whole Manchuria was seized by Japan following the Mukden Incident. Mudanjiang experienced a substantial growth in the 1930s under the Japanese occupation. Mudanjiang also became a military and administrative center going by the name Botankou, particularly after the railway from Tumen to Jiamusi was constructed in 1933. By that time several light industries including light engineering, lumbering, and food processing was established in the town. On December 1, 1937, Botankou City was established by Manchukuo government, administerring five counties. On October 15, 1938, Japanese Government set up a consulate in Botankou and promoted Botankou as a municipality directly under the Manchukuo Government. As Manchukuo collapsed, Mudanjiang was captured by Soviet Army on August 14, 1945.
Mudanjiang was controlled by the Communist force and became the capital of Songjiang Province in 1948. However, after Songjiang Province was merged into Heilongjiang Province on June 19, 1954, Mudanjiang was reduced to a prefecture-level city.
|Climate chart (explanation)|
Mudanjiang, spanning from 128° 02' to 131° 18' E longitude and 43° 24' to 45° 59' N latitude, is located in southeastern Heilongjiang province. It is also the province's southernmost prefecture. Neighbouring prefectures are:
It also borders Russia's Primorsky Krai to the east. The average elevation in the prefecture is 230 metres (755 ft), with the terrain primarily consisting of mountains and hills. The east of the prefecture begins to ascend to the Changbai Mountains, while the central parts belong to the Hegu Basin. The lowest part of the prefecture is Suifenhe City, bordering Russia, at a minimum elevation of 86.5 metres (283.8 ft), while the highest point is Zhangguangcai, at 1,686.9 metres (5,534 ft).
Under the Köppen climate classification, Mudanjiang features a monsoon-influenced, humid continental climate (Dwa) with hot, humid summers and very cold and dry winters; spring and autumn are brief. However, winter temperatures here are far warmer than much of the rest of the province, and the city's basin location helps protect it from biting winds. The monthly 24-hour average temperature ranges from −17.3 °C (0.9 °F) in January to 22.3 °C (72.1 °F) in July. Close to three-fifths of the annual rainfall occurs from June to August.
|Climate data for Mudanjiang (1971−2000)|
|Average high °C (°F)||−10.5
|Average low °C (°F)||−22.6
|Precipitation mm (inches)||4.7
|Avg. precipitation days (≥ 0.1 mm)||5.0||5.5||6.5||8.5||12.9||15.9||14.8||13.9||11.0||8.5||6.8||5.8||115.1|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||162.4||180.2||228.4||218.2||237.3||221.1||215.8||208.3||206.6||195.6||156.8||136.8||2,367.5|
|Source: China Meteorological Administration |
Administrative divisions 
|#||Name||Hanzi||Hanyu Pinyin||Population (2003 est.)||Area (km²)||Density (/km²)|
|1||Aimin District||爱民区||Àimín Qū||230,000||359||641|
|2||Dong'an District||东安区||Dōng'ān Qū||180,000||566||318|
|3||Yangming District||阳明区||Yángmíng Qū||160,000||358||447|
|4||Xi'an District||西安区||Xī'ān Qū||210,000||325||646|
|5||Muling City||穆棱市||Mùlíng Shì||330,000||6,094||54|
|6||Suifenhe City||绥芬河市||Suífēnhé Shi||60,000||427||141|
|7||Hailin City||海林市||Hǎilín Shì||440,000||9,877||45|
|8||Ning'an City||宁安市||Níng'ān Shì||440,000||7,870||56|
|9||Dongning County||东宁县||Dōngníng Xiàn||210,000||7,368||29|
|10||Linkou County||林口县||Línkǒu Xiàn||450,000||7,191||63|
In 2010, the city's GDP rose 18.5% to RMB 78.1 billion, ranked fourth in Heilongjiang Province after Harbin, Daqing and Qiqihar. Tourist industry and light manufacturing are the mainstays of Mudanjiang's economy. Mudanjiang's pillar industries include accessory industry for automobiles, paper making, forest industry, petrochemicals, new materials, pharmacy and energy industry. The foreign trade value increased 71.8% to US$9 billion in 2010, making up three-fourth of Heilongjiang Province's gross.
Development Zones 
- Mudanjiang to Russia Economic and Technological Development Zone
- Sino-Russian Information Industrial Garden
- Mudanjiang Jiangnan Economic and Technological Development Area
- Mudanjiang Bioindustry Development Zone
- Heilongjiang Northern Pharmaceutical Technological Development Zone
Mudanjiang is a railway hub in eastern Heilongjiang Province. Binsui(Harbin-Suifenhe) Railway and Tujia(Tumen-Jiamusi) Railway meet here. Trains from Mudanjiang Railway Station connect the city with Beijing, Jinan, Dalian, Harbin, Changchun and several other cities in China.
Mudanjiang Hailang Airport is the second largest international airport in Heilongjiang Province. It operates daily flights to Beijing, Dalian and several other major cities in China. In addition there are also scheduled international flights between Mudanjiang and Seoul and Inchoen in South Korea.
Mudanjiang is linked to the national highway network through the G11 Hegang–Dalian Expressway and Manzhouli-Suifenhe Highway.
International relations 
Mudanjiang is twinned with:
- Ussuriysk, Russia
- Municipality of Mosman, Australia
- Paju, South Korea
- Ōtsu, Japan
- Jyväskylä, Finland
- "2010年黑龙江省第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报（Sixth National Population Census of the People's Republic of China）". National Bureau of Statistics of China.
- "Several Problems about the History of Ancient Northeast". DU Xing-zhi(School of History,Culture and Tourism,Liaoning Normal University,Dalian,Liaoning,116029,China). 2006. Retrieved 2012-08-18.
- (Korean) "Sanggyeong Yongcheonbu", Naver encyclopedia
- (Korean) "Dongjingcheng site", Naver encyclopedia
- 牡丹江旅游局 (1990). 雪城牡丹江. 中国旅游出版社. ISBN 978-7-5032-2302-0.
- LTC David M. Glantz, "August Storm: The Soviet 1945 Strategic Offensive in Manchuria". Leavenworth Papers No. 7, Combat Studies Institute, February 1983, Fort Leavenworth Kansas.
- "中国地面国际交换站气候标准值月值数据集（1971－2000年）" (in Simplified Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Retrieved 2010-11-20.
- Profiles of China Provinces, Cities and Industrial Parks
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