Angiotensin II receptor type 2

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Angiotensin II receptor, type 2
Identifiers
Symbols AGTR2 ; AT2; ATGR2; MRX88
External IDs OMIM300034 MGI87966 HomoloGene20172 IUPHAR: AT2 ChEMBL: 4607 GeneCards: AGTR2 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE AGTR2 207294 at tn.png
PBB GE AGTR2 207293 s at tn.png
PBB GE AGTR2 222321 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 186 11609
Ensembl ENSG00000180772 ENSMUSG00000068122
UniProt P50052 P35374
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_000686 NM_007429
RefSeq (protein) NP_000677 NP_031455
Location (UCSC) Chr HG1463_PATCH:
115.29 – 115.29 Mb
Chr X:
21.48 – 21.49 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Angiotensin II receptor type 2, also known as the AT2 receptor is a protein that in humans is encoded by the AGTR2 gene.[1]

Function[edit]

Angiotensin II is a potent pressor hormone and a primary regulator of aldosterone secretion. It is an important effector controlling blood pressure and volume in the cardiovascular system. It acts through at least two types of receptors termed AT1 and AT2. AGTR2 belongs to a family 1 of G protein-coupled receptors. It is an integral membrane protein. It plays a role in the central nervous system and cardiovascular functions that are mediated by the renin-angiotensin system. This receptor mediates programmed cell death (apoptosis). In adults, it is highly expressed in myometrium with lower levels in adrenal gland and fallopian tube. It is highly expressed in fetal kidney and intestine. The human AGTR2 gene is composed of three exons and spans at least 5 kb. Exons 1 and 2 encode for 5' untranslated mRNA sequence and exon 3 harbors the entire uninterrupted open reading frame.[1]

Stimulation of AT2 by the selective agonist CGP 42112A increases mucosal nitric oxide production.[2]

Model organisms[edit]

Model organisms have been used in the study of AGTR2 function. A conditional knockout mouse line, called Agtr2tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi[5][6] was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium program — a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease to interested scientists — at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.[7][8][9]

Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion.[3][10] Twenty one tests were carried out on mutant mice, but no significant abnormalities were observed.[3]

Interactions[edit]

Angiotensin II receptor type 2 has been shown to interact with MTUS1.[11]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: AGTR2 angiotensin II receptor, type 2". 
  2. ^ Ewert S, Laesser M, Johansson B, Holm M, Aneman A, Fandriks L (March 2003). "The angiotensin II receptor type 2 agonist CGP 42112A stimulates NO production in the porcine jejunal mucosa". BMC Pharmacol. 3: 2. doi:10.1186/1471-2210-3-2. PMC 153509. PMID 12689346. 
  3. ^ a b c Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: High throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta Ophthalmologica 88 (S248). doi:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.4142.x. 
  4. ^ Mouse Resources Portal, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.
  5. ^ "International Knockout Mouse Consortium". 
  6. ^ "Mouse Genome Informatics". 
  7. ^ Skarnes, W. C.; Rosen, B.; West, A. P.; Koutsourakis, M.; Bushell, W.; Iyer, V.; Mujica, A. O.; Thomas, M.; Harrow, J.; Cox, T.; Jackson, D.; Severin, J.; Biggs, P.; Fu, J.; Nefedov, M.; De Jong, P. J.; Stewart, A. F.; Bradley, A. (2011). "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature 474 (7351): 337–342. doi:10.1038/nature10163. PMC 3572410. PMID 21677750.  edit
  8. ^ Dolgin E (June 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature 474 (7351): 262–3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718. 
  9. ^ Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell 128 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. 
  10. ^ van der Weyden L, White JK, Adams DJ, Logan DW (2011). "The mouse genetics toolkit: revealing function and mechanism.". Genome Biol 12 (6): 224. doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-224. PMC 3218837. PMID 21722353. 
  11. ^ Nouet S, Amzallag N, Li JM, Louis S, Seitz I, Cui TX, Alleaume AM, Di Benedetto M, Boden C, Masson M, Strosberg AD, Horiuchi M, Couraud PO, Nahmias C (July 2004). "Trans-inactivation of receptor tyrosine kinases by novel angiotensin II AT2 receptor-interacting protein, ATIP". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (28): 28989–97. doi:10.1074/jbc.M403880200. PMID 15123706. 

External links[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • de Gasparo M, Catt KJ, Inagami T, "" et al. (2000). "International union of pharmacology. XXIII. The angiotensin II receptors". Parmacol Rev. 52 (3): 415–472. PMID 10977869. 
  • D'Amore A, Black MJ, Thomas WG (2005). "The angiotensin II type 2 receptor causes constituative growth of cardiomyocytes and does not antagonize angiotensin II type 1 receptor-mediated hypertrophy". Hypertension 46 (6): 1347–1354. doi:10.1161/01.HYP.0000193504.51489.cf. PMID 16286564. 
  • Regitz-Zagrosek V, Neuss M, Warnecke C et al. (1997). "Subtype 2 and atypical angiotensin receptors in the human heart". Basic Res. Cardiol. 91 Suppl 2: 73–7. PMID 8957548. 
  • Berry C, Touyz R, Dominiczak AF et al. (2002). "Angiotensin receptors: signaling, vascular pathophysiology, and interactions with ceramide". Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 281 (6): H2337–65. PMID 11709400. 
  • Takayanagi R, Ohnaka K, Sakai Y et al. (1992). "Molecular cloning, sequence analysis and expression of a cDNA encoding human type-1 angiotensin II receptor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 183 (2): 910–6. doi:10.1016/0006-291X(92)90570-B. PMID 1550596. 
  • Hein L, Barsh GS, Pratt RE et al. (1995). "Behavioural and cardiovascular effects of disrupting the angiotensin II type-2 receptor in mice". Nature 377 (6551): 744–7. doi:10.1038/377744a0. PMID 7477266. 
  • Ichiki T, Labosky PA, Shiota C et al. (1995). "Effects on blood pressure and exploratory behaviour of mice lacking angiotensin II type-2 receptor". Nature 377 (6551): 748–50. doi:10.1038/377748a0. PMID 7477267. 
  • Lazard D, Briend-Sutren MM, Villageois P et al. (1995). "Molecular characterization and chromosome localization of a human angiotensin II AT2 receptor gene highly expressed in fetal tissues". Recept. Channels 2 (4): 271–80. PMID 7719706. 
  • Martin MM, Elton TS (1995). "The sequence and genomic organization of the human type 2 angiotensin II receptor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 209 (2): 554–62. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1995.1537. PMID 7733925. 
  • Chassagne C, Beatty BG, Meloche S (1995). "Assignment of the human angiotensin II type 2 receptor gene (AGTR2) to chromosome Xq22-q23 by fluorescence in situ hybridization". Genomics 25 (2): 601–3. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(95)80072-T. PMID 7790004. 
  • Koike G, Horiuchi M, Yamada T et al. (1994). "Human type 2 angiotensin II receptor gene: cloned, mapped to the X chromosome, and its mRNA is expressed in the human lung". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 203 (3): 1842–50. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.2402. PMID 7945336. 
  • Martin MM, Su B, Elton TS (1995). "Molecular cloning of the human angiotensin II type 2 receptor cDNA". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 205 (1): 645–51. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.2714. PMID 7999093. 
  • Tsuzuki S, Ichiki T, Nakakubo H et al. (1994). "Molecular cloning and expression of the gene encoding human angiotensin II type 2 receptor". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 200 (3): 1449–54. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1994.1613. PMID 8185599. 
  • Servant G, Boulay G, Bossé R et al. (1993). "Photoaffinity labeling of subtype 2 angiotensin receptor of human myometrium". Mol. Pharmacol. 43 (5): 677–83. PMID 8502225. 
  • Yamada T, Horiuchi M, Dzau VJ (1996). "Angiotensin II type 2 receptor mediates programmed cell death". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 93 (1): 156–60. doi:10.1073/pnas.93.1.156. PMC 40197. PMID 8552595. 
  • Zhang J, Pratt RE (1996). "The AT2 receptor selectively associates with Gialpha2 and Gialpha3 in the rat fetus". J. Biol. Chem. 271 (25): 15026–33. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.25.15026. PMID 8663053. 
  • Katsuya T, Horiuchi M, Minami S et al. (1997). "Genomic organization and polymorphism of human angiotensin II type 2 receptor: no evidence for its gene mutation in two families of human premature ovarian failure syndrome". Mol. Cell. Endocrinol. 127 (2): 221–8. doi:10.1016/S0303-7207(97)04011-2. PMID 9099917. 
  • Akishita M, Ito M, Lehtonen JY et al. (1999). "Expression of the AT2 receptor developmentally programs extracellular signal-regulated kinase activity and influences fetal vascular growth". J. Clin. Invest. 103 (1): 63–71. doi:10.1172/JCI5182. PMC 407869. PMID 9884335. 
  • Lehtonen JY, Daviet L, Nahmias C et al. (1999). "Analysis of functional domains of angiotensin II type 2 receptor involved in apoptosis". Mol. Endocrinol. 13 (7): 1051–60. doi:10.1210/me.13.7.1051. PMID 10406457. 
  • Knowle D, Ahmed S, Pulakat L (2000). "Identification of an interaction between the angiotensin II receptor sub-type AT2 and the ErbB3 receptor, a member of the epidermal growth factor receptor family". Regul. Pept. 87 (1–3): 73–82. doi:10.1016/S0167-0115(99)00111-1. PMID 10710290. 
  • Hansen JL, Servant G, Baranski TJ et al. (2000). "Functional reconstitution of the angiotensin II type 2 receptor and G(i) activation". Circ. Res. 87 (9): 753–9. PMID 11055978. 

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.