Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) regulates numerous functions of the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including release of gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle cell contraction, and epithelial cell proliferation and is a potent mitogen for neoplastic tissues. The effects of GRP are mediated through the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor. This receptor is a glycosylated, 7-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptor that activates the phospholipase C signaling pathway. The receptor is aberrantly expressed in numerous cancers such as those of the lung, colon, and prostate. An individual with autism and multiple exostoses was found to have a balanced translocation between chromosome 8 and a chromosome X breakpoint located within the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor gene.
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