GPR126

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ADGRG6
Identifiers
AliasesADGRG6, APG1, DREG, PS1TP2, VIGR, GPR126, LCCS9, adhesion G protein-coupled receptor G6, PR126
External IDsMGI: 1916151 HomoloGene: 10724 GeneCards: ADGRG6
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 6 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 6 (human)[1]
Chromosome 6 (human)
Genomic location for ADGRG6
Genomic location for ADGRG6
Band6q24.2Start142,301,854 bp[1]
End142,446,266 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE GPR126 213094 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001032394
NM_001032395
NM_020455
NM_198569

NM_001002268

RefSeq (protein)

NP_001027566
NP_001027567
NP_065188
NP_940971

NP_001002268

Location (UCSC)Chr 6: 142.3 – 142.45 MbChr 10: 14.4 – 14.55 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

G protein-coupled receptor 126 also known as VIGR and DREG is a protein encoded by the ADGRG6 gene.[5][6][7] GPR126 is a member of the adhesion GPCR family.[8][9] Adhesion GPCRs are characterized by an extended extracellular region often possessing N-terminal protein modules that is linked to a TM7 region via a domain known as the GPCR-Autoproteolysis INducing (GAIN) domain.[10]

GPR126 is all widely expressed on stromal cells.[11] The N-terminal fragment of GPR126 contains C1r-C1s, Uegf and Bmp1 (CUB), and PTX-like modules.[12]

Ligand[edit]

GPR126 was shown to bind collagen IV and laminin-211 promoting cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) to mediate myelination.[13][14]

Signaling[edit]

Upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or thrombin stimulation, expression of GPR126 is induced by MAP kinases in endothelial cells.[12] During angiogenesis, GPR126 promotes protein kinase A (PKA)–cAMP-activated signaling in endothelial cells.[15] Forced GPR126 expression in COS-7 cells enhances cAMP levels by coupling to heterotrimeric Gαs/i proteins.[16]

Function[edit]

GPR126 has been identified in genomic regions associated with adult height, more specially trunk height,[17][18][19] pulmonary function[20] and adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.[21] In the vertebrate nervous system, many axons are surrounded by a myelin sheath to conduct action potentials rapidly and efficiently. Applying a genetic screen in zebrafish mutants, Talbot’s group demonstrated that GPR126 affects the development of myelinated axons.[22] GPR126 drives the differentiation of Schwann cells through inducing cAMP levels, which causes Oct6 transcriptional activities to promote myelin gene activity.[23] Mutation of gpr126 in zebrafish affects peripheral myelination. Monk’s group demonstrated domain-specific functions of GPR126 during Schwann cells development: the NTF is necessary and sufficient for axon sorting, while the CTF promotes wrapping through cAMP induction to regulate early and late stages of Schwann cells development.[14]

Outside of neurons, GPR126 function is required for heart and inner ear development.[24][25][26] GPR126 stimulates VEGF signaling and angiogenesis by modulating VEGF receptor 2 (VEGFR2) expression through STAT5 and GATA2 in endothelial cells.[15]

Disease[edit]

Mouse models have shown GPR126 deletion to affect cartilage biology and spinal column development,[27] supporting findings that variants of GPR126 have been associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis,[21] and Mutations have been shown to be responsible for severe arthrogryposis multiplex congenita [28]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000112414 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000039116 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  5. ^ Fredriksson R, Gloriam DE, Höglund PJ, Lagerström MC, Schiöth HB (February 2003). "There exist at least 30 human G-protein-coupled receptors with long Ser/Thr-rich N-termini". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 301 (3): 725–34. doi:10.1016/S0006-291X(03)00026-3. PMID 12565841. 
  6. ^ "Entrez Gene: GPR126 G protein-coupled receptor 126". 
  7. ^ Hamann J, Aust G, Araç D, Engel FB, Formstone C, Fredriksson R, Hall RA, Harty BL, Kirchhoff C, Knapp B, Krishnan A, Liebscher I, Lin HH, Martinelli DC, Monk KR, Peeters MC, Piao X, Prömel S, Schöneberg T, Schwartz TW, Singer K, Stacey M, Ushkaryov YA, Vallon M, Wolfrum U, Wright MW, Xu L, Langenhan T, Schiöth HB (April 2015). "International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIV. Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors". Pharmacological Reviews. 67 (2): 338–67. doi:10.1124/pr.114.009647. PMC 4394687Freely accessible. PMID 25713288. 
  8. ^ Stacey M, Yona S (2011). Adhesion-GPCRs: Structure to Function (Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology). Berlin: Springer. ISBN 1-4419-7912-3. 
  9. ^ Langenhan T, Aust G, Hamann J (May 2013). "Sticky signaling--adhesion class G protein-coupled receptors take the stage". Science Signaling. 6 (276): re3. doi:10.1126/scisignal.2003825. PMID 23695165. 
  10. ^ Araç D, Boucard AA, Bolliger MF, Nguyen J, Soltis SM, Südhof TC, Brunger AT (March 2012). "A novel evolutionarily conserved domain of cell-adhesion GPCRs mediates autoproteolysis". The EMBO Journal. 31 (6): 1364–78. doi:10.1038/emboj.2012.26. PMC 3321182Freely accessible. PMID 22333914. 
  11. ^ Hamann J, Aust G, Araç D, Engel FB, Formstone C, Fredriksson R, Hall RA, Harty BL, Kirchhoff C, Knapp B, Krishnan A, Liebscher I, Lin HH, Martinelli DC, Monk KR, Peeters MC, Piao X, Prömel S, Schöneberg T, Schwartz TW, Singer K, Stacey M, Ushkaryov YA, Vallon M, Wolfrum U, Wright MW, Xu L, Langenhan T, Schiöth HB (Apr 2015). "International Union of Basic and Clinical Pharmacology. XCIV. Adhesion G protein-coupled receptors". Pharmacological Reviews. 67 (2): 338–67. doi:10.1124/pr.114.009647. PMC 4394687Freely accessible. PMID 25713288. 
  12. ^ a b Stehlik C, Kroismayr R, Dorfleutner A, Binder BR, Lipp J (July 2004). "VIGR--a novel inducible adhesion family G-protein coupled receptor in endothelial cells". FEBS Letters. 569 (1-3): 149–55. doi:10.1016/j.febslet.2004.05.038. PMID 15225624. 
  13. ^ Paavola KJ, Sidik H, Zuchero JB, Eckart M, Talbot WS (August 2014). "Type IV collagen is an activating ligand for the adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR126". Science Signaling. 7 (338): ra76. doi:10.1126/scisignal.2005347. PMC 4159047Freely accessible. PMID 25118328. 
  14. ^ a b Petersen SC, Luo R, Liebscher I, Giera S, Jeong SJ, Mogha A, Ghidinelli M, Feltri ML, Schöneberg T, Piao X, Monk KR (February 2015). "The adhesion GPCR GPR126 has distinct, domain-dependent functions in Schwann cell development mediated by interaction with laminin-211". Neuron. 85 (4): 755–69. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2014.12.057. PMC 4335265Freely accessible. PMID 25695270. 
  15. ^ a b Cui H, Wang Y, Huang H, Yu W, Bai M, Zhang L, Bryan BA, Wang Y, Luo J, Li D, Ma Y, Liu M (December 2014). "GPR126 protein regulates developmental and pathological angiogenesis through modulation of VEGFR2 receptor signaling". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 289 (50): 34871–85. doi:10.1074/jbc.M114.571000. PMC 4263886Freely accessible. PMID 25217645. 
  16. ^ Mogha A, Benesh AE, Patra C, Engel FB, Schöneberg T, Liebscher I, Monk KR (November 2013). "Gpr126 functions in Schwann cells to control differentiation and myelination via G-protein activation". The Journal of Neuroscience. 33 (46): 17976–85. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1809-13.2013. PMC 3828454Freely accessible. PMID 24227709. 
  17. ^ Gudbjartsson DF, Walters GB, Thorleifsson G, Stefansson H, Halldorsson BV, Zusmanovich P, et al. (May 2008). "Many sequence variants affecting diversity of adult human height". Nature Genetics. 40 (5): 609–15. doi:10.1038/ng.122. PMID 18391951. 
  18. ^ Lettre G, Jackson AU, Gieger C, Schumacher FR, Berndt SI, Sanna S, et al. (May 2008). "Identification of ten loci associated with height highlights new biological pathways in human growth". Nature Genetics. 40 (5): 584–91. doi:10.1038/ng.125. PMC 2687076Freely accessible. PMID 18391950. 
  19. ^ Soranzo N, Rivadeneira F, Chinappen-Horsley U, Malkina I, Richards JB, Hammond N, et al. (April 2009). "Meta-analysis of genome-wide scans for human adult stature identifies novel Loci and associations with measures of skeletal frame size". PLoS Genetics. 5 (4): e1000445. doi:10.1371/journal.pgen.1000445. PMC 2661236Freely accessible. PMID 19343178. 
  20. ^ Hancock DB, Eijgelsheim M, Wilk JB, Gharib SA, Loehr LR, Marciante KD, et al. (January 2010). "Meta-analyses of genome-wide association studies identify multiple loci associated with pulmonary function". Nature Genetics. 42 (1): 45–52. doi:10.1038/ng.500. PMC 2832852Freely accessible. PMID 20010835. 
  21. ^ a b Kou I, Takahashi Y, Johnson TA, Takahashi A, Guo L, Dai J, et al. (June 2013). "Genetic variants in GPR126 are associated with adolescent idiopathic scoliosis". Nature Genetics. 45 (6): 676–9. doi:10.1038/ng.2639. PMID 23666238. 
  22. ^ Pogoda HM, Sternheim N, Lyons DA, Diamond B, Hawkins TA, Woods IG, et al. (October 2006). "A genetic screen identifies genes essential for development of myelinated axons in zebrafish". Developmental Biology. 298 (1): 118–31. doi:10.1016/j.ydbio.2006.06.021. PMID 16875686. 
  23. ^ Monk KR, Naylor SG, Glenn TD, Mercurio S, Perlin JR, Dominguez C, Moens CB, Talbot WS (September 2009). "A G protein-coupled receptor is essential for Schwann cells to initiate myelination". Science. 325 (5946): 1402–5. doi:10.1126/science.1173474. PMC 2856697Freely accessible. PMID 19745155. 
  24. ^ Waller-Evans H, Prömel S, Langenhan T, Dixon J, Zahn D, Colledge WH, Doran J, Carlton MB, Davies B, Aparicio SA, Grosse J, Russ AP (November 2010). "The orphan adhesion-GPCR GPR126 is required for embryonic development in the mouse". PLOS One. 5 (11): e14047. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0014047. PMC 2987804Freely accessible. PMID 21124978. 
  25. ^ Patra C, van Amerongen MJ, Ghosh S, Ricciardi F, Sajjad A, Novoyatleva T, Mogha A, Monk KR, Mühlfeld C, Engel FB (October 2013). "Organ-specific function of adhesion G protein-coupled receptor GPR126 is domain-dependent". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 110 (42): 16898–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.1304837110. PMC 3801000Freely accessible. PMID 24082093. 
  26. ^ Geng FS, Abbas L, Baxendale S, Holdsworth CJ, Swanson AG, Slanchev K, Hammerschmidt M, Topczewski J, Whitfield TT (November 2013). "Semicircular canal morphogenesis in the zebrafish inner ear requires the function of gpr126 (lauscher), an adhesion class G protein-coupled receptor gene". Development. 140 (21): 4362–74. doi:10.1242/dev.098061. PMC 4007713Freely accessible. PMID 24067352. 
  27. ^ Karner CM, Long F, Solnica-Krezel L, Monk KR, Gray RS (August 2015). "Gpr126/Adgrg6 deletion in cartilage models idiopathic scoliosis and pectus excavatum in mice". Human Molecular Genetics. 24 (15): 4365–73. doi:10.1093/hmg/ddv170. PMC 4492399Freely accessible. PMID 25954032. 
  28. ^ Ravenscroft G, Nolent F, Rajagopalan S, Meireles AM, Paavola KJ, Gaillard D, et al. (June 2015). "Mutations of GPR126 are responsible for severe arthrogryposis multiplex congenita". American Journal of Human Genetics. 96 (6): 955–61. doi:10.1016/j.ajhg.2015.04.014. PMC 4457946Freely accessible. PMID 26004201. 

External links[edit]