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Opsin 1 (cone pigments), long-wave-sensitive
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
External IDs OMIM300822 MGI1097692 HomoloGene68064 GeneCards: OPN1LW Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE OPN1LW 221327 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 5956 14539
Ensembl ENSG00000102076 ENSMUSG00000031394
UniProt P04000 O35599
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_020061 NM_008106
RefSeq (protein) NP_064445 NP_032132
Location (UCSC) Chr X:
154.14 – 154.16 Mb
Chr X:
74.13 – 74.15 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Red-sensitive opsin is a protein that in humans is encoded by the OPN1LW gene.[1]


This gene encodes for a light absorbing visual pigment of the opsin gene family. The encoded protein is called red cone photopigment or long-wavelength sensitive opsin (LWS opsin or L opsin). Contrary to popular belief, the human red-sensitive opsin's peak response is not in the red region of the visual spectrum; its peak sensitivity is 560 nm, which corresponds to a "yellowish-green" color, i.e. between green (530 nm) and yellow (580 nm).[2] Its name as the "red" opsin reflects the fact that it is more sensitive to red than the other two human opsins. The red opsin also has a secondary response in the violet high frequencies.[3]

Opsins are G-protein coupled receptors with seven transmembrane domains, an N-terminal extracellular domain, and a C-terminal cytoplasmic domain. This gene and the medium-wavelength opsin gene are tandemly arrayed on the X chromosome and frequent unequal recombination and gene conversion may occur between these sequences. X chromosomes may have fusions of the medium- and long-wavelength opsin genes or may have more than one copy of these genes. Defects in this gene are the cause of partial, protanopic colorblindness.[1]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: OPN1LW opsin 1 (cone pigments), long-wave-sensitive (color blindness, protan)". 
  2. ^ Solomon SG, Lennie P (2007). "The machinery of colour vision". Nat. Rev. Neurosci. 8 (4): 276–86. doi:10.1038/nrn2094. PMID 17375040. 
  3. ^ "Mathpages". 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.