United States presidential election, 2016

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
United States presidential election, 2016
United States
2012 ←
November 8, 2016 → 2020
538 electoral votes of the Electoral College
270 electoral votes needed to win

Electoral College 2016.svg

The electoral map for the 2016 election, based on populations from the 2010 census

Incumbent President

Barack Obama

The United States presidential election of 2016, scheduled for Tuesday, November 8, 2016, will be the 58th quadrennial U.S. presidential election. Voters will select presidential electors who in turn will elect a new president and vice president through the electoral college. The Twenty-second Amendment to the United States Constitution prevents the incumbent, President Barack Obama, from running for a third term.


Article Two of the United States Constitution provides that for a person to be elected and serve as President of the United States, the individual must be a natural-born citizen of the United States, at least 35 years old, and a resident of the United States for a period of no less than 14 years. Candidates for the presidency typically seek the nomination of one of the various political parties of the United States, in which case each party devises a method (such as a primary election) to choose the candidate the party deems best suited to run for the position. The primary elections are usually indirect elections where voters cast ballots for a slate of party delegates pledged to a particular candidate. The party's delegates then officially nominate a candidate to run on the party's behalf. The general election in November is also an indirect election, where voters cast ballots for a slate of members of the Electoral College; these electors in turn directly elect the President and Vice President.

The incumbent, President Barack Obama, a Democrat and former U.S. Senator from Illinois, is ineligible to seek reelection to a third term due to restrictions of the Twenty-second Amendment; his term expires on January 20, 2017. In the 2008 election, Obama was elected president, defeating the Republican nominee, Senator John McCain of Arizona, receiving 52.9% of the popular vote and 68% of the electoral vote.[1][2]

2010 midterm elections[edit]

In the 2010 midterm elections, the Democratic Party suffered significant losses in Congress; the Republicans gained 63 seats in the House of Representatives (thus taking control of the chamber), and 6 seats in the Senate despite retaining an overall majority. As a result of the Republicans' recapture of the House, John Boehner became the 61st Speaker of the House of Representatives. This made Obama the first President in 16 years to lose the House of Representatives in the first half of his first term, in an election that was characterized by the economy's slow recovery, and the rise of the Tea Party movement.[3]

2012 election[edit]

In the 2012 election, incumbent President Barack Obama defeated former Massachusetts Governor Mitt Romney, with 51.1% of the popular vote and 332 (or 61.7%) of 538 electoral votes.[4] On election day CNN published an opinion piece listing “21 moments that defined the campaign and America”.[5] Meanwhile, Republicans retained their majority of seats in the House of Representatives despite minor losses, while Democrats increased their majority in the Senate.[2]

During his second term, President Obama's approval ratings have been listed by Gallup as between 40 and 50 percent.[6][7][8][9]

Speculation about the 2016 campaign began almost immediately following the 2012 campaign, with New York magazine declaring the race had begun in an article published on November 8, 2012, two days after the 2012 election.[10] On the same day, Politico released an article predicting the 2016 general election may be between Hillary Clinton and Jeb Bush, while a New York Times article named Chris Christie and Cory Booker as potential candidates.[11][12]

2014 midterm elections[edit]

In the 2014 midterm elections, the Republicans retained control of the House of Representatives, increasing their majority to its largest level since 1928.[13] Republicans also gained a majority in the Senate for the first time since the Democrats took control of the chamber after the 2006 elections, thus turning over the entire Congress to the Republican Party.[13]

Democratic Party[edit]

Former First Lady, former Senator from New York, and former Secretary of State Hillary Clinton became the first Democrat to announce a candidacy for the presidency, which she did via a video on April 12, 2015.[14] Nationwide opinion polls in 2015 have indicated that Clinton is the front-runner for the 2016 Democratic presidential nomination, but faces challenges from Independent Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders.[15] Sanders became the second candidate when he made a formal announcement on April 30 that he was running for the Democratic nomination.[16] September 2015 polling numbers indicated a narrowing of the gap between Clinton and Sanders.[17][15][18] Former Governor of Maryland Martin O'Malley was the third candidate to enter the race, which he did on May 30, 2015.[19] Lincoln Chafee, former Independent Governor and Republican Senator of Rhode Island, announced his candidacy on June 3, 2015.[20][21] Former Virginia Senator Jim Webb announced his candidacy on July 2, 2015.[22] Harvard law professor Lawrence Lessig announced his candidacy on September 6, 2015.[23]

Declared candidates[edit]

Individuals included in this section have taken one or both of the following actions: formally announced their candidacy for the Democratic Party's presidential nomination; filed as a Democratic presidential candidate with the Federal Election Commission (FEC) (for other than exploratory purposes). Candidates are listed alphabetically by surname.

Candidates featured in major polls[edit]

Democratic Party (United States)
Candidates included in this section have been listed in five or more major independent nationwide polls
Lincoln Chafee Hillary Clinton Lawrence Lessig Martin O'Malley Bernie Sanders Jim Webb
Lincoln Chafee official portrait (cropped).jpg
HRC in Iowa APR 2015.jpg
Governor O'Malley Portrait (cropped).jpg
Bernie Sanders (21581179719 571bb5a7ab c) (cropped).jpg
Jim Webb official 110th Congress photo (cropped).jpg
Governor of Rhode Island
Secretary of State
Professor of Law at Harvard Law School
Governor of Maryland
U.S. Senator from Vermont
U.S. Senator from Virginia

Other candidates[edit]

The following notable individuals have taken one or both of the following actions: formally announced their candidacy; filed as a candidate with FEC.

Publicly expressed interest[edit]

As of October 2015, the following potential candidate has expressed interest in running for president within the past three months.

Republican Party[edit]

United States Senator from Texas Ted Cruz became the first major candidate to announce a campaign in the 2016 election, which he did on March 23, 2015.[46][47] Kentucky Senator Rand Paul became the next candidate to announce on April 7, 2015.[48] Marco Rubio, Senator of Florida, became the next candidate, announcing on April 13.[49][50] Both neurosurgeon Ben Carson and businesswoman Carly Fiorina announced their candidacies on May 4, 2015.[51][52] Mike Huckabee, former Governor of Arkansas and 2008 presidential candidate, announced his candidacy the next day.[53] 2012 presidential candidate and former Senator from Pennsylvania Rick Santorum announced his campaign on May 27.[54] Former New York Governor George Pataki was the next to announce, doing so on May 28, 2015.[55] Lindsey Graham, Senator from South Carolina, announced he was running on June 1.[56] Former Governor of Texas Rick Perry, who also ran in 2012, announced he was running again on June 4.[57] Former Governor of Florida Jeb Bush joined the race on June 15.[58] Real estate developer and reality TV host Donald Trump announced he was running on June 16.[59] Bobby Jindal, Governor of Louisiana, announced his campaign on June 24.[60] Governor Chris Christie of New Jersey announced he was running on June 30.[61] Governor of Wisconsin Scott Walker announced his candidacy on July 13.[62] Ohio Governor John Kasich announced his run on July 21.[63] Former Virginia Governor Jim Gilmore was the most recent Republican candidate to announce his candidacy, which he did on July 30, 2015.[64] On September 11, 2015, Rick Perry withdrew from the race. Scott Walker withdrew on September 21.

Declared candidates[edit]

Individuals included in this section have taken one or both of the following actions: formally announced their candidacy for the Republican Party's presidential nomination; filed as a Republican presidential candidate with the Federal Election Commission (FEC) (for other than exploratory purposes). Candidates are listed alphabetically by surname.

Candidates featured in major polls[edit]

Republican Party (United States)
Candidates included in this section have been listed in five or more major independent nationwide polls
Jeb Bush Ben Carson Chris Christie Ted Cruz Carly Fiorina
Jeb Bush August 2015.jpg
Dr. Ben Carson in New Hampshire on August 13th, 2015 1 by Michael Vadon 17 (cropped).jpg
Chris Christie April 2015 (cropped).jpg
Ted Cruz, official portrait, 113th Congress (cropped 2).jpg
Carly Fiorina August 2015.jpg
Governor of Florida
Director of Pediatric Neurosurgery,
Johns Hopkins Hospital
Governor of New Jersey
U.S. Senator from Texas
CEO of Hewlett-Packard
Jim Gilmore Lindsey Graham Mike Huckabee Bobby Jindal John Kasich
Jim Gilmore 2015.jpg
Lindsey Graham, official Senate photo portrait cropped.jpg
Mike Huckabee at 2014 CPAC (cropped).jpg
Governor of Louisiana Bobby Jindal at New Hampshire Education Summit The Seventy-Four August 19th, 2015 by Michael Vadon 132 (cropped).jpg
Governor John Kasich.jpg
Governor of Virginia
U.S. Senator from South Carolina
Governor of Arkansas
Governor of Louisiana
Governor of Ohio
George Pataki Rand Paul Marco Rubio Rick Santorum Donald Trump
George Pataki August 2015.jpg
Rand Paul, official portrait, 112th Congress.jpg
Marco Rubio, Official Portrait, 112th Congress.jpg
Sen. Rick Santorum May 2015.jpg
Donald Trump September 3 2015.jpg
Governor of New York
U.S. Senator from Kentucky
U.S. Senator from Florida
U.S. Senator from Pennsylvania
Chairman of
The Trump Organization

Other candidates[edit]

The following notable individuals have taken one or both of the following actions: formally announced their candidacy; filed as a candidate with FEC.

Withdrawn candidates[edit]

Third party and Independent[edit]

Declared candidates[edit]

Individuals included in this section have taken one or more of the following actions: formally announced their candidacy for the presidential nomination of a minor party; formally announced intention to run as an independent candidate; filed as a minor party or non-affiliated candidate with the FEC (for other than exploratory purposes). Candidates are listed by minor party and then alphabetically by surname.

American Freedom Party[edit]

Further information: American Freedom Party

Ballot Access: Mississippi (6 electoral votes)[106]

  • Bob Whitaker, political activist from South Carolina.[107] Vice-Presidential nominee: Vacant

Constitution Party[edit]

Ballot Access: Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Florida, Idaho, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Nevada, New Mexico, Oregon, South Carolina, Utah, Wisconsin, Wyoming (129 electoral votes)[108][109]

Publicly expressed interest[edit]

Green Party[edit]

Ballot Access: Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Washington D.C., Florida, Hawaii, Louisiana, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Michigan, Mississippi, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, West Virginia, Wisconsin (296 Electoral Votes)[112][113]

Declared candidates[edit]

Formally exploring a candidacy[edit]

Libertarian Party[edit]

Ballot Access: Alaska, Arizona, Arkansas, California, Colorado, Delaware, Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Idaho, Indiana, Kansas, Louisiana, Maryland, Michigan, Mississippi, Missouri, Montana, Nebraska, Nevada, New Mexico, North Carolina, North Dakota, Oregon, South Carolina, Texas, Utah, Vermont, West Virginia, Wisconsin, Wyoming (325 electoral votes)[118]

Declared candidates[edit]

Publicly expressed interest[edit]

Party for Socialism and Liberation[edit]

Ballot Access: Florida (29 electoral votes)[124]

Peace and Freedom Party[edit]

Further information: Peace and Freedom Party

Ballot Access: California, Florida (84 electoral votes)[126][127]

Declared candidates[edit]

Prohibition Party[edit]

Further information: Prohibition Party

Ballot Access: None (0 electoral votes)[129]

  • James Hedges, Tax Assessor for Thompson Township, Fulton County, Pennsylvania 2002–2007.[130] Vice-Presidential nominee: Bill Bayes of Mississippi[130]

Veterans Party of America[edit]

Further information: Veterans Party of America

Ballot Access: Mississippi (6 electoral votes)[131]

  • Chris Keniston, Reliability Engineer from Texas.[132] Vice-Presidential nominee: Deacon Taylor of Nevada [133]

Declared candidates without a specified affiliation[edit]

Potential battleground states[edit]

Further information: Swing state

In every state except Maine and Nebraska, the winner of the popular vote in the state wins all of the electoral votes of the state (although state legislatures can, by law, change how electors are elected).[145] Maine and Nebraska use the "congressional district method," in which the winner of the state receives two electoral votes and candidates receive additional electoral votes for each congressional district that they win. Recent presidential campaigns have generally focused their resources on a relatively small number of competitive states.[146][147] Potential battleground states include Nevada, Colorado, Iowa, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, New Hampshire, Virginia, North Carolina, and Florida.[148][149] Other potential Democratic targets include Nebraska's second congressional district, Missouri, Arizona, Georgia, and Texas.[148][149] Meanwhile, Republicans may also target Maine's second congressional district, Oregon, New Mexico, Minnesota, and New Jersey.[150][149] Other states may also become competitive if the close races of 2016 differ from the close races of the 2012 election, or if 2016 becomes a landslide election. Both major parties might decide to target the home states of their nominees or that of their running mates if they are from a swing state or have high favorability in the state or region.

Party conventions[edit]

Map of United States showing Philadelphia, Cleveland, and Orlando
Salt Lake City
Salt Lake City
Sites of the 2016 national party conventions.
Constitution Party
Libertarian Party
Republican Party
Democratic Party
Green Party


Primary election debates[edit]

Main articles:

General presidential election debates[edit]

Map of United States showing debate locations
   Wright State UniversityDayton, Ohio
   Wright State University
Dayton, Ohio
Longwood UniversityFarmville, Virginia
Longwood University
Farmville, Virginia
University of NevadaLas Vegas
University of Nevada
Las Vegas
Washington UniversitySt. Louis, Missouri
Washington University
St. Louis, Missouri
Sites of the 2016 General Election Debates

The three locations which will host the presidential debates, and the one location selected to host the vice presidential debate, were announced on September 23, 2015.[158][159][160]

Debates among candidates for the 2016 U.S. presidential election
No. Date Time Host City Moderator Participants
 P  Participant.   N  Non-invitee.   A  Absent invitee.    Democratic Republican
   September 26, 2016   
Wright State University
Ohio Flag Map Accurate.png
   Dayton, Ohio   
October 4, 2016
Longwood University
Flag-map of Virginia.svg
   Farmville, Virginia   
October 9, 2016
   Washington University in St. Louis   
Flag-map of Missouri.svg
   St. Louis, Missouri   
October 19, 2016
University of Nevada, Las Vegas
Flag-map of Nevada.svg
   Las Vegas, Nevada   
Hofstra University in Hempstead, New York will serve as the backup debate location.[160]
       = Officially sanctioned and sponsored by the Commission on Presidential Debates

Debate lawsuit[edit]

On June 22, 2015, the advocacy group Level the Playing Field, along with Peter Ackerman, the Green Party, and the Libertarian National Committee, filed a complaint for declaratory and injunctive relief against the Federal Election Commission in the United States District Court for the District of Columbia alleging that its failure to uphold debate fairness laws and address the corruption of the CPD after multiple unresolved requests to do so intentionally excluded third parties from the election process.[161][162] The FEC did take up the original complaint in a July 16 meeting, with a motion to open rulemaking failing 2–4 (Commissioners Ravel (D) and Weintraub (D) voting aye and Commissioners Goodman (R), Hunter (R), Petersen (R), and Walther (D) voting no).[163][164] Because the original complaint became moot after that meeting, the plaintiffs filed another complaint on August 27.[165]

Opinion polling[edit]

General election polling
Democratic primary polling
Republican primary polling

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "United States House of Representatives floor summary for Jan 8, 2009". Clerk.house.gov. Retrieved January 30, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b "FEDERAL ELECTIONS 2008" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  3. ^ "MID-TERM ELECTIONS 2010: Democrats lose the House in Republican tsunami". Daily Mail Online. 
  4. ^ "President Map". New York Times. November 29, 2012. Retrieved 11 May 2015. 
  5. ^ Abdullah, Hamilah (November 6, 2015). "21 moments that defined the campaign and America". CNN. Retrieved July 5, 2015. 
  6. ^ "Gallup Daily: Obama Job Approval". Gallup. May 10, 2015. Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  7. ^ Sabato, Larry J. (April 17, 2015). "Clinton’s Real Opponent: Barack Obama". Politico. Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  8. ^ Cohn, Nate (January 16, 2015). "What a Rise in Obama’s Approval Rating Means for 2016". New York Times. Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  9. ^ "President Obama Job Approval", RealClearPolitics.
  10. ^ Amira, Dan (November 8, 2012). "Let the 2016 Campaign Season Begin!". New York Magazine. Retrieved July 5, 2015. 
  11. ^ Martin, Johnathon; Haberman, Maggie (November 8, 2012). "2016 election: Hillary Clinton vs. Jeb Bush?". Politico. Retrieved July 5, 2015. 
  12. ^ Barbaro, Micharl (November 8, 2012). "After Obama, Christie Wants a G.O.P. Hug". New York Times. Retrieved July 5, 2015. 
  13. ^ a b "2014 Election Results". Politico. December 17, 2014. Retrieved May 11, 2015. 
  14. ^ Keith, Tamara; Montanar, Domenico (April 10, 2015). "Hillary Clinton Expected To Go Small With Big Announcement". NPR. Retrieved April 12, 2015. 
  15. ^ a b "Second straight poll shows Bernie Sanders leading in New Hampshire". Boston.com. Retrieved August 26, 2015. 
  16. ^ Merica, Dan (April 30, 2015). "Bernie Sanders is running for president". CNN. Retrieved 6 July 2015. 
  17. ^ "Bernie Sanders surpasses Hillary Clinton in New Hampshire polls". Huffington Post.com. August 25, 2015. Retrieved August 25, 2015. 
  18. ^ "Huffpost Pollster". Huffington Post.com. October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015. 
  19. ^ a b Jackson, David & Cooper, Allen (May 30, 2015). "Martin O'Malley jumps into presidential race". USA Today. Retrieved May 30, 2015. 
  20. ^ a b DelReal, Jose A. (June 3, 2015). "Lincoln Chafee announces long-shot presidential bid". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 3, 2015. 
  21. ^ "Rhode Island's Chafee enters 2016 Democratic contest". Boston Herald. Associated Press. June 3, 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2015. 
  22. ^ a b Catanese, David (July 2, 2015). "Jim Webb Announces For President". U.S. News & World Report. Retrieved July 2, 2015. 
  23. ^ a b Meyer, Theodoric (September 6, 2015). "Lessig: I'm running for president". Slate. Retrieved September 7, 2015. 
  24. ^ "Lincoln Chafee FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015. 
  25. ^ Chozick, Amy. "Hillary Clinton Announces 2016 Presidential Bid". The New York Times. Retrieved April 12, 2015. 
  26. ^ Karni, Annie (April 12, 2015). "Hillary Clinton formally announces 2016 run". Politico. Retrieved April 18, 2015. 
  27. ^ "Hillary Rodham Clinton FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. April 13, 2015. Retrieved April 13, 2015. 
  28. ^ "Lawrence Lessig FEC filing". FEC. August 11, 2015. Retrieved September 7, 2015. 
  29. ^ "Martin O'Malley FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. May 29, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  30. ^ Rappeport, Alan (April 30, 2015). "Bernie Sanders Announces He Is Running for President". The New York Times. Retrieved April 30, 2015. 
  31. ^ "Bernard Sanders FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. April 28, 2015. Retrieved May 2, 2015. 
  32. ^ "Democrat Jim Webb joins 2016 White House race". Fox News. July 2, 2015. Retrieved July 2, 2015. 
  33. ^ "Jim Webb FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. July 14, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2015. 
  34. ^ Walker, Hunter (December 26, 2012). "Conspiracy Theorist Jeff Boss Launches Mayoral Bid". Politicker Network. Retrieved June 23, 2013. 
  35. ^ "Jeff Boss FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. August 25, 2014. Retrieved April 13, 2015. 
  36. ^ "Harry Braun FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. May 28, 2015. Retrieved August 27, 2015. 
  37. ^ Burns, Michael (October 30, 2014) "Presidential candidate visits his old home in Greer", The Greenville News. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
  38. ^ Palmes-Dennis, Susan (November 1, 2013) "Democratic presidential aspirant lays out game plan for US", Sun.Star. Retrieved November 22, 2013
  39. ^ "Robert Carr Wells Jr. FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. November 11, 2013. Retrieved April 13, 2015. 
  40. ^ Willie Wilson Throws Hat In the Ring to Bid for President Chicago Defender. May 12, 2015. Accessed June 3, 2015.
  41. ^ Chicago businessman Willie Wilson running for president WGN-TV. June 1, 2015. Accessed June 3, 2015.
  42. ^ "Willie Wilson FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. May 13, 2015. Retrieved June 3, 2015. 
  43. ^ Walshe, Shushannah (September 4, 2015) "The Note: Joe Biden's Arduous Decision", ABC News. Retrieved September 4, 2015.
  44. ^ Bacon, Jr., Perry (September 30, 2015) "Biden 2016 Is a Surprise — Even to Joe Biden", NBCNews.com. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
  45. ^ Zeleny, Jeff (October 1, 2015) "First on CNN: Biden expected to skip first Democratic debate", CNN.com. Retrieved October 1, 2016.
  46. ^ Martin, Nathan; Maggie Haberman (22 March 2015). "Ted Cruz Hopes Early Campaign Entry Will Focus Voters' Attention". The New York Times. Retrieved 24 March 2015. 
  47. ^ "Ted Cruz Announces Presidential Bid". NBC News. March 23, 2015. Retrieved March 23, 2015. 
  48. ^ Camia, Catalina (April 7, 2015). "Rand Paul announces presidential run". USA Today. Retrieved April 7, 2015. 
  49. ^ Jaffe, Alexandra; Bash, Dana (April 13, 2015) "He's in: Marco Rubio announces presidential bid", CNN. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  50. ^ Leary, Alex (April 13, 2015). "Marco Rubio, Casting Himself as a Leader for a New Generation, is Running for President". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved April 14, 2015. 
  51. ^ Katie, Glueck (April 14, 2015). "Ben Carson to announce 2016 intentions in Detroit on May 4". Politico. Retrieved 18 April 2015. 
  52. ^ Epstein, Reid (April 22, 2015). "Carly Fiorina to Launch Presidential Campaign on May 4". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved April 26, 2015. 
  53. ^ Barabak, Mark Z. (April 17, 2015). "Mike Huckabee edges toward 2016 run; May 5 announcement planned". Los Angeles Times. 
  54. ^ "Announcement – Rick Santorum for President". Ricksantorum.com. Retrieved June 5, 2015. 
  55. ^ a b Fahrenthold, David A. (May 28, 2015). "George Pataki announces presidential campaign". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 28, 2015. 
  56. ^ Rappeport, Alan (June 1, 2015). "Lindsey Graham Announces Presidential Bid". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  57. ^ Jervis, Rick; Camia, Catalina (June 4, 2015). "Rick Perry launches 2016 presidential campaign". USA TODAY. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  58. ^ "Jeb Bush set to launch 2016 presidential bid today; logo omits last name". Dallasnews.com. Retrieved June 15, 2015. 
  59. ^ "Donald Trump Announces Presidential Campaign". The Wall Street Journal. June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015. 
  60. ^ "Louisiana Gov. Bobby Jindal Becomes First Asian-Indian to Run for President". Fox News. Retrieved June 25, 2015. 
  61. ^ Moody, Chris; Killough, Ashley (June 30, 2015). "Chris Christie launches 2016 presidential bid". CNN. Retrieved July 6, 2015. 
  62. ^ Burlij, Terence; Lee, MJ; LoBianco, Tom (July 13, 2015). "Wisconsin Gov. Scott Walker officially enters 2016 presidential race". CNN.com. Retrieved 13 July 2015. 
  63. ^ a b Stolberg, Sheryl Gay (July 21, 2015). "John Kasich Enters Crowded 2016 Race Facing Job of Catch-Up". The New York Times. Retrieved July 21, 2015. 
  64. ^ a b Allen, Cooper (July 30, 2015). "Jim Gilmore formally joins GOP presidential race". USA Today. Retrieved July 30, 2015. 
  65. ^ Rafferty, Andrew (June 15, 2015). "Jeb Bush Makes 2016 Run Official". NBC News. Retrieved June 15, 2015. 
  66. ^ "Jeb Bush FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 15, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015. 
  67. ^ Terris, Ben (May 3, 2015). "Ben Carson announces presidential campaign". The Washington Post. Retrieved May 4, 2015. 
  68. ^ Rafferty , Andrew (May 4, 2015). "Ben Carson Announces 2016 Run". NBCNews.com. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  69. ^ "Ben Carson FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. May 4, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015. 
  70. ^ Barbaro, Michael (June 30, 2015). "Chris Christie Announces Run, Pledging ‘Truth’ About Nation’s Woes". New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  71. ^ "Christopher J. Christie FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. July 1, 2015. Retrieved July 6, 2015. 
  72. ^ Mascaro, Lisa and David Lauter (March 22, 2015). "Texas Republican Sen. Ted Cruz Launches Presidential Bid". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 23, 2015. 
  73. ^ Zezima, Katie (March 23, 2015). "Ted Cruz Announces He’s Running for President". The Washington Post. Retrieved March 23, 2015. 
  74. ^ "Ted Cruz FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. March 23, 2015. Retrieved April 1, 2015. 
  75. ^ Gass, Nick (May 4, 2015). "Carly Fiorina: 'Yes, I am running for president'". Politico. Retrieved 4 May 2015. 
  76. ^ "Carly Fiorina FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. May 4, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015. 
  77. ^ "Jim Gilmore FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. July 29, 2015. Retrieved July 29, 2015. 
  78. ^ Jaffe, Alexandra (June 1, 2015) "Graham bets on foreign experience in White House bid announcement", CNN. Retrieved June 1, 2015.
  79. ^ "Lindsey Graham FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 1, 2015. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  80. ^ Trip, Gabriel (May 5, 2015). "Mike Huckabee Joins Republican Presidential Race". New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2015. 
  81. ^ "Mike Huckabee FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. Retrieved 10 May 2015. 
  82. ^ Fahrenthold, David A.; Hohmann, James (June 24, 2015). "Bobby Jindal announces entry into 2016 presidential race". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 24, 2015. 
  83. ^ "Bobby Jindal FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 29, 2015. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  84. ^ "John Kasich FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. July 23, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015. 
  85. ^ "George Pataki FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 2, 2015. Retrieved June 4, 2015. 
  86. ^ Lambert, Lisa (April 7, 2015). "Republican Rand Paul announces 2016 presidential run on website". Reuters. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
  87. ^ Killough, Ashley (April 7, 2015). "Rand Paul: 'I am running for president'". CNN. Retrieved 7 April 2015. 
  88. ^ "Rand Paul FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. April 8, 2015. Retrieved April 9, 2015. 
  89. ^ Parker, Ashley (April 13, 2015). "Marco Rubio Announces 2016 Presidential Bid". The New York Times. Retrieved April 13, 2015. 
  90. ^ Nelson, Rebecca (April 13, 2015) "Marco Rubio Makes His Pitch as the Fresh Face of the GOP in 2016", National Journal. Retrieved April 14, 2015.
  91. ^ "Marco Rubio FEC Filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. April 13, 2015. Retrieved May 7, 2015. 
  92. ^ Jackson, David (May 27, 2015). "Santorum officially begins 2016 presidential campaign". USA Today. Retrieved 28 May 2015. 
  93. ^ "Rick Santorum FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. May 27, 2015. Retrieved June 1, 2015. 
  94. ^ "Donald Trump is running for president". Business Insider. June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015. 
  95. ^ "Donald Trump announces presidential bid". Washington Post. June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 16, 2015. 
  96. ^ "Donald Trump FEC filing" (PDF). FEC.gov. June 22, 2015. Retrieved June 24, 2015. 
  97. ^ Dinan, Stephen (March 5, 2015). "Mark Everson, former Reagan & Bush aide, launches GOP White House bid on pro-amnesty platform". The Washington Times. Retrieved March 5, 2015. 
  98. ^ Larson, Leslie (March 5, 2015) "Long shot 2016 candidate launches campaign with emotional 16-page letter", Business Insider. Retrieved March 9, 2015.
  99. ^ "Mark Everson FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. March 10, 2015. Retrieved March 17, 2015. 
  100. ^ "Jack Fellure FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. November 13, 2012. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  101. ^ "'Birther King' announces 2016 campaign for U.S. president". Wikinews. August 16, 2015. 
  102. ^ "Andy Martin FEC Filing" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. July 16, 2015. Retrieved August 16, 2015. 
  103. ^ "Deez Nuts gets endorsement from Rent is Too Damn High Party's Jimmy McMillan, who says he will seek GOP nomination". New York Daily News. August 22, 2015. Retrieved August 24, 2015. 
  104. ^ "Rick Perry drops out of 2016 GOP presidential race". Texas Tribune.org. Retrieved September 11, 2015. 
  105. ^ Holland, Steve; Stephenson, Emily (September 21, 2015). "Republican Walker exits 2016 presidential race". Reuters. Retrieved September 22, 2015. 
  106. ^ "American Freedom Party Becomes a Qualified Party in Mississippi", Ballot Access News. August 12, 2015.
  107. ^ "Kenn Gividen Steps Down as American Freedom Party Presidential Nominee, Bob Whitaker to Take His Place at the Top of the Ticket", Independent Political Report. July 26, 2015.
  108. ^ "Ballot Access News - July 2015 Ballot Access News Print Edition". ballot-access.org. 
  109. ^ "Ballot Access News - Arkansas Says Constitution Party and Green Party Both Are on 2016 Ballot for President". ballot-access.org. 
  110. ^ Winger, Richard (August 9, 2015). "Former Congressman John Hostettler Said to be Likely to Seek Constitution Party Nomination for President". Ballot Access News. Retrieved 11 August 2015. 
  111. ^ Derby, Kevin (August 10, 2015). "Donald Trump Not the Only Republican Looking at Going Third Party in 2016". Sunshine State News. Retrieved 11 August 2015. 
  112. ^ "July 2015 Ballot Access News Print Edition", Ballot Access News. August 6, 2015.
  113. ^ "Arkansas Says Constitution Party and Green Party Both Are on 2016 Ballot for President", Ballot Access News. August 6, 2015.
  114. ^ Bartels, Lynn (June 22, 2015). "Green Party’s Jill Stein to run again for president". The Denver Post. Retrieved June 23, 2015. 
  115. ^ "Jill Stein FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. July 14, 2015. Retrieved July 15, 2015. 
  116. ^ Davis, Glenn (April 20, 2015) "Green Party Says It Is The Alternative to Warmongers and Special Interests", IVN.us. Retrieved May 11, 2015.
  117. ^ "Darryl Cherney for President Exploratory Committee". Facebook. 
  118. ^ "July 2015 Ballot Access News Print Edition". ballot-access.org. 
  119. ^ "Robert David Steele Seeking Libertarian Presidential Nomination, Wants to Create Coalition to End "Two Party Tyranny"". Independent Political Report. June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 19, 2015. 
  120. ^ "Robert Steele Declares for Libertarian Nomination". We The People Reform Coalition. June 16, 2015. Retrieved June 19, 2015. 
  121. ^ Davis, Glenn (July 27, 2015) "IVN Exclusive Interview: Gary Johnson Says Voters Need A Candidate Not Constrained by Partisan Litmus Tests", IVN.us. Retrieved July 27, 2015.
  122. ^ Derby, Kevin (September 22, 2015) "Gary Johnson Gearing Up for Second Libertarian Presidential Bid", Sunshine State News. Retrieved September 28, 2015
  123. ^ Furst, Randy (September 13, 2015) "Ventura about to end exile, jump back into politics?", Star Tribune. Retrieved September 18, 2015.
  124. ^ "Committee Tracking system - Florida Division of Elections - Department of State". myflorida.com. 
  125. ^ Winger, Richard (July 24, 2015). "Party for Socialism and Liberation Announces 2016 Presidential Ticket". Ballot Access News. Retrieved July 25, 2015. 
  126. ^ "Qualified Political Parties". ca.gov. 
  127. ^ "Political Party Information". myflorida.com. 
  128. ^ "Roseanne Barr Says She Will Seek the Peace and Freedom Party’s Presidential Nomination Again in 2016". Independent Political Report. March 11, 2015. Retrieved April 29, 2015. 
  129. ^ "Ballot access". ballotpedia.org. 
  130. ^ a b "Prohibition Party Nominates National Ticket". Ballot Access News. July 31, 2015. Retrieved August 3, 2015. 
  131. ^ "Ballot Access News - Veterans Party is Now a Ballot-Qualified Party in Mississippi". ballot-access.org. 
  132. ^ "Chris Keniston 2016". Chris Keniston 2016. 
  133. ^ "Veterans Party of America". Veterans Party of America. 
  134. ^ Mulshine, Molly (June 25, 2015) "The notorious ‘King of Instagram' threw a raunchy presidential campaign launch party and I had a front row seat", Business Insider. Retrieved July 2, 2015.
  135. ^ Hewitt, John (October 31, 2014) "An interview with Zoltan Istvan, leader of the Transhumanist Party and 2016 presidential contender", ExtremeTech.com. Retrieved March 7, 2015.
  136. ^ Bartlett, Jamie (December 23, 2014). "Meet the Transhumanist Party: 'Want to live forever? Vote for me'". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved March 6, 2015. 
  137. ^ "Zoltan Istvan Gyurko FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. June 19, 2015. Retrieved June 21, 2015. 
  138. ^ Gavin, Patrick (November 29, 2013) "2016 already here for fringe hopefuls", Politico. Retrieved November 30, 2013
  139. ^ "Terry Jones FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. December 11, 2013. Retrieved June 2, 2015. 
  140. ^ Vozick-Levinson, Simon (April 20, 2015). "Waka Flocka Flame for President: Watch His Exclusive Campaign Video". Rolling Stone. Retrieved April 21, 2015. 
  141. ^ "John McAfee announces he's running for President". CNN. September 8, 2015. Retrieved September 8, 2015. 
  142. ^ "Guy Schwartz FEC filing" (PDF). FEC. August 18, 2015. Retrieved August 18, 2015. 
  143. ^ Seitz-Wald, Alex (May 22, 2014). "Can a Zombie-Powered Presidential Candidate Go Legit?". National Journal. Retrieved May 22, 2014. 
  144. ^ Hofherr, Justine (May 27, 2014). "One 2016 Presidential Candidate Will Run on A ‘Zombie-Powered’ Platform. And He’s from Mass.". Boston.com. Retrieved May 30, 2014. 
  145. ^ Yglesias, Matthew (November 8, 2014). "A totally legal, totally shady way that Republicans could ensure Hillary Clinton's defeat". Vox. Retrieved November 8, 2014. 
  146. ^ Doherty, Brendan (July 31, 2012). "President Obama's Disproportionate Battleground State Focus Started Early, Echoed Predecessors' Actions". Monkey Cage. Retrieved November 4, 2014. 
  147. ^ Abramowitz, Alan (August 2, 2012). "Do Presidential Campaigns Matter? Evidence From the 2008 Election". Sabato's Crystal Ball. Retrieved November 8, 2014. 
  148. ^ a b Balz, Dan (January 18, 2014). "The Republican Party's uphill path to 270 electoral votes in 2016 elections". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 3, 2014. 
  149. ^ a b c Kondik, Kyle; Skelley, Geoffrey; Sabato, Larry (3 May 2015). "The 2016 Results We Can Already Predict". Politico. Retrieved 22 September 2015. 
  150. ^ "The Most Valuable Voters of 2016". www.nationaljournal.com. 
  151. ^ Winger, Richard (July 20, 2015). "Constitution Party Selects City and Dates for Presidential Convention". Ballot Access News. Retrieved July 20, 2015. 
  152. ^ Winger, Richard (July 11, 2014). "Libertarian Party Moves Into National Party Headquarters That it Owns". Ballot Access News. Retrieved July 11, 2014. 
  153. ^ "Libertarian National Committee Minutes July 15–16, 2012" (PDF). Libertarian National Committee. p. 4. Retrieved July 11, 2014. 
  154. ^ "RNC officially approves Cleveland as 2016 convention host", CBS News. Associated Press. Retrieved August 14, 2014.
  155. ^ Isenstadt, Alex (January 14, 2014) "GOP convention set for July 18–21 in 2016", Politico. Retrieved January 15, 2015.
  156. ^ Camia, Catalina and Martha A. Moore (February 12, 2015). "Democrats pick Philadelphia for 2016 convention". USA Today. Retrieved February 12, 2015. 
  157. ^ Winger, Richard (August 2, 2015) "Green Party Will Hold Presidential Convention in Houston", Ballot Access News. Retrieved August 5, 2015.
  158. ^ "CPD Announces 2016 Debate Host Applicants". Commission on Presidential Debates. Retrieved April 2, 2015. 
  159. ^ Sanchez, Stephen M. "Three Texas Locations Vie For 2016 Presidential Debates". San Antonio Daily News. Retrieved 2 April 2015. 
  160. ^ a b "Commission On Presidential Debates announces sites and dates for 2016 general election debates". Commission on Presidential Debates. Retrieved 23 September 2015. 
  161. ^ Level the Playing Field et al. v. FEC, 1:15-cv-00961 (D.D.C. 2015).
  162. ^ Miller, Zeke J. (June 21, 2015) "Third-Party Advocates File Lawsuit Over Presidential Debates", Time.com. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
  163. ^ "Sunshine Act Meetings" (PDF). Federal Election Commission. Retrieved July 19, 2015. 
  164. ^ Jessica Selinkoff, Robert Knop (July 16, 2015). DRAFT NOTICE OF DISPOSITION ON REG 2014-06 (CANDIDATE DEBATES) (audio recording). 999 E. Street NW, Washington D.C. Retrieved July 19, 2015. 
  165. ^ Level the Playing Field et al. v. FEC, 1:15-cv-01397 (D.D.C. 2015).

External links[edit]