|Cadabra, Inc. (1994–95)|
|Founded||July 5, 1994Bellevue, Washington, United Statesin|
|Revenue||US$232.887 billion (2018)|
|US$12.421 billion (2018)|
|US$10.073 billion (2018)|
|Total assets||US$162.648 billion (2018)|
|Total equity||US$43.549 billion (2018)|
Number of employees
|Footnotes / references|
Amazon.com, Inc. (//), is an American multinational technology company based in Seattle, Washington, that focuses on e-commerce, cloud computing, digital streaming, and artificial intelligence. It is considered one of the Big Four technology companies along with Google, Apple, and Facebook.
Amazon is known for its disruption of well-established industries through technological innovation and mass scale. It is the world's largest e-commerce marketplace, AI assistant provider, and cloud computing platform as measured by revenue and market capitalization. Amazon is the largest Internet company by revenue in the world. It is the second largest private employer in the United States and one of the world's most valuable companies. Amazon is the second largest technology company by revenue.
Amazon was founded by Jeff Bezos on July 5, 1994, in Bellevue, Washington. The company initially started as an online marketplace for books but later expanded to sell electronics, software, video games, apparel, furniture, food, toys, and jewelry. In 2015, Amazon surpassed Walmart as the most valuable retailer in the United States by market capitalization. In 2017, Amazon acquired Whole Foods Market for $13.4 billion, which vastly increased Amazon's presence as a brick-and-mortar retailer. In 2018, Bezos announced that its two-day delivery service, Amazon Prime, had surpassed 100 million subscribers worldwide.
Amazon distributes downloads and streaming of video, music, audiobook through its Amazon Prime Video, Amazon Music, and Audible subsidiaries. Amazon also has a publishing arm, Amazon Publishing, a film and television studio, Amazon Studios, and a cloud computing subsidiary, Amazon Web Services. It produces consumer electronics including Kindle e-readers, Fire tablets, Fire TV, and Echo devices. In addition, Amazon subsidiaries also include Ring, Twitch.tv, Whole Foods Market, and IMDb. Among various controversies, the company has been criticized for technological surveillance overreach, a hyper-competitive and demanding work culture, tax avoidance, and anti-competitive practices.
- 1 History
- 2 Board of directors
- 3 Merchant partnerships
- 4 Products and services
- 5 Subsidiaries
- 6 Supply chain
- 7 Website
- 8 Amazon sales rank
- 9 Multi-level sales strategy
- 10 Finances
- 11 Controversies
- 11.1 Environmental impact
- 11.2 Selling counterfeit items
- 11.3 Sales and use taxes
- 11.4 Income taxes
- 11.5 Comments by Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders
- 11.6 Working conditions
- 11.7 Conflict of interest with the CIA and DOD
- 11.8 Seattle head tax and houselessness services
- 11.9 Nashville Operations Center of Excellence
- 11.10 Facial recognition technology and law enforcement
- 12 Lobbying
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 Further reading
- 16 External links
In 1994, Jeff Bezos incorporated Amazon. He chose the location Seattle because of technical talent as Microsoft is located there. In May 1997, the organization went public. The company began selling music and videos in 1998, at which time it began operations internationally by acquiring online sellers of books in United Kingdom and Germany. The following year, the organization also sold video games, consumer electronics, home-improvement items, software, games, and toys in addition to other items.
In 2002, the corporation started Amazon Web Services (AWS), which provided data on Web site popularity, Internet traffic patterns and other statistics for marketers and developers. In 2006, the organization grew its AWS portfolio when Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2), which rents computer processing power as well as Simple Storage Service (S3), that rents data storage via the Internet, were made available. That same year, the company started Fulfillment by Amazon which managed the inventory of individuals and small companies selling their belongings through the company internet site. In 2012, Amazon bought Kiva Systems to automate its inventory-management business, purchasing Whole Foods Market supermarket chain five years later in 2017.
Board of directors
- Jeff Bezos, President, CEO, and Chairman
- Tom Alberg, Managing partner, Madrona Venture Group
- Rosalind Brewer, Group President, and COO, Starbucks
- Jamie Gorelick, partner, Wilmer Cutler Pickering Hale, and Dorr
- Daniel P. Huttenlocher, Dean and Vice Provost, Cornell University
- Judy McGrath, former CEO, MTV Networks
- Indra Nooyi, former CEO, PepsiCo
- Jon Rubinstein, former Chairman, and CEO, Palm, Inc.
- Thomas O. Ryder, former Chairman, and CEO, Reader's Digest Association
- Patty Stonesifer, President, and CEO, Martha's Table
- Wendell P. Weeks, Chairman, President, and CEO, Corning Inc.
In 2000, U.S. toy retailer Toys "R" Us entered into a 10-year agreement with Amazon, valued at $50 million per year plus a cut of sales, under which Toys "R" Us would be the exclusive supplier of toys and baby products on the service, and the chain's website would redirect to Amazon's Toys & Games category. In 2004, Toys "R" Us sued Amazon, claiming that because of a perceived lack of variety in Toys "R" Us stock, Amazon had knowingly allowed third-party sellers to offer items on the service in categories that Toys "R" Us had been granted exclusivity. In 2006, a court ruled in favor of Toys "R" Us, giving it the right to unwind its agreement with Amazon and establish its own independent e-commerce website. The company was later awarded $51 million in damages.
In 2001, Amazon entered into a similar agreement with Borders Group, under which Amazon would co-manage Borders.com as a co-branded service, Borders pulled out of the arrangement in 2007, with plans to also launch its own online store.
On October 18, 2011, Amazon.com announced a partnership with DC Comics for the exclusive digital rights to many popular comics, including Superman, Batman, Green Lantern, The Sandman, and Watchmen. The partnership has caused well-known bookstores like Barnes & Noble to remove these titles from their shelves.
In November 2013, Amazon announced a partnership with the United States Postal Service to begin delivering orders on Sundays. The service, included in Amazon's standard shipping rates, initiated in metropolitan areas of Los Angeles and New York because of the high-volume and inability to deliver in a timely way, with plans to expand into Dallas, Houston, New Orleans and Phoenix by 2014.
In November 2018, Amazon reached an agreement with Apple Inc. to sell selected products through the service, via the company and selected Apple Authorized Resellers. As a result of this partnership, only Apple Authorized Resellers may sell Apple products on Amazon effective January 4, 2019.
Products and services
Amazon.com's product lines available at its website include several media (books, DVDs, music CDs, videotapes and software), apparel, baby products, consumer electronics, beauty products, gourmet food, groceries, health and personal-care items, industrial & scientific supplies, kitchen items, jewelry, watches, lawn and garden items, musical instruments, sporting goods, tools, automotive items and toys & games. In August 2019, Amazon applied to have a liquor store in San Francisco, CA as a means to ship beer and alcohol within the city. Amazon has separate retail websites for some countries and also offers international shipping of some of its products to certain other countries.
Amazon.com has a number of products and services available, including:
Amazon Maritime, Inc. holds a Federal Maritime Commission license to operate as a non-vessel-owning common carrier (NVOCC), which enables the company to manage its own shipments from China into the United States.
Audible.com is a seller and producer of spoken audio entertainment, information and educational programming on the Internet. Audible sells digital audiobooks, radio and TV programs and audio versions of magazines and newspapers. Through its production arm, Audible Studios, Audible has also become the world's largest producer of downloadable audiobooks. On January 31, 2008, Amazon announced it would buy Audible for about $300 million. The deal closed in March 2008 and Audible became a subsidiary of Amazon.
Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services
Beijing Century Joyo Courier Services is a subsidiary of Amazon and it applied for a freight forwarding license with the US Maritime Commission. Amazon is also building out its logistics in trucking and air freight to potentially compete with UPS and FedEx.
Brilliance Audio is an audiobook publisher founded in 1984 by Michael Snodgrass in Grand Haven, Michigan. The company produced its first 8 audio titles in 1985. The company was purchased by Amazon in 2007 for an undisclosed amount. At the time of the acquisition, Brilliance was producing 12–15 new titles a month. It operates as an independent company within Amazon.
In 1984, Brilliance Audio invented a technique for recording twice as much on the same cassette. The technique involved recording on each of the two channels of each stereo track. It has been credited with revolutionizing the burgeoning audiobook market in the mid-1980s since it made unabridged books affordable.
ComiXology is a cloud-based digital comics platform with over 200 million comic downloads as of September 2013[update]. It offers a selection of more than 40,000 comic books and graphic novels across Android, iOS, Fire OS and Windows 8 devices and over a web browser. Amazon bought the company in April 2014.
Eero is a company that manufactures mesh-capable routers. The company was founded in 2015 and is based in San Francisco. Amazon announced it would buy Eero in 2019.
Goodreads is a "social cataloging" website founded in December 2006 and launched in January 2007 by Otis Chandler, a software engineer, and entrepreneur, and Elizabeth Chandler. The website allows individuals to freely search Goodreads' extensive user-populated database of books, annotations, and reviews. Users can sign up and register books to generate library catalogs and reading lists. They can also create their own groups of book suggestions and discussions. In December 2007, the site had over 650,000 members and over 10 million books had been added. Amazon bought the company in March 2013.
Amazon announced that they would fund and deploy a large broadband satellite internet constellation called "Project Kuiper" in April 2019. It is expected to take up to a decade to fully deploy all 3,236 satellites planned for the full constellation in order to provide internet to "tens of millions of people who lack basic access to broadband internet." Amazon has not announced if they intend to sell broadband service directly to consumers, but they will "offer broadband service through partnerships with other companies."
The satellites will use an orbit with a height between 590 and 630 km (370 and 390 mi). Kuiper will work in concert with Amazon's previously announced large network of 12 satellite ground station facilities (the "AWS Ground Station unit") announced in November 2018. Amazon filed communications license documents with the U.S. regulatory authorities the FCC in July 2019, which included information that the wholly owned Amazon subsidiary that intended to deploy the satellite constellation was Kuiper Systems LLC, based in Seattle, Washington. The Kuiper System will consist of 3,236 satellites operating in 98 orbital planes in three orbital shells, one each at 590 kilometers (370 mi), 610 km (380 mi), and 630 km (390 mi) orbital altitude. The Kuiper System includes high-performance satellites, terrestrial gateways, internetworking technologies, and a range of customer terminals."
Ring is a home automation company founded by Jamie Siminoff in 2013. It is primarily known for its WiFi powered smart doorbells, but manufactures other devices such as security cameras. Amazon bought Ring for $1 billion USD in 2018.
Shelfari was a social cataloging website for books. Shelfari users built virtual bookshelves of the titles which they owned or had read and they could rate, review, tag and discuss their books. Users could also create groups that other members could join, create discussions and talk about books, or other topics. Recommendations could be sent to friends on the site for what books to read. Amazon bought the company in August 2008. Shelfari continued to function as an independent book social network within the Amazon until January 2016, when Amazon announced that it would be merging Shelfari with Goodreads and closing down Shelfari.
Souq.com is the largest e-commerce platform in the Middle East based in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. On March 28, 2017, Amazon confirmed it would be acquiring Souq.com for $580 million. Souq.com is now a subsidiary of Amazon, and acts as Amazon's arm into the Middle East region.
Twitch is a live streaming platform for video, primarily oriented towards video gaming content. The service was first established as a spin-off of a general-interest streaming service known as Justin.tv. Its prominence was eclipsed by that of Twitch, and Justin.tv was eventually shut down by its parent company in August 2014 in order to focus exclusively on Twitch. Later that month, Twitch was acquired by Amazon for $970 million. Through Twitch, Amazon also owns Curse, Inc., an operator of video gaming communities and a provider of VoIP services for gaming. Since the acquisition, Twitch began to sell games directly through the platform, and began offering special features for Amazon Prime subscribers.
The site's rapid growth had been boosted primarily by the prominence of major esports competitions on the service, leading GameSpot senior esports editor Rod Breslau to have described the service as "the ESPN of esports". As of 2015[update], the service had over 1.5 million broadcasters and 100 million monthly viewers.
Whole Foods Market
On August 23, 2017, it was reported that the Federal Trade Commission approved the merger between Amazon.com and Whole Foods Market. The following day it was announced that the deal would be closed on August 28, 2017.
Junglee is a former online shopping service provided by Amazon that enabled customers to search for products from online and offline retailers in India. Junglee started off as a virtual database that was used to extract information off the internet and deliver it to enterprise applications. As it progressed, Junglee started to use its database technology to create a single window marketplace on the internet by making every item from every supplier available for purchase. Web shoppers could locate, compare and transact millions of products from across the Internet shopping mall through one window.
Amazon acquired Junglee in 1998, and the website Junglee.com was launched in India in February 2012 as a comparison-shopping website. It curated and enabled searching for a diverse variety of products such as clothing, electronics, toys, jewelry and video games, among others, across thousands of online and offline sellers. Millions of products are browse-able, whereby the client selects a price, and then they are directed to a seller. In November 2017, Amazon closed down Junglee.com and the former domain currently redirects to Amazon India.
Amazon first launched its distribution network in 1997 with two fulfillment centers in Seattle and New Castle, Delaware. Amazon has several types of distribution facilities consisting of crossdock centers, fulfillment centers, sortation centers, delivery stations, Prime now hubs, and Prime air hubs. There are 75 fulfillment centers and 25 sortation centers with over 125,000 employees. Employees are responsible for five basic tasks: unpacking and inspecting incoming goods; placing goods in storage and recording their location; picking goods from their computer recorded locations to make up an individual shipment; sorting and packing orders; and shipping. A computer that records the location of goods and maps out routes for pickers plays a key role: employees carry hand-held computers which communicate with the central computer and monitor their rate of progress.
Type of site
|Alexa rank||10 (Global, January 2018[update])|
|Written in||C++ and Java|
The domain amazon.com attracted at least 615 million visitors annually by 2008. Amazon attracts over 130 million customers to its US website per month by the start of 2016. The company has also invested heavily on a massive amount of server capacity for its website, especially to handle the excessive traffic during the December Christmas holiday season.
Results generated by Amazon's search engine are partly determined by promotional fees.
|United Arab Emirates||amazon.ae||May 2019|
|United Kingdom||amazon.co.uk||October 1998|
|North America||Canada||amazon.ca||June 2002|
|United States||amazon.com||July 1995|
|South America||Brazil||amazon.com.br||December 2012|
Amazon allows users to submit reviews to the web page of each product. Reviewers must rate the product on a rating scale from one to five stars. Amazon provides a badging option for reviewers which indicate the real name of the reviewer (based on confirmation of a credit card account) or which indicate that the reviewer is one of the top reviewers by popularity. Customers may comment or vote on the reviews, indicating whether they found a review helpful to them. If a review is given enough "helpful" hits, it appears on the front page of the product. In 2010, Amazon was reported as being the largest single source of Internet consumer reviews.
When publishers asked Bezos why Amazon would publish negative reviews, he defended the practice by claiming that Amazon.com was "taking a different approach ... we want to make every book available—the good, the bad and the ugly ... to let truth loose".
There have been cases of positive reviews being written and posted by public relations companies on behalf of their clients and instances of writers using pseudonyms to leave negative reviews of their rivals' works.
"Search Inside the Book" is a feature which allows customers to search for keywords in the full text of many books in the catalog. The feature started with 120,000 titles (or 33 million pages of text) on October 23, 2003. There are about 300,000 books in the program. Amazon has cooperated with around 130 publishers to allow users to perform these searches.
To avoid copyright violations, Amazon does not return the computer-readable text of the book. Instead, it returns a picture of the matching page, instructs the web browser to disable printing and puts limits on the number of pages in a book a single user can access. Additionally, customers can purchase online access to some of the same books via the "Amazon Upgrade" program.
Amazon derives many of its sales (around 40% in 2008) from third-party sellers who sell products on Amazon. Associates receive a commission for referring customers to Amazon by placing links to Amazon on their websites if the referral results in a sale. Worldwide, Amazon has "over 900,000 members" in its affiliate programs. In the middle of 2014, the Amazon Affiliate Program is used by 1.2% of all websites and it is the second most popular advertising network after Google Ads. It is frequently used by websites and non-profits to provide a way for supporters to earn them a commission. Amazon reported over 1.3 million sellers sold products through Amazon's websites in 2007. Unlike eBay, Amazon sellers do not have to maintain separate payment accounts; all payments are handled by Amazon.
Associates can access the Amazon catalog directly on their websites by using the Amazon Web Services (AWS) XML service. A new affiliate product, aStore, allows Associates to embed a subset of Amazon products within another website, or linked to another website. In June 2010, Amazon Seller Product Suggestions was launched (rumored to be internally called "Project Genesis") to provide more transparency to sellers by recommending specific products to third-party sellers to sell on Amazon. Products suggested are based on customers' browsing history.
Amazon sales rank
The Amazon sales rank (ASR) provides an indication of the popularity of a product sold on any Amazon locale. It is a relative indicator of popularity that is updated hourly. Effectively, it is a "best sellers list" for the millions of products stocked by Amazon. While the ASR has no direct effect on the sales of a product, it is used by Amazon to determine which products to include in its bestsellers lists. Products that appear in these lists enjoy additional exposure on the Amazon website and this may lead to an increase in sales. In particular, products that experience large jumps (up or down) in their sales ranks may be included within Amazon's lists of "movers and shakers"; such a listing provides additional exposure that might lead to an increase in sales. For competitive reasons, Amazon does not release actual sales figures to the public. However, Amazon has now begun to release point of sale data via the Nielsen BookScan service to verified authors. While the ASR has been the source of much speculation by publishers, manufacturers, and marketers, Amazon itself does not release the details of its sales rank calculation algorithm. Some companies have analyzed Amazon sales data to generate sales estimates based on the ASR, though Amazon states:
Please keep in mind that our sales rank figures are simply meant to be a guide of general interest for the customer and not definitive sales information for publishers—we assume you have this information regularly from your distribution sources— Amazon.com Help
Multi-level sales strategy
Amazon employs a multi-level e-commerce strategy. Amazon started by focusing on business-to-consumer relationships between itself and its customers and business-to-business relationships between itself and its suppliers and then moved to facilitate customer-to-customer with the Amazon marketplace which acts as an intermediary to facilitate transactions. The company lets anyone sell nearly anything using its platform. In addition to an affiliate program that lets anyone post-Amazon links and earn a commission on click-through sales, there is now a program which lets those affiliates build entire websites based on Amazon's platform.
Some other large e-commerce sellers use Amazon to sell their products in addition to selling them through their own websites. The sales are processed through Amazon.com and end up at individual sellers for processing and order fulfillment and Amazon leases space for these retailers. Small sellers of used and new goods go to Amazon Marketplace to offer goods at a fixed price.
Amazon also employs the use of drop shippers or meta sellers. These are members or entities that advertise goods on Amazon who order these goods direct from other competing websites but usually from other Amazon members. These meta sellers may have millions of products listed, have large transaction numbers and are grouped alongside other less prolific members giving them credibility as just someone who has been in business for a long time. Markup is anywhere from 50% to 100% and sometimes more, these sellers maintain that items are in stock when the opposite is true. As Amazon increases their dominance in the marketplace these drop shippers have become more and more commonplace in recent years.
In November 2015, Amazon opened a physical Amazon Books store in University Village in Seattle. The store is 5,500 square feet and prices for all products match those on its website. Amazon will open its tenth physical book store in 2017; media speculation suggests Amazon plans to eventually roll out 300 to 400 bookstores around the country.
Amazon plans to open brick and mortar bookstores in Germany.
Amazon.com is primarily a retail site with a sales revenue model; Amazon takes a small percentage of the sale price of each item that is sold through its website while also allowing companies to advertise their products by paying to be listed as featured products. As of 2018[update], Amazon.com is ranked 8th on the Fortune 500 rankings of the largest United States corporations by total revenue.
For the fiscal year 2018, Amazon reported earnings of US$10.07 billion, with an annual revenue of US$232.887 billion, an increase of 30.9% over the previous fiscal cycle. Since 2007 sales increased from 14.835 billion to 232.887 billion, thanks to continued business expansion. Amazon's market capitalization was valued at over US$803 billion in early November 2018.
in mil. USD$
in mil. USD$
in mil. USD$
Since its founding, the company has attracted criticism and controversy for its actions, including: supplying law enforcement with facial recognition surveillance tools; forming cloud computing partnerships with the CIA; leading customers away from bookshops; adversely impacting the environment; placing a low priority on warehouse conditions for workers; actively opposing unionization efforts; remotely deleting content purchased by Amazon Kindle users; taking public subsidies; seeking to patent its 1-Click technology; engaging in anti-competitive actions and price discrimination; and reclassifying LGBT books as adult content. Criticism has also concerned various decisions over whether to censor or publish content such as the WikiLeaks website, works containing libel and material facilitating dogfight, cockfight, or pedophile activities. In December 2011, Amazon faced a backlash from small businesses for running a one-day deal to promote its new Price Check app. Shoppers who used the app to check prices in a brick-and-mortar store were offered a 5% discount to purchase the same item from Amazon. Companies like Groupon, eBay and Taap.it countered Amazon's promotion by offering $10 off from their products. The company has also faced accusations of putting undue pressure on suppliers to maintain and extend its profitability. One effort to squeeze the most vulnerable book publishers was known within the company as the Gazelle Project, after Bezos suggested, according to Brad Stone, "that Amazon should approach these small publishers the way a cheetah would pursue a sickly gazelle." In July 2014, the Federal Trade Commission launched a lawsuit against the company alleging it was promoting in-app purchases to children, which were being transacted without parental consent.
In November 2018, a community action group opposed the construction permit delivered to Goodman Group for the construction of a 160,000 square metres (1,700,000 sq ft) logisitics platform Amazon will operate at Lyon–Saint-Exupéry Airport. In February 2019, Étienne Tête filed a request on behalf of a second regional community action group asking the administrative court to decide whether the platform served a sufficiently important public interest to justify its environmental impact. Construction has been suspended while these matters are decided.
Selling counterfeit items
On October 16, 2016, Apple filed a trademark infringement case against Mobile Star LLC for selling counterfeit Apple products to Amazon. In the suit, Apple provided evidence that Amazon was selling these counterfeit Apple products and advertising them as genuine. Through purchasing, Apple found that it was able to identify counterfeit products with a success rate of 90%. Amazon was sourcing and selling items without properly determining if they are genuine. Mobile Star LLC settled with Apple for an undisclosed amount on April 27, 2017.
Sales and use taxes
Amazon's state sales tax collection policy has changed over the years since it did not collect any sales taxes in its early years. In the U.S., state and local sales taxes are levied by state and local governments, not at the federal level. In most countries where Amazon operates, a sales tax or value added tax is uniform throughout the country, and Amazon is obliged to collect it from all customers. Proponents of forcing Amazon.com to collect sales tax—at least in states where it maintains a physical presence—argue the corporation wields an anti-competitive advantage over storefront businesses forced to collect sales tax.
Many U.S. states in the 21st century have passed online shopping sales tax laws designed to compel Amazon.com and other e-commerce retailers to collect state and local sales taxes from its customers. Amazon.com originally collected sales tax only from five states as of 2011[update], but as of April 2017[update], Amazon collects sales taxes from customers in all 45 states that have a state sales tax and in Washington, D.C.
Amazon paid no federal income taxes in the U.S. in 2017 and 2018, and actually received tax refunds worth millions of dollars, despite recording several billion dollars in profits each year. CNN reported that Amazon's tax bill was zero because they took advantage of provisions in years when they were losing money that allowed them to offset future taxes on profits, as well as various other tax credits. Amazon was criticized by political figures for not paying federal income taxes.
Comments by Donald Trump and Bernie Sanders
In early 2018, President Donald Trump repeatedly criticized Amazon's use of the United States Postal Service and its prices for the delivery of packages, stating, "I am right about Amazon costing the United States Post Office massive amounts of money for being their Delivery Boy," Trump tweeted. "Amazon should pay these costs (plus) and not have them bourne [sic] by the American Taxpayer." Amazon's shares fell by 6 percent as a result of Trump's comments. Shepard Smith of Fox News disputed Trump's claims and pointed to evidence that the USPS was offering below-market prices to all customers with no advantage to Amazon. However, analyst Tom Forte pointed to the fact that Amazon's payments to the USPS are not made public and that their contract has a reputation for being "a sweetheart deal".
Throughout the summer of 2018, Vermont Senator Bernie Sanders criticized Amazon's wages and working conditions in a series of YouTube videos and media appearances. He also pointed to the fact that Amazon had paid no federal income tax in the previous year. Sanders solicited stories from Amazon warehouse workers who felt exploited by the company. One such story, by James Bloodworth, described the environment as akin to "a low-security prison" and stated that the company's culture used an Orwellian newspeak. These reports cited a finding by New Food Economy that one third of fulfilment center workers in Arizona were on the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP). Responses by Amazon included incentives for employees to tweet positive stories and a statement which called the salary figures used by Sanders "inaccurate and misleading". The statement also charged that it was inappropriate for him to refer to SNAP as "food stamps". On September 5, 2018, Sanders along with Ro Khanna introduced the Stop Bad Employers by Zeroing Out Subsidies (Stop BEZOS) Act aimed at Amazon and other alleged beneficiaries of corporate welfare such as Walmart, McDonald's and Uber. Among the bill's supporters were Tucker Carlson of Fox News and Matt Taibbi who criticized himself and other journalists for not covering Amazon's contribution to wealth inequality earlier.
On October 2, Amazon announced that its minimum wage for all American employees would be raised to $15 per hour. Sanders congratulated the company for making this decision.
Former employees, current employees, the media, and politicians have criticized Amazon for poor working conditions at the company. In 2011, it was publicized that workers had to carry out tasks in 100 °F (38 °C) heat at the Breinigsville, Pennsylvania warehouse. As a result of these inhumane conditions, employees became extremely uncomfortable and suffered from dehydration and collapse. Loading-bay doors were not opened to allow in fresh air because of concerns over theft. Amazon's initial response was to pay for an ambulance to sit outside on call to cart away overheated employees. The company eventually installed air conditioning at the warehouse.
Some workers, "pickers", who travel the building with a trolley and a handheld scanner "picking" customer orders can walk up to 15 miles during their workday and if they fall behind on their targets, they can be reprimanded. The handheld scanners give real-time information to the employee on how quickly or slowly they are working; the scanners also serve to allow Team Leads and Area Managers to track the specific locations of employees and how much "idle time" they gain when not working.
In a German television report broadcast in February 2013, journalists Diana Löbl and Peter Onneken conducted a covert investigation at the distribution center of Amazon in the town of Bad Hersfeld in the German state of Hessen. The report highlights the behavior of some of the security guards, themselves being employed by a third party company, who apparently either had a neo-Nazi background or deliberately dressed in neo-Nazi apparel and who were intimidating foreign and temporary female workers at its distribution centers. The third party security company involved was delisted by Amazon as a business contact shortly after that report.
In March 2015, it was reported in The Verge that Amazon will be removing non-compete clauses of 18 months in length from its US employment contracts for hourly-paid workers, after criticism that it was acting unreasonably in preventing such employees from finding other work. Even short-term temporary workers have to sign contracts that prohibit them from working at any company where they would "directly or indirectly" support any good or service that competes with those they helped support at Amazon, for 18 months after leaving Amazon, even if they are fired or made redundant.
A 2015 front-page article in The New York Times profiled several former Amazon employees who together described a "bruising" workplace culture in which workers with illness or other personal crises were pushed out or unfairly evaluated. Bezos responded by writing a Sunday memo to employees, in which he disputed the Times's account of "shockingly callous management practices" that he said would never be tolerated at the company.
In an effort to boost employee morale, on November 2, 2015, Amazon announced that it would be extending six weeks of paid leave for new mothers and fathers. This change includes birth parents and adoptive parents and can be applied in conjunction with existing maternity leave and medical leave for new mothers.
In mid-2018, investigations by journalists and media outlets such as The Guardian reported poor working conditions at Amazon's fulfillment centers. Later in 2018, another article exposed poor working conditions for Amazon's delivery drivers.
In response to criticism that Amazon doesn't pay its workers a livable wage, Jeff Bezos announced beginning November 1, 2018, all US and UK Amazon employees will earn a $15 an hour minimum wage. Amazon will also lobby to make $15 an hour the federal minimum wage. At the same time, Amazon also eliminated stock awards and bonuses for hourly employees.
On Black Friday 2018, Amazon warehouse workers in several European countries, including Italy, Germany, Spain and the United Kingdom, went on strike to protest inhumane working conditions and low pay.
The Daily Beast reported in March 2019 that emergency services responded to 189 calls from 46 Amazon warehouses in 17 states between the years 2013 and 2018, all relating to suicidal employees. The workers attributed their mental breakdowns to employer-imposed social isolation, aggressive surveillance, and the hurried and dangerous working conditions at these fulfillment centers. One former employee told The Daily Beast "It's this isolating colony of hell where people having breakdowns is a regular occurrence."
On July 15, 2019, during the onset of Amazon's "Prime Day" sale event, Amazon employees working in the United States and Germany went on strike in protest of unfair wages and poor working conditions.
Conflict of interest with the CIA and DOD
In 2013, Amazon secured a US$600 million contract with the CIA, which poses a potential conflict of interest involving the Bezos-owned The Washington Post and his newspaper's coverage of the CIA. Kate Martin, director of the Center for National Security Studies, said, "It's a serious potential conflict of interest for a major newspaper like The Washington Post to have a contractual relationship with the government and the most secret part of the government." This was later followed by a US$10 billion contract with the Department of Defence.
Seattle head tax and houselessness services
In May 2018, Amazon threatened the Seattle City Council over an employee head tax proposal that would have funded houselessness services and low-income housing. The tax would have cost Amazon about $800 per employee, or 0.7% of their average salary. In retaliation, Amazon paused construction on a new building, threatened to limit further investment in the city, and funded a repeal campaign. Although originally passed, the measure was soon repealed after an expensive repeal campaign spearheaded by Amazon.
Nashville Operations Center of Excellence
The incentives given by the Metropolitan Council of Nashville and Davidson County to Amazon for their new Operations Center of Excellence in Nashville Yards, a site owned by developer Southwest Value Partners, have been controversial, including the decision by the Tennessee Department of Economic and Community Development to keep the full extent of the agreement secret. The incentives include "$102 million in combined grants and tax credits for a scaled-down Amazon office building" as well as "a $65 million cash grant for capital expenditures" in exchange for the creation of 5,000 jobs over seven years.
The Tennessee Coalition for Open Government called for more transparency. Another local organization known as the People's Alliance for Transit, Housing, and Employment (PATHE) suggested no public money should be given to Amazon; instead, it should be spent on building more public housing for the working poor and the homeless and investing in more public transportation for Nashvillians. Others suggested incentives to big corporations don't improve the local economy.
In November 2018, the proposal to give Amazon $15 million in incentives was criticized by the Nashville Firefighters Union and the Nashville chapter of the Fraternal Order of Police, who called it "corporate welfare." In February 2019, another $15.2 million in infrastructure was approved by the council, although it was voted down by three council members, including Councilwoman Angie Henderson who dismissed it as "cronyism".
Facial recognition technology and law enforcement
While Amazon has publicly opposed secret government surveillance, as revealed by Freedom of Information Act requests it has supplied facial recognition support to law enforcement in the form of the Rekognition technology and consulting services. Initial testing included the city of Orlando, Florida, and Washington County, Oregon. Amazon offered to connect Washington County with other Amazon government customers interested in Rekognition and a body camera manufacturer. These ventures are opposed by a coalition of civil rights groups with concern that they could lead to an expansion of surveillance and be prone to abuse. Specifically, it could automate the identification and tracking of anyone, particularly in the context of potential police body camera integration. Because of the backlash, the city of Orlando has publicly stated it will no longer use the technology.
Amazon lobbies the United States federal government and state governments on issues such as the enforcement of sales taxes on online sales, transportation safety, privacy and data protection and intellectual property. According to regulatory filings, Amazon.com focuses its lobbying on the United States Congress, the Federal Communications Commission and the Federal Reserve. Amazon.com spent roughly $3.5 million, $5 million and $9.5 million on lobbying, in 2013, 2014 and 2015, respectively.
In 2014, Amazon expanded its lobbying practices as it prepared to lobby the Federal Aviation Administration to approve its drone delivery program, hiring the Akin Gump Strauss Hauer & Feld lobbying firm in June. Amazon and its lobbyists have visited with Federal Aviation Administration officials and aviation committees in Washington, D.C. to explain its plans to deliver packages.
- Amazon Breakthrough Novel Award
- Amazon Flexible Payments Service
- Amazon Marketplace
- Amazon Standard Identification Number (ASIN)
- Camelcamelcamel – a website that tracks the prices of products sold on Amazon.com
- List of book distributors
- Statistically improbable phrases – Amazon.com's phrase extraction technique for indexing books
- Annual report 2017. Seattle, Washington: Amazon. April 4, 2018. Retrieved November 22, 2018.
- "AMZN Company Financials".
- "Form 10-K". Amazon.com. December 31, 2018.
- "California Secretary of State Business Search". Businesssearch.sos.ca.gov.
- "Amazon bought Whole Foods a year ago. Here's what has changed". Finance.yahoo.com.
- "Amazon.com, Inc. - Form-10K". NASDAQ. December 31, 2018. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
- Lotz, Amanda. "'Big Tech' isn't one big monopoly – it's 5 companies all in different businesses". The Conversation. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- "The Big Four of Technology". October 31, 2017. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- Rivas, Teresa. "Ranking The Big Four Tech Stocks: Google Is No. 1, Apple Comes In Last". www.barrons.com. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- Furth, John F. (May 18, 2018). "Why Amazon and Jeff Bezos Are So Successful at Disruption". Entrepreneur. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- Bylund, Per (August 29, 2017). "Amazon's Lesson About Disruption: Rattle Any Market You Can". Entrepreneur. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- Newman, Daniel. "Alibaba vs. Amazon: The Battle Of Disruptive Innovation Beyond Traditional E-Commerce". Forbes. Retrieved May 16, 2019.
- Synergy Research Group, Reno, NV. "Microsoft Cloud Revenues Leap; Amazon is Still Way Out in Front – Synergy Research Group". srgresearch.com.CS1 maint: uses authors parameter (link)
- Jopson, Barney (July 12, 2011). "Amazon urges California referendum on online tax". Financial Times. Archived from the original on July 14, 2011. Retrieved August 4, 2011.
- "Fortune Global 500 List 2018: See Who Made It". Fortune. Retrieved January 8, 2019.
- Cheng, Evelyn (September 23, 2016). "Amazon climbs into list of top five largest US stocks by market cap". CNBC. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Streitfeld, David; Kantor, Jodi (August 17, 2015). "Jeff Bezos and Amazon Employees Join Debate Over Its Culture". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Wingfield, Nick; de la Merced, Michael J. (June 16, 2017). "Amazon to Buy Whole Foods for $13.4 Billion". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- "Jeff Bezos reveals Amazon has 100 million Prime members in letter to shareholders". April 18, 2018. Retrieved January 2, 2019.
- "Amazon - Investor Relations - Annual Reports, Proxies and Shareholder Letters". phx.corporate-ir.net. Retrieved September 6, 2018.
- Harwell, Drew (April 30, 2019). "Amazon's facial-recognition AI is supercharging police in Oregon". The Washington Post. Retrieved June 30, 2019.
- Stampler, Laura (February 14, 2019). "Amazon Will Pay a Whopping $0 in Federal Taxes on $11.2 Billion Profits". Fortune. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Baum, Andrew (October 23, 2015). "Amazon Wins Ruling on Results for Searches on Brands It Doesn't Sell". The National Law Review. Foley & Lardner. Retrieved December 21, 2015.
- The David Rubenstein Show: Jeff Bezos, Bloomberg Markets and Finance, 2018-09-19
- "Amazon.com - History & Facts". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- "Officers & Directors". Amazon. Retrieved March 29, 2019.
- "Toys R Us bankruptcy: A dot-com-era deal with Amazon marked the beginning of the end". Quartz. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "Toys R Us wins Amazon lawsuit". BBC News. March 3, 2006. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- Metz, Rachel (June 12, 2009). "Amazon to pay Toys R Us $51M to settle suit". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved December 1, 2012.
- "Amazon/Borders form online partnership". CNN Money. April 11, 2001. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "How 'Amazon factor' killed retailers like Borders, Circuit City". SFGate. July 13, 2015. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Streitfeld, David (October 18, 2011). "Bookstores Drop Comics After Amazon Deal With DC". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Barr, Alistair (November 11, 2013). "Amazon starts Sunday delivery with US Postal Service". USA Today. Retrieved November 25, 2013.
- "Nike confirms 'pilot' partnership with Amazon". Engadget. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
- Wattles, Jackie (June 29, 2017). "Nike confirms Amazon partnership". CNNMoney. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
- Wahba, Phil. "Nike confirms it will sell directly on Amazon and Instagram". Fortune. Retrieved July 3, 2017.
- "Booths teams up with Amazon to sell down South for the first time". Telegraph. October 11, 2017. Retrieved October 11, 2017.
- Bhumika, Khatri (September 27, 2018). "Amazon's JV Appario Retail Clocks In $104.4 Mn For FY18". Inc42 Media.
- "Amazon strikes deal with Apple to sell new iPhones and iPads". The Verge. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- "Apple pumps up its Amazon listings with iPhones, iPads and more". CNET. November 10, 2018. Retrieved November 11, 2018.
- Leskin, Paige. "Amazon is looking to open a brick-and-mortar liquor store in San Francisco". Business Insider. Retrieved August 29, 2019.
- "Amazon.com, Form 10-K, Annual Report, Filing Date Jan 30, 2013" (PDF). SEC database. Retrieved February 26, 2013.
- "Amazon Jobs – Work for a Subsidiary". Archived from the original on August 1, 2014. Retrieved October 27, 2014.
- McCracken, Harry (September 29, 2006). "Amazon's A9 Search as We Knew It: Dead!". PC World. Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- Steele, B., Amazon is now managing its own ocean freight, engadget.com, January 27, 2017, accessed January 29, 2017
- Sayer, Peter (January 31, 2008). "Amazon buys Audible for US$300 million". PC World.
- "Is Logistics About To Get Amazon'ed?". TechCrunch. AOL. January 29, 2016.
- David Z. Morris (January 14, 2016). "Amazon China Has Its Ocean Shipping License – Fortune". Fortune.
- "Company Overview". Brilliance Audio. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- "amazon.com Acquires Brilliance Audio". Taume News. May 27, 2007. Archived from the original on July 4, 2007. Retrieved May 28, 2007.
- Staci D. Kramer (May 23, 2007). "Amazon Acquires Audiobook Indie Brilliance Audio". Gigaom. Retrieved February 14, 2014.
- Virgil L. P. Blake (1990). "Something New Has Been Added: Aural Literacy and Libraries". Information Literacies for the Twenty-First Century. G. K. Hall & Co. pp. 203–218.
- Stone, Brad (April 11, 2014). "Amazon Buys ComiXology, Takes Over Digital Leadership". Bloomberg BusinessWeek.
- "Independent Publishing with CreateSpace". CreateSpace: An Amazon Company. Archived from the original on November 26, 2013. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
- "About CreateSpace : History". CreateSpace: An Amazon Company. Retrieved January 22, 2017.
- Kaufman, Leslie (March 28, 2013). "Amazon to Buy Social Site Dedicated to Sharing Books". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Avalos, George (September 19, 2012). "Amazon research unit Lab 126 agrees to big lease that could bring Sunnyvale 2,600 new workers". The Mercury News. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Sheetz, Michael (April 4, 2019). "Amazon wants to launch thousands of satellites so it can offer broadband internet from space". CNBC. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
- Henry, Caleb (April 4, 2019). "Amazon planning 3,236-satellite constellation for internet connectivity". SpaceNews. Retrieved April 5, 2019.
Brodkin, Jon (July 8, 2019). "Amazon plans nationwide broadband—with both home and mobile service". ars Technica. Retrieved July 9, 2019.
Kuiper is wholly owned by Amazon, and its president is Rajeev Badyal, a former SpaceX vice president who was reportedly fired because SpaceX CEO Elon Musk was unsatisfied with his company's satellite-broadband progress.
- "Chasing SpaceX, Amazon Seeks to Launch 3,236 Internet Satellites". July 5, 2019.
- Sheetz, Michael (November 27, 2018). "Amazon cloud business reaches into space with satellite connection service". CNBC. Retrieved April 4, 2019.
- "APPLICATION FOR AUTHORITY TO LAUNCH AND OPERATE A NON-GEOSTATIONARY SATELLITE ORBIT SYSTEM IN KA-BAND FREQUENCIES". licensing.fcc.gov. FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION. July 4, 2019. Retrieved July 6, 2019.
- Amazon lays out constellation service goals, deployment and deorbit plans to FCC, Caleb Henry, SpaceNews, 8 July 2019, accessed 9 September 2019.
- Montag, Ali (February 27, 2018). "Amazon buys Ring, a former 'Shark Tank' reject". CNBC. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- "Amazon Kills Shelfari". The Reader's Room. January 13, 2016. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Holiday, J.D. (January 13, 2016). "Shelfari Is Closing! BUT, You Can Merge Your Account with Goodreads!". The Book Marketing Network.
- "Amazon 10-Q filing".
- "Twitch pulls the plug on video-streaming site Justin.tv". CNET. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- Welch, Chris (August 25, 2014). "Amazon, not Google, is buying Twitch for $970 million". The Verge. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- Hall, Charlie (August 16, 2016). "Twitch to acquire Curse". Polygon. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- McCormick, Rich (February 27, 2017). "Twitch will start selling games and giving its streamers a cut". The Verge. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- Statt, Nick (September 30, 2016). "Twitch will be ad-free for all Amazon Prime subscribers". The Verge. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- Popper, Ben (September 30, 2013). "Field of streams: how Twitch made video games a spectator sport". The Verge. Retrieved August 8, 2017.
- Needleman, Sarah E. (January 29, 2015). "Twitch's Viewers Reach 100 Million a Month". WSJ. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- "Quality Standards". Whole Foods Market.
- LaVito, Angelica (August 23, 2017). "FTC allows Amazon, Whole Foods deal to proceed". CNBC. Retrieved October 31, 2018.
- "Amazon and Whole Foods Market Announce Acquisition to Close This Monday, Will Work Together to Make High-Quality, Natural and Organic Food Affordable for Everyone". Amazon.com. BUSINESS WIRE. Retrieved August 24, 2017.
- "Junglee boys strike gold on the net". Archived from the original on December 17, 2013.
- "Amazon Launches Online Shopping Service In India". reuters.com. February 2, 2012.
- "Amazon brings the curtains down on Junglee.com, finally". vccircle.com. Retrieved February 1, 2018.
- Routley, Nick (September 8, 2018). "Amazon's Massive Distribution Network in One Giant Visualization". Retrieved July 7, 2019.
- "9 facts about Amazon's unprecedented warehouse empire". November 21, 2017. Retrieved July 7, 2019.
- "Amazon.com Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved July 4, 2017.
- Lextrait, Vincent (January 2010). "The Programming Languages Beacon, v10.0". Archived from the original on May 30, 2012. Retrieved March 14, 2010.
- SnapShot of amazon.com, amazonellers.com, walmart.com. Retrieved April 12, 2008.
- "SnapShot of amazon.com – Compete". Siteanalytics.compete.com. Retrieved March 24, 2016.
- Pepitone, Julianne (December 9, 2010). "Why attackers can't take down Amazon.com". CNN. Retrieved December 14, 2010.
Amazon has famously massive server capacity in order to handle the December e-commerce rush. That short holiday shopping window is so critical and so intense, that even a few minutes of downtime could cost Amazon millions.
- Packer, George (February 17, 2014). "Cheap Words". newyorker.com. Retrieved March 22, 2014.
- "2010 Social Shopping Study Reveals Changes in Consumers' Online Shopping Habits and Usage of Customer Reviews". the e-tailing group, PowerReviews (Press release). Business Wire. May 3, 2010. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- Spector, Robert (2002). Amazon.com. p. 132.
- "BEACON SPOTLIGHT: Amazon.com rave book reviews – too good to be true?". The Cincinnati Beacon. May 25, 2010. Archived from the original on May 2, 2014. Retrieved January 31, 2013.
- "Amazon's online reader Search Inside reference". September 9, 2009. Archived from the original on August 28, 2010. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "Search Inside reference". September 9, 2009. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- Ward, Eric (October 23, 2003). "Amazon.com Launches "Search Inside the Book" Feature". Urlwire.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "AMAZON ENTERS THE CLOUD COMPUTING BUSINESS" (PDF). Retrieved May 29, 2013.
- "Amazon.co.uk Associates: The web's most popular and successful Affiliate Program". Affiliate-program.amazon.co.uk. July 9, 2010. Archived from the original on August 26, 2008. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "Usage of advertising networks for websites". W3Techs.com. July 22, 2014. Retrieved July 22, 2014.
- "14 Easy Fundraising Ideas for Non-Profits". blisstree.com. Archived from the original on December 22, 2015. Retrieved November 24, 2014.
- "Amazon Seller Product Suggestions". Amazonservices.com. Retrieved August 29, 2010.
- "Amazon FAQ". Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- "Amazon.com Movers and shakers". Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- "Amazon.com Author Central". Retrieved September 5, 2011.
- "Amazon Sales Estimator". Jungle Scout. May 15, 2017.
- "Frequently Asked Questions about Amazon.com". Retrieved September 6, 2012.
- "How Amazon Works". January 25, 2006. Retrieved December 15, 2011.
- "Help". Retrieved December 16, 2011.
- Bensinger, Greg (February 2, 2016). "Amazon Plans Hundreds of Brick-and-Mortar Bookstores, Mall CEO Says". Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Rey, Jason Del (March 8, 2017). "Amazon just confirmed its 10th book store, signaling this is way more than an experiment". Recode.
- "Einzelhandel: Amazon plant Offline-Filialen in Deutschland". Faz.net. Retrieved June 4, 2018.
- "SWOT Analysis Amazon". Archived from the original on December 3, 2011. Retrieved December 17, 2011.
- "Fortune 500 Companies 2018: Who Made the List". Fortune. Retrieved November 9, 2018.
- "Amazon: annual revenue 2017". Statista. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "AMZN : Summary for Amazon.com, Inc. - Yahoo Finance". finance.yahoo.com. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "2007 Annual Report". Ir.aboutamazon.com.
- "2008 Annual Report". Ir.aboutamazon.com.
- "2009 Annual Report". Ir.aboutamazon.com.
- "2010 Annual Report". Ir.aboutamazon.com.
- "2011 Annual Report". Ir.aboutamazon.com.
- "2012 Annual Report". Ir.aboutamazon.com.
- "2013 Annual Report". Ir.aboutamazon.com.
- Neate, Rupert (January 29, 2015). "Amazon reports $89bn in sales last year as shares jump 11% after hours". The Guardian. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- Roettgers, Janko (January 28, 2016). "Amazon Clocks $107 Billion In Revenue In 2015". Variety.com. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "Amazon sales hit $136B in 2016; dollar hurts overseas business". The Seattle Times. February 2, 2017. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "Amazon 2017 sales jump by nearly a third". BBC News. February 1, 2018. Retrieved November 7, 2018.
- "2018 Annual Report" (PDF).
- "Amazon is selling facial recognition to law enforcement — for a fistful of dollars". May 22, 2018.
- Jeong, May (August 13, 2018). ""Everybody immediately knew that it was for Amazon": Has Bezos become more powerful in DC than Trump?". Vanity Fair. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- Leiber, Nick (December 7, 2011). "Amazon Lure's Shoppers Away from Stores". Bloomberg BusinessWeek. Retrieved December 7, 2011.
- Jean-Philippe Cavaillez (March 5, 2019). "Plateforme logistique Amazon : bras de fer dans l'Est lyonnais". Le Progrès (in French). p. 10.
- Matsakis, Louise (October 2, 2018). "Why Amazon Really Raised Its Minimum Wage to $15". Wired.
- Slatterly, Brennon. "Amazon 'Glitch' Yanks Sales Rank of Hundreds of LGBT Books". PC World. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- Armstrong, Paul (November 28, 2000). "Amazon: 'Glitch' caused gay censorship error". CNN. Archived from the original on January 16, 2013. Retrieved July 28, 2012.
- Raice, Shayndi (December 20, 2011). "Groupon Launches Anti-Amazon Promotion of Sorts". WSJ. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- "Focus on Mobile Commerce – While some still cry, others fight back". Internet Retailer. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- "What can retailers learn from Amazon, Groupon and eBay? – Mobile Commerce Daily – Multichannel retail support". Mobile Commerce Daily. December 20, 2011. Archived from the original on February 7, 2012. Retrieved February 1, 2012.
- "Complaint, Federal Trade Commission v. Amazon.com, Inc" (PDF). PacerMonitor. PacerMonitor. Retrieved June 16, 2016.
- "Apple Sues Mobile Star for Selling Counterfeit Power Adapters and Charging Cables through Amazon". Patently Apple.
- Milchen, Jeff (April 28, 2011). "To Help Main Street, Close the Internet Sales Tax Loophole". Archived from the original on March 15, 2016. Retrieved November 17, 2016.
- "Amazon will start collecting sales tax nationwide starting April 1st". The Verge. Retrieved April 6, 2017.
- Isidore, Chris (February 15, 2019). "Despite record profits, Amazon didn't pay any federal income tax in 2017 or 2018. Here's why". CNN. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Amazon riled up the left for not paying federal taxes — and it’s in a position to offset future profits, too (MarketWatch)
- Franck, Thomas (April 3, 2018). "Amazon shares turn negative after Trump bashes company for a fourth time in a week". CNBC. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
- Editorial, Reuters. "Amazon shares fall 6 percent as Trump renews attack". U.S. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
- Manchester, Julia. "Fox's Shep Smith fact-checks Trump's Amazon claims: 'None of that was true'". The Hill. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
- Wohlfeil, Samantha (September 6, 2018). "Workers describe pressures at Amazon warehouses as Bernie Sanders gears up to make the corporation pay". Inlander. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
- Matsakis, Louise (September 6, 2018). "Bernie Sanders and the Truth About Amazon, Food Stamps, and Tax Breaks". Wired. ISSN 1059-1028. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Bloodworth, James (September 17, 2018). "I worked in an Amazon warehouse. Bernie Sanders is right to target them". The Guardian. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
- Robertson, Adi (September 5, 2018). "Bernie Sanders introduces "Stop BEZOS" bill to tax Amazon for underpaying workers". The Verge. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- Gibson, Kate (September 5, 2018). "Bernie Sanders targets Amazon, Walmart with 100% tax". CBS. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- Delaney, Arthur (August 31, 2018). "Why Bernie Sanders and Tucker Carlson agree on food stamps". The Huffington Post. Retrieved September 14, 2018.
- Taibbi, Matt (September 18, 2018). "Bernie Sanders' Anti-Amazon Bill is an Indictment of the Media, Too". Rolling Stone. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
- Porter, Jon (October 2, 2018). "Amazon raises minimum wage to $15 for all 350,000 US workers following criticism". The Verge. Retrieved October 20, 2018.
- Amazon under fire for staffing practices in Randstad contract|Business intelligence for recruitment and resourcing professionals Archived August 4, 2013, at the Wayback Machine. Recruiter.co.uk (August 2, 2013). Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
- Edwards, Jim (August 5, 2013). "Brutal Conditions In Amazon's Warehouse's Threaten To Ruin The Company's Image". Business Insider. Retrieved February 24, 2014.
- Soper, Spencer (September 18, 2011). "Inside Amazon's Warehouse". The Morning Call. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- Soper, Spencer; Kraus, Scott (September 25, 2011). "Amazon gets heat over warehouse". Morning Call. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
- Yarrow, Jay; Kovach, Steve (September 20, 2011). "10 Crazy Rules That Could Get You Fired From Amazon Warehouses". Business Insider. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- O'Connor, Sarah (February 8, 2013). "Amazon unpacked". Financial Times. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Kritik an Arbeitsbedingungen bei Amazon". tagesschau.de. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- "Ausgeliefert! Leiharbeiter ... – Ausgeliefert! Leiharbeiter bei Amazon – Reportage & Documentation – ARD | Das Erste". Daserste.de. February 13, 2013. Archived from the original on February 18, 2013. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- Paterson, Tony (February 14, 2013). "Amazon 'used neo-Nazi guards to keep immigrant workforce under control' in Germany – Europe – World". The Independent. London. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- "Germany to probe claims of staff abuse". Globaltimes.cn. Retrieved February 20, 2013.
- "Amazon to investigate reports temporary staff in Germany were mistreated". Globalnews.ca. Retrieved July 14, 2015.
- Woodman, Spencer (March 26, 2015). "Exclusive: Amazon makes even temporary warehouse workers sign 18-month non-competes". The Verge. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
- Kasperkevic, Jana (March 27, 2015). "Amazon to remove non-compete clause from contracts for hourly workers". The Guardian. Retrieved March 28, 2015.
- Kantor, Jodi; Streitfeld, David (August 15, 2015). "Inside Amazon: Wrestling Big Ideas in a Bruising Workplace". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Cook, John (November 8, 2017). "Full memo: Jeff Bezos responds to brutal NYT story, says it doesn't represent the Amazon he leads". GeekWire. Retrieved April 3, 2018.
- "Amazon increases paid leave for new parents". The Seattle Times. November 2, 2015. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- Picchi, Aimee (April 19, 2018). "Inside an Amazon warehouse: "Treating human beings as robots"". CBS MoneyWatch. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
- Sainato, Michael (July 30, 2018). "Accidents at Amazon: workers left to suffer after warehouse injuries". The Guardian. Retrieved September 22, 2018.
- Peterson, Hayley (September 11, 2018). "Missing wages, grueling shifts, and bottles of urine: The disturbing accounts of Amazon delivery drivers may reveal the true human cost of 'free' shipping". www.businessinsider.com.
- News, A. B. C. (October 2, 2018). "Amazon to raise wages for more than 350,000 employees". ABC News. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- Partington, Richard (October 2, 2018). "Amazon raises minimum wage for US and UK employees". Theguardian.com. Retrieved January 3, 2019.
- Soper, Spencer (October 3, 2018). "Amazon Warehouse Workers Lose Bonuses, Stock Awards for Raises". Bloomberg.com. Retrieved October 4, 2018.
- Hamilton, Isobel Asher (November 23, 2018). "'We are not robots': Thousands of Amazon workers across Europe are striking on Black Friday over warehouse working conditions". Business Insider. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
- Zahn, Max; Paget, Sharif (March 11, 2019). "'Colony of Hell': 911 Calls From Inside Amazon Warehouses". The Daily Beast. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Chen, Michelle (July 16, 2019). "Amazon Prime Day deals aren't worth the moral cost of exploiting their workers". NBC News. Retrieved July 17, 2019.
- Business, Amy Woodyatt and Barbara Wojazer, CNN. "Amazon workers go on strike in Germany as Prime Day begins". CNN. Retrieved July 15, 2019.
- "The CIA, Amazon, Bezos and the Washington Post : An Exchange with Executive Editor Martin Baron". The Huffington Post. January 8, 2014.
- Streitfeld, David; Haughney, Christine (August 17, 2013). "Expecting the Unexpected From Jeff Bezos". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- "Amazon puts high-profile Seattle plans on ice over proposal to tax large employers". The Seattle Times. May 2, 2018. Retrieved May 3, 2018.
- "'Show of force': Business-backed opponents of Seattle head tax outspent supporters 2 to 1". The Seattle Times. July 13, 2018. Retrieved July 17, 2018.
- Reicher, Mike (January 4, 2019). "Tennessee wants to keep its incentives offer for Amazon's HQ2 secret for 5 years". The Tennessean. Retrieved January 6, 2019.
- White, Peter (December 13, 2018). "Will Amazon be Naughty or Nice?". Tennessee Tribune. Retrieved December 21, 2018.
PATHE does not want Metro to give Amazon a dime. They want the city to build at least 5,000 more affordable homes to address the “Amazon effect” on the local housing market. And they want a new transit referendum that focuses on the needs of working people and better public bus service.
- Mazza, Sandy (November 19, 2018). "Did Tennessee taxpayers get a good deal with $102M Amazon payment?". The Tennessean. Retrieved February 11, 2019.
- Koehn, Alexandra (November 29, 2018). "Metro employees feel 'left behind' after no pay raise". News Channel 5. Retrieved December 12, 2018.
- "Nashville police union: Amazon getting 'corporate welfare'". AP News. November 30, 2018. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
- Garrison, Joey (February 6, 2019). "Nashville council approves $15M in infrastructure work for future home of Amazon hub". The Tennessean. Retrieved February 10, 2019.
- "Yes, Amazon is tracking people". Washingtonexaminer.com.
- "Amazon Teams Up With Government to Deploy Dangerous New Facial Recognition Technology". Aclu.org.
- "Orlando Stops Using Amazon's Face-Scanning Tech Amid Spying Concerns". Newsweek.com. June 26, 2018.
- "Amazon's Lobbying Expenditures". Opensecrets.org.
- Parkhurst, Emily (May 24, 2012). "Amazon shareholders met by protesters, company cuts ties with ALEC". Bizjournals.com.
- Romm, Tony. "In Amazon's shopping cart: D.C. influence". Politico.com. Politico. Retrieved August 7, 2014.
- Kang, Cecilia (December 27, 2015). "F.A.A. Drone Laws Start to Clash With Stricter Local Rules". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved February 20, 2019.
- Brandt, Richard L. (2011). One Click: Jeff Bezos and the Rise of Amazon.com. New York: Portfolio Penguin. ISBN 978-1-59184-375-7.
- Daisey, Mike (2002). 21 Dog Years. Free Press. ISBN 0-7432-2580-5.
- Friedman, Mara (2004). Amazon.com for Dummies. Wiley Publishing. ISBN 0-7645-5840-4.
- Marcus, James (2004). Amazonia: Five Years at the Epicenter of the Dot.Com Juggernaut. W. W. Norton. ISBN 1-56584-870-5.
- Spector, Robert (2000). Amazon.com – Get Big Fast: Inside the Revolutionary Business Model That Changed the World. HarperCollins. ISBN 0-06-662041-4.
- Stone, Brad (2013). The Everything Store: Jeff Bezos and the Age of Amazon. New York: Little Brown and Co. ISBN 978-0-316-21926-6. OCLC 856249407.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Amazon.com.|