CD36

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
CD36
Identifiers
Aliases CD36, BDPLT10, CHDS7, FAT, GP3B, GP4, GPIV, PASIV, SCARB3, CD36 molecule
External IDs OMIM: 173510 MGI: 107899 HomoloGene: 73871 GeneCards: CD36
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE CD36 206488 s at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_001159555
NM_001159556
NM_001159557
NM_001159558
NM_007643

RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC) Chr 7: 80.37 – 80.68 Mb Chr 5: 17.78 – 17.89 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
Wikidata
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

CD36 (cluster of differentiation 36), also known as platelet glycoprotein 4, fatty acid translocase (FAT), scavenger receptor class B member 3 (SCARB3), and glycoproteins 88 (GP88), IIIb (GPIIIB), or IV (GPIV) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the CD36 gene. The CD36 antigen is an integral membrane protein found on the surface of many cell types in vertebrate animals. It imports fatty acids inside cells and is a member of the class B scavenger receptor family of cell surface proteins. CD36 binds many ligands including collagen,[3] thrombospondin,[4] erythrocytes parasitized with Plasmodium falciparum,[5] oxidized low density lipoprotein,[6][7] native lipoproteins,[8] oxidized phospholipids,[9] and long-chain fatty acids.[10]

Work in genetically modified rodents suggest a role for CD36 in fatty acid metabolism,[11][12] heart disease,[13] taste,[14][15][16] and dietary fat processing in the intestine.[17] It may be involved in glucose intolerance, atherosclerosis, arterial hypertension, diabetes, cardiomyopathy and Alzheimer's disease.[18]

Structure[edit]

Primary[edit]

In humans, rats and mice, CD36 consists of 472 amino acids with a predicted molecular weight of approximately 53,000 Da. However, CD36 is extensively glycosylated and has an apparent molecular weight of 88,000 Da as determined by SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis.[19]

Tertiary[edit]

Using Kyte-Doolittle analysis,[20] the amino acid sequence of CD36 predicts a hydrophobic region near each end of the protein large enough to span cellular membranes. Based on this notion and the observation that CD36 is found on the surface of cells, CD36 is thought to have a 'hairpin-like' structure with α-helices at the C- and N- termini projecting through the membrane and a larger extracellular loop (Fig. 1). This topology is supported by transfection experiments in cultured cells using deletion mutants of CD36.[21][22]

Based on the crystal structure of the homologous SCARB2, a model of the extracellullar domain of CD36 has been produced.[23] Like SCARB2, CD36 is proposed to contain an antiparallel β-barrel core with many short α-helices adorning it. The structure is predicted to contain a hydrophobic transport tunnel. Disulfide linkages between 4 of the 6 cysteine residues in the extracellular loop are required for efficient intracellular processing and transport of CD36 to the plasma membrane.[24] It is not clear what role these linkages play on the function of the mature CD36 protein on the cell surface.

Posttranslational modification[edit]

Besides glycosylation, additional posttranslational modifications have been reported for CD36. CD36 is modified with 4 palmitoyl chains, 2 on each of the two intracellular domains.[22] The function of these lipid modifications is currently unknown but they likely promote the association of CD36 with the membrane and possibly lipid rafts which appear to be important for some CD36 functions.[25][26] CD36 could be also phosphorylated at Y62, T92, T323,[27] ubiquitinated at K56, K469, K472 and acetylated at K52, K56, K166, K231, K394, K398, K403.[28][29][30]

Protein-protein interactions[edit]

In the absence of ligand, membrane bound CD36 exists primarily in a monomeric state. However exposure to the thrombospondin ligand causes CD36 to dimerize. This dimerization has been proposed to play an important role in CD36 signal transduction.[31]

Genetics[edit]

In humans, The gene is located on the long arm of chromosome 7 at band 11.2 (7q11.2[32]) and is encoded by 15 exons that extend over more than 32 kilobases. Both the 5' and the 3' untranslated regions contain introns: the 5' with two and the 3' one. Exons 1, 2 and first 89 nucleotides of exon 3 and as well as exon 15 are non-coding. Exon 3 contains encodes the N-terminal cytoplasmic and transmembrane domains. The C-terminal cytoplasmic and transmembrane regions is encoded by exon 14. The extracellular domain is encoded by the central 11 exons. Alternative splicing of the untranslated regions gives rise to at least two mRNA species.

The transcription initiation site of the CD36 gene has been mapped to 289 nucleotides upstream from the translational start codon and a TATA box and several putative cis regulatory regions lie further 5'. A binding site for PEBP2/CBF factors has been identified between -158 and -90 and disruption of this site reduces expression. The gene is the transcriptional control of the nuclear receptor PPAR/RXR heterodimer (Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorRetinoid X receptor) and gene expression can be up regulated using synthetic and natural ligands for PPAR and RXR, including the thiazolidinedione class of anti-diabetic drugs and the vitamin A metabolite 9-cis-retinoic acid respectively.

Tissue distribution[edit]

CD36 is found on platelets, erythrocytes, monocytes, differentiated adipocytes, skeletal muscle, mammary epithelial cells, spleen cells and some skin microdermal endothelial cells.

Function[edit]

The protein itself belongs to the class B scavenger receptor family which includes receptors for selective cholesteryl ester uptake, scavenger receptor class B type I (SR-BI) and lysosomal integral membrane protein II (LIMP-II).

CD36 interacts with a number of ligands, including collagen types I and IV, thrombospondin, erythrocytes parasitized with Plasmodium falciparum, platelet-agglutinating protein p37, oxidized low density lipoprotein and long-chain fatty acids.[citation needed]

On macrophages CD36 forms part of a non-opsonic receptor (the scavenger receptor CD36/alphaV beta3 complex) and is involved[clarification needed] in phagocytosis.[citation needed]

CD36 has also been implicated in hemostasis, thrombosis, malaria, inflammation, lipid metabolism and atherogenesis.[citation needed]

On binding a ligand the protein and ligand are internalized. This internalization is independent of macropinocytosis and occurs by an actin dependent mechanism requiring the activation Src-family kinases, JNK and Rho-family GTPases.[33] Unlike macropinocytosis this process is not affected by inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase or Na+/H+ exchange.

CD36 ligands have also been shown to promote sterile inflammation through assembly of a Toll-like receptor 4 and 6 heterodimer.[34]

Recently, CD36 was linked to store-operated calcium flux, phospholipase A2 activation, and production of prostaglandin E2[35]

CD36 function in long-chain fatty acid uptake and signaling can be irreversibly inhibited by sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO), which binds lysine 164 within a hydrophobic pocked shared by several CD36 ligands, e.g. fatty acid and oxLDL.[29]

Clinical significance[edit]

Malaria[edit]

Infections with the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum are characterized by sequestration of erythrocytes infected with mature forms of the parasite and CD36 has been shown to be a major sequestration receptor on microvascular endothelial cells. Parasitised erythrocytes adhere to endothelium at the trophozoite/schizonts stage simultaneous with the appearance of the var gene product (erythrocyte membrane protein 1) on the erythrocyte surface. The appearance of erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1) on the erythrocyte surface is a temperature dependent phenomenon which is due to increased protein trafficking to the erythrocyte surface at the raised temperature. PfEMP1 can bind other endothelial receptors - thrombospondin (TSP) and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1) – in addition to CD36 - and genes other than PfEMP1 also bind to CD36: cytoadherence linked protein (clag) and sequestrin. The PfEMP1 binding site on CD36 is known to be located on exon 5.

CD36 on the surface of the platelets has been shown to be involved in adherence but direct adherence to the endothelium by the infected erythrocytes also occurs. Autoaggregation of infected erythrocytes by platelets has been shown to correlate with severe malaria and cerebral malaria in particular and antiplatelet antibodies may offer some protection.

Several lines of evidence suggest that mutations in CD36 are protective against malaria: mutations in the promoters and within introns and in exon 5 reduce the risk of severe malaria. Gene diversity studies suggest there has been positive selection on this gene presumably due to malarial selection pressure. Dissenting reports are also known suggesting that CD36 is not the sole determinant of severe malaria. In addition a role for CD36 has been found in the clearance of gametocytes (stages I and II).

CD36 has been shown to have a role in the innate immune response to malaria in mouse models.[36] Compared with wild type mice CD36 (-/-) mice the cytokine induction response and parasite clearance were impaired. Earlier peak parasitemias, higher parasite densities and higher mortality were noted. It is thought that CD36 is involved in the Plasmodium falciparum glycophosphatidylinositol (PfGPI) induced MAPK activation and proinflammatory cytokine secretion. When macrophages were exposed to PfGPI the proteins ERK1/2, JNK, p38, and c-Jun became phosphorylated. All these proteins are involved as secondary messengers in the immune response. These responses were blunted in the CD36 (-/-) mice. Also in the CD36 (-/-) macrophages secreted significantly less TNF-alpha on exposure to PfGPI. Work is ongoing to determine how these exactly how these responses provide protection against malaria.

CD36 deficiency and alloimmune thrombocytopenia[edit]

CD36 is also known as glycoprotein IV (gpIV) or glycoprotein IIIb (gpIIIb) in platelets and gives rise to the Naka antigen. The Naka null phenotype is found in 0.3% of Caucasians and appears to be asymptomatic. The null phenotype is more common in African (2.5%), Japanese, and other Asian populations (5-11%).

Mutations in the human CD36 gene were first identified in a patient who, despite multiple platelet transfusions, continued to exhibit low platelet levels.[37][38] This condition is known as refractoriness to platelet transfusion. Subsequent studies have shown that CD36 found on the surface of platelets. This antigen is recognized by the monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) OKM5 and OKM8. It is bound by the Plasmodium falciparum protein sequestrin.[39]

Depending on the nature of the mutation in codon 90 CD36 may be absent either on both platelets and monocytes (type 1) or platelets alone (type 2). Type 2 has been divided into two subtypes - a and b. Deficiency restricted to the platelets alone is known as type 2a; if CD36 is also absent from the erythoblasts the phenotype is classified as type 2b.[40] The molecular basis is known for some cases: T1264G in both Kenyans and Gambians; C478T (50%), 539 deletion of AC and 1159 insertion of an A, 1438-1449 deletion and a combined 839-841 deletion GAG and insertion of AAAAC in Japanese.

In a study of 827 apparently healthy Japanese volunteers, type I and II deficiencies were found in 8 (1.0%) and 48 (5.8%) respectively.[41] In 1127 healthy French blood donors (almost all of whom were white Europeans) no CD36 deficiency was found.[42] In a second group only 1 of 301 white test subjects was found to be CD36 deficient. 16 of the 206 sub-Saharan black Africans and 1 of 148 black Caribbeans were found to be CD36 -ve. Three of 13 CD36 -ve persons examined had anti CD36 antibodies. In a group of 250 black American blood donors 6 (2.4%) were found to be Naka antigen negative.[43]

CD36 deficiency may be a cause of post transfusion purpura.[44]

Blood pressure[edit]

Below normal levels of CD36 expression in the kidneys has been implicated as a genetic risk factor for hypertension (high blood pressure).[45]

Fatty acid uptake[edit]

An association with myocardial fatty acid uptake in humans has been noted.[46] The data suggest a link between hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and CD36 but this needs to be confirmed.

Tuberculosis[edit]

RNAi screening in a Drosophila model has revealed that a member of the CD36 family is required for phagocytosis of Mycobacterium tuberculosis into macrophage phagosomes.[47]

Obesity[edit]

CD36's association with the ability to taste fats has made it a target for various studies regarding obesity and alteration of lipid tasting. CD36 mRNA expression was found to be reduced in taste bud cells (TBC) of obese sand rats (P. obesus) compared to lean controls, implicating an association between CD36 and obesity.[48] Although actual levels of CD36 protein were not different between the obese and control rat cells, Abdoul-Azize et al. hypothesize that the physical distribution of CD36 could differ in obese rat cells.[48] Changes in calcium mediation have been associated with CD36 and obesity as well. Taste bud cells (more specifically, cells from the circumvallate papillae) containing CD36 that were isolated from obese mice exhibited a significantly smaller increase in calcium after fatty acid stimulation when compared to control mice:[49] CD36 associated calcium regulation is impaired when mice are made to be obese (but not in normal weight mice), and this could be a mechanism contributing to behavior changes in the obese mice, such as decreased lipid taste sensitivity and decreased attraction to fats.[49]

There has been some investigation into human CD36 as well. A study examined oral detection of fat in obese subjects with genetic bases for high, medium, and low expression of the CD36 receptor. Those subjects with high CD36 expression were eight times more sensitive to certain fats (oleic acid and triolein) than the subjects with low CD36 expression.[15] Those subjects with an intermediate amount of CD36 expression were sensitive to fat at a level between the high and low groups.[15] This study demonstrates that there is a significant relationship between oral fat sensitivity and the amount of CD36 receptor expression, but further investigation into CD36 could be useful for learning more about lipid tasting in the context of obesity, as CD36 may be a target for therapies in the future.

Cancer[edit]

CD36 plays a role in the regulation of angiogenesis, which may be a therapeutic strategy for controlling the spread of cancer.[50] Some data from in vitro and animal studies suggested that fatty acid uptake through CD36 may promote cancer cell migration and proliferation in hepatocellular carcinoma, glioblastoma, and potentially other cancers; there was limited data from observational studies in people that low CD36 may correlate with a slightly better outcome in glioblastoma.[51]

Interactions[edit]

CD36 has been shown to interact with FYN.[52][53]

Related proteins[edit]

CD36 family
4f7b 1.png
Structure of Limp-II. PDB entry 4f7b
Identifiers
Symbol CD36
Pfam PF01130
InterPro IPR002159

Other human scavenger receptors related to CD36 are SCARB1 and SCARB2 proteins.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Tandon NN, Kralisz U, Jamieson GA (May 1989). "Identification of glycoprotein IV (CD36) as a primary receptor for platelet-collagen adhesion". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 264 (13): 7576–83. PMID 2468670. 
  4. ^ Silverstein RL, Baird M, Lo SK, Yesner LM (August 1992). "Sense and antisense cDNA transfection of CD36 (glycoprotein IV) in melanoma cells. Role of CD36 as a thrombospondin receptor". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 267 (23): 16607–12. PMID 1379600. 
  5. ^ Oquendo P, Hundt E, Lawler J, Seed B (July 1989). "CD36 directly mediates cytoadherence of Plasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes". Cell. 58 (1): 95–101. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(89)90406-6. PMID 2473841. 
  6. ^ Endemann G, Stanton LW, Madden KS, Bryant CM, White RT, Protter AA (June 1993). "CD36 is a receptor for oxidized low density lipoprotein". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (16): 11811–6. PMID 7685021. 
  7. ^ Nicholson AC, Frieda S, Pearce A, Silverstein RL (February 1995). "Oxidized LDL binds to CD36 on human monocyte-derived macrophages and transfected cell lines. Evidence implicating the lipid moiety of the lipoprotein as the binding site". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology. 15 (2): 269–75. doi:10.1161/01.ATV.15.2.269. PMID 7538425. 
  8. ^ Calvo D, Gómez-Coronado D, Suárez Y, Lasunción MA, Vega MA (April 1998). "Human CD36 is a high affinity receptor for the native lipoproteins HDL, LDL, and VLDL". Journal of Lipid Research. 39 (4): 777–88. PMID 9555943. 
  9. ^ Podrez EA, Poliakov E, Shen Z, Zhang R, Deng Y, Sun M, Finton PJ, Shan L, Gugiu B, Fox PL, Hoff HF, Salomon RG, Hazen SL (October 2002). "Identification of a novel family of oxidized phospholipids that serve as ligands for the macrophage scavenger receptor CD36". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (41): 38503–16. doi:10.1074/jbc.M203318200. PMID 12105195. 
  10. ^ Baillie AG, Coburn CT, Abumrad NA (September 1996). "Reversible binding of long-chain fatty acids to purified FAT, the adipose CD36 homolog". The Journal of Membrane Biology. 153 (1): 75–81. doi:10.1007/s002329900111. PMID 8694909. 
  11. ^ Hajri T, Han XX, Bonen A, Abumrad NA (May 2002). "Defective fatty acid uptake modulates insulin responsiveness and metabolic responses to diet in CD36-null mice". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 109 (10): 1381–9. doi:10.1172/JCI14596. PMC 150975Freely accessible. PMID 12021254. 
  12. ^ Pravenec M, Landa V, Zídek V, Musilová A, Kazdová L, Qi N, Wang J, St Lezin E, Kurtz TW (2003). "Transgenic expression of CD36 in the spontaneously hypertensive rat is associated with amelioration of metabolic disturbances but has no effect on hypertension" (PDF). Physiological Research. 52 (6): 681–8. PMID 14640889. 
  13. ^ Febbraio M, Podrez EA, Smith JD, Hajjar DP, Hazen SL, Hoff HF, Sharma K, Silverstein RL (April 2000). "Targeted disruption of the class B scavenger receptor CD36 protects against atherosclerotic lesion development in mice". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 105 (8): 1049–56. doi:10.1172/JCI9259. PMC 300837Freely accessible. PMID 10772649. 
  14. ^ Laugerette F, Passilly-Degrace P, Patris B, Niot I, Febbraio M, Montmayeur JP, Besnard P (November 2005). "CD36 involvement in orosensory detection of dietary lipids, spontaneous fat preference, and digestive secretions". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 115 (11): 3177–84. doi:10.1172/JCI25299. PMC 1265871Freely accessible. PMID 16276419. 
  15. ^ a b c Pepino MY, Love-Gregory L, Klein S, Abumrad NA (March 2012). "The fatty acid translocase gene CD36 and lingual lipase influence oral sensitivity to fat in obese subjects". Journal of Lipid Research. 53 (3): 561–6. doi:10.1194/jlr.M021873. PMC 3276480Freely accessible. PMID 22210925. 
  16. ^ DiPatrizio NV (September 2014). "Is fat taste ready for primetime?". Physiology & Behavior. 136: 145–54. doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2014.03.002. PMC 4162865Freely accessible. PMID 24631296. 
  17. ^ Drover VA, Ajmal M, Nassir F, Davidson NO, Nauli AM, Sahoo D, Tso P, Abumrad NA (May 2005). "CD36 deficiency impairs intestinal lipid secretion and clearance of chylomicrons from the blood". The Journal of Clinical Investigation. 115 (5): 1290–7. doi:10.1172/JCI21514. PMC 1074677Freely accessible. PMID 15841205. 
  18. ^ Rać ME, Safranow K, Poncyljusz W (2007). "Molecular basis of human CD36 gene mutations". Molecular Medicine. 13 (5-6): 288–96. doi:10.2119/2006-00088.Rac. PMC 1936231Freely accessible. PMID 17673938. 
  19. ^ Greenwalt DE, Watt KW, So OY, Jiwani N (July 1990). "PAS IV, an integral membrane protein of mammary epithelial cells, is related to platelet and endothelial cell CD36 (GP IV)". Biochemistry. 29 (30): 7054–9. doi:10.1021/bi00482a015. PMID 1699598. 
  20. ^ Kyte J, Doolittle RF (May 1982). "A simple method for displaying the hydropathic character of a protein". Journal of Molecular Biology. 157 (1): 105–32. doi:10.1016/0022-2836(82)90515-0. PMID 7108955. 
  21. ^ Gruarin P, Thorne RF, Dorahy DJ, Burns GF, Sitia R, Alessio M (August 2000). "CD36 is a ditopic glycoprotein with the N-terminal domain implicated in intracellular transport". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 275 (2): 446–54. doi:10.1006/bbrc.2000.3333. PMID 10964685. 
  22. ^ a b Tao N, Wagner SJ, Lublin DM (September 1996). "CD36 is palmitoylated on both N- and C-terminal cytoplasmic tails". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (37): 22315–20. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.37.22315. PMID 8798390. 
  23. ^ Neculai D, Schwake M, Ravichandran M, Zunke F, Collins RF, Peters J, Neculai M, Plumb J, Loppnau P, Pizarro JC, Seitova A, Trimble WS, Saftig P, Grinstein S, Dhe-Paganon S (December 2013). "Structure of LIMP-2 provides functional insights with implications for SR-BI and CD36". Nature. 504 (7478): 172–6. doi:10.1038/nature12684. PMID 24162852. 
  24. ^ Gruarin P, Sitia R, Alessio M (December 1997). "Formation of one or more intrachain disulphide bonds is required for the intracellular processing and transport of CD36". The Biochemical Journal. 328 (2): 635–42. doi:10.1042/bj3280635. PMC 1218965Freely accessible. PMID 9371725. 
  25. ^ Zeng Y, Tao N, Chung KN, Heuser JE, Lublin DM (November 2003). "Endocytosis of oxidized low density lipoprotein through scavenger receptor CD36 utilizes a lipid raft pathway that does not require caveolin-1". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 278 (46): 45931–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.M307722200. PMID 12947091. 
  26. ^ Pohl J, Ring A, Korkmaz U, Ehehalt R, Stremmel W (January 2005). "FAT/CD36-mediated long-chain fatty acid uptake in adipocytes requires plasma membrane rafts". Molecular Biology of the Cell. 16 (1): 24–31. doi:10.1091/mbc.E04-07-0616. PMC 539148Freely accessible. PMID 15496455. 
  27. ^ Hornbeck PV, Kornhauser JM, Tkachev S, Zhang B, Skrzypek E, Murray B, Latham V, Sullivan M. "CD36 (human) protein page". PhosphoSitePlus. Cell Signaling Technology, Inc. 
  28. ^ Smith J, Su X, El-Maghrabi R, Stahl PD, Abumrad NA (May 2008). "Opposite regulation of CD36 ubiquitination by fatty acids and insulin: effects on fatty acid uptake". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 283 (20): 13578–85. doi:10.1074/jbc.M800008200. PMID 18353783. 
  29. ^ a b Kuda O, Pietka TA, Demianova Z, Kudova E, Cvacka J, Kopecky J, Abumrad NA (May 2013). "Sulfo-N-succinimidyl oleate (SSO) inhibits fatty acid uptake and signaling for intracellular calcium via binding CD36 lysine 164: SSO also inhibits oxidized low density lipoprotein uptake by macrophages". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 288 (22): 15547–55. doi:10.1074/jbc.M113.473298. PMID 23603908. 
  30. ^ Lundby A, Lage K, Weinert BT, Bekker-Jensen DB, Secher A, Skovgaard T, Kelstrup CD, Dmytriyev A, Choudhary C, Lundby C, Olsen JV (August 2012). "Proteomic analysis of lysine acetylation sites in rat tissues reveals organ specificity and subcellular patterns". Cell Reports. 2 (2): 419–31. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2012.07.006. PMID 22902405. 
  31. ^ Daviet L, Malvoisin E, Wild TF, McGregor JL (August 1997). "Thrombospondin induces dimerization of membrane-bound, but not soluble CD36". Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 78 (2): 897–901. PMID 9268192. 
  32. ^ Fernández-Ruiz E, Armesilla AL, Sánchez-Madrid F, Vega MA (September 1993). "Gene encoding the collagen type I and thrombospondin receptor CD36 is located on chromosome 7q11.2". Genomics. 17 (3): 759–61. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1401. PMID 7503937. 
  33. ^ Collins RF, Touret N, Kuwata H, Tandon NN, Grinstein S, Trimble WS (October 2009). "Uptake of oxidized low density lipoprotein by CD36 occurs by an actin-dependent pathway distinct from macropinocytosis". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 284 (44): 30288–97. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.045104. PMC 2781584Freely accessible. PMID 19740737. 
  34. ^ Stewart CR, Stuart LM, Wilkinson K, van Gils JM, Deng J, Halle A, Rayner KJ, Boyer L, Zhong R, Frazier WA, Lacy-Hulbert A, El Khoury J, Golenbock DT, Moore KJ (February 2010). "CD36 ligands promote sterile inflammation through assembly of a Toll-like receptor 4 and 6 heterodimer". Nature Immunology. 11 (2): 155–61. doi:10.1038/ni.1836. PMC 2809046Freely accessible. PMID 20037584. 
  35. ^ Kuda O, Jenkins CM, Skinner JR, Moon SH, Su X, Gross RW, Abumrad NA (May 2011). "CD36 protein is involved in store-operated calcium flux, phospholipase A2 activation, and production of prostaglandin E2". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 286 (20): 17785–95. doi:10.1074/jbc.M111.232975. PMC 3093854Freely accessible. PMID 21454644. 
  36. ^ Patel SN, Lu Z, Ayi K, Serghides L, Gowda DC, Kain KC (March 2007). "Disruption of CD36 impairs cytokine response to Plasmodium falciparum glycosylphosphatidylinositol and confers susceptibility to severe and fatal malaria in vivo". Journal of Immunology. 178 (6): 3954–61. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.178.6.3954. PMID 17339496. 
  37. ^ Ikeda H, Mitani T, Ohnuma M, Haga H, Ohtzuka S, Kato T, Nakase T, Sekiguchi S (1989). "A new platelet-specific antigen, Naka, involved in the refractoriness of HLA-matched platelet transfusion". Vox Sanguinis. 57 (3): 213–7. doi:10.1111/j.1423-0410.1989.tb00826.x. PMID 2617957. 
  38. ^ Yamamoto N, Ikeda H, Tandon NN, Herman J, Tomiyama Y, Mitani T, Sekiguchi S, Lipsky R, Kralisz U, Jamieson GA (November 1990). "A platelet membrane glycoprotein (GP) deficiency in healthy blood donors: Naka- platelets lack detectable GPIV (CD36)". Blood. 76 (9): 1698–703. PMID 1699620. 
  39. ^ Ockenhouse CF, Klotz FW, Tandon NN, Jamieson GA (April 1991). "Sequestrin, a CD36 recognition protein on Plasmodium falciparum malaria-infected erythrocytes identified by anti-idiotype antibodies". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 88 (8): 3175–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.8.3175. PMC 51408Freely accessible. PMID 1707534. 
  40. ^ Toba K, Hanawa H, Watanabe K, Fuse I, Masuko M, Miyajima S, Takahashi M, Sakaue M, Abo T, Aizawa Y (October 2001). "Erythroid involvement in CD36 deficiency". Experimental Hematology. 29 (10): 1194–200. doi:10.1016/S0301-472X(01)00691-9. PMID 11602321. 
  41. ^ Yanai H, Chiba H, Fujiwara H, Morimoto M, Abe K, Yoshida S, Takahashi Y, Fuda H, Hui SP, Akita H, Kobayashi K, Matsuno K (September 2000). "Phenotype-genotype correlation in CD36 deficiency types I and II". Thrombosis and Haemostasis. 84 (3): 436–41. PMID 11019968. 
  42. ^ Lee K, Godeau B, Fromont P, Plonquet A, Debili N, Bachir D, Reviron D, Gourin J, Fernandez E, Galactéros F, Bierling P (August 1999). "CD36 deficiency is frequent and can cause platelet immunization in Africans". Transfusion. 39 (8): 873–9. doi:10.1046/j.1537-2995.1999.39080873.x. PMID 10504124. 
  43. ^ Curtis BR, Aster RH (April 1996). "Incidence of the Nak(a)-negative platelet phenotype in African Americans is similar to that of Asians". Transfusion. 36 (4): 331–4. doi:10.1046/j.1537-2995.1996.36496226147.x. PMID 8623134. 
  44. ^ Bierling P, Godeau B, Fromont P, Bettaieb A, Debili N, el-Kassar N, Rouby JJ, Vainchenker W, Duedari N (September 1995). "Posttransfusion purpura-like syndrome associated with CD36 (Naka) isoimmunization". Transfusion. 35 (9): 777–82. doi:10.1046/j.1537-2995.1995.35996029165.x. PMID 7570941. 
  45. ^ Pravenec M, Churchill PC, Churchill MC, Viklicky O, Kazdova L, Aitman TJ, Petretto E, Hubner N, Wallace CA, Zimdahl H, Zidek V, Landa V, Dunbar J, Bidani A, Griffin K, Qi N, Maxova M, Kren V, Mlejnek P, Wang J, Kurtz TW (August 2008). "Identification of renal Cd36 as a determinant of blood pressure and risk for hypertension". Nature Genetics. 40 (8): 952–4. doi:10.1038/ng.164. PMID 18587397. 
  46. ^ Okamoto F, Tanaka T, Sohmiya K, Kawamura K (July 1998). "CD36 abnormality and impaired myocardial long-chain fatty acid uptake in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy". Japanese Circulation Journal. 62 (7): 499–504. doi:10.1253/jcj.62.499. PMID 9707006. 
  47. ^ Philips JA, Rubin EJ, Perrimon N (August 2005). "Drosophila RNAi screen reveals CD36 family member required for mycobacterial infection". Science. 309 (5738): 1251–3. doi:10.1126/science.1116006. PMID 16020694. 
  48. ^ a b Abdoul-Azize S, Atek-Mebarki F, Bitam A, Sadou H, Koceïr EA, Khan NA (2013). "Oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and calcium signaling in taste bud cells are altered in nutritionally obesity-prone Psammomys obesus". PloS One. 8 (8): e68532. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0068532. PMC 3731325Freely accessible. PMID 23936306. 
  49. ^ a b Chevrot M, Bernard A, Ancel D, Buttet M, Martin C, Abdoul-Azize S, Merlin JF, Poirier H, Niot I, Khan NA, Passilly-Degrace P, Besnard P (September 2013). "Obesity alters the gustatory perception of lipids in the mouse: plausible involvement of lingual CD36". Journal of Lipid Research. 54 (9): 2485–94. doi:10.1194/jlr.M039446. PMC 3735945Freely accessible. PMID 23840049. 
  50. ^ Ge Y, Elghetany MT (2005). "CD36: a multiligand molecule". Laboratory Hematology : Official Publication of the International Society for Laboratory Hematology. 11 (1): 31–7. doi:10.1532/LH96.04056. PMID 15790550. 
  51. ^ Selwan EM, Finicle BT, Kim SM, Edinger AL (April 2016). "Attacking the supply wagons to starve cancer cells to death". FEBS Letters. 590 (7): 885–907. doi:10.1002/1873-3468.12121. PMC 4833639Freely accessible. PMID 26938658. 
  52. ^ Huang MM, Bolen JB, Barnwell JW, Shattil SJ, Brugge JS (September 1991). "Membrane glycoprotein IV (CD36) is physically associated with the Fyn, Lyn, and Yes protein-tyrosine kinases in human platelets". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 88 (17): 7844–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.88.17.7844. PMC 52400Freely accessible. PMID 1715582. 
  53. ^ Bull HA, Brickell PM, Dowd PM (August 1994). "Src-related protein tyrosine kinases are physically associated with the surface antigen CD36 in human dermal microvascular endothelial cells". FEBS Letters. 351 (1): 41–4. doi:10.1016/0014-5793(94)00814-0. PMID 7521304. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]