Lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP-1) also known as lysosome-associated membrane glycoprotein 1 and CD107a (Cluster of Differentiation 107a), is a protein that in humans is encoded by the LAMP1gene. The human LAMP1 gene is located on the long arm (q) of chromosome 13 at region 3, band 4 (13q34).
Residing primarily across lysosomal membranes, these glycoproteins consist of a large, highly glycosylated end with N-linked carbon chains on the luminal side of the membrane, and a short C-terminal tail exposed to the cytoplasm. The extracytoplasmic region contains a hinge-like structure which can form disulphide bridges homologous to those observed in human immunoglobulin A. Other characteristics of the structure of the LAMP-1 glycoproteins include:
LAMP1 and LAMP2 glycoproteins comprise 50% of all lysosomal membrane proteins, and are thought to be responsible in part for maintaining lysosomal integrity, pH and catabolism. The expression of LAMP1 and LAMP2 glycoproteins are linked, as deficiencies in LAMP1 gene will lead to increased expression of LAMP2 glycoproteins. The two are therefore thought to share similar functions in vivo. However, this makes the determining the precise function of LAMP1 difficult, because while the LAMP1 deficient phenotype is little different than the wild type due to LAMP2 up regulation, the LAMP1/LAMP2 double deficient phenotype leads to embryonic lethality.
Although the LAMP1 glycoproteins primarily reside across lysosomal membranes, in certain cases they can be expressed across the plasma membrane of the cell. Expression of LAMP1 at the cell surface can occur due to lysosomal fusion with the cell membrane. Cell surface expression of LAMP1 can serve as a ligand for selectins and help mediate cell-cell adhesion. Accordingly, cell surface expression of LAMP1 is seen in cells with migratory or invasive functions, such as cytotoxic T cells, platelets and macrophages. Cell surface expression of LAMP1 and LAMP2 is also often seen in cancer cells, particularly cancers with high metastatic potential, such as colon carcinoma and melanoma, and has been shown to correlate with their metastatic potential.
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