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Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesPECAM1, CD31, CD31/EndoCAM, GPIIA', PECA1, PECAM-1, endoCAM, platelet and endothelial cell adhesion molecule 1, PCAM-1
External IDsOMIM: 173445 MGI: 97537 HomoloGene: 47925 GeneCards: PECAM1
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 17: 64.32 – 64.41 MbChr 11: 106.65 – 106.75 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) also known as cluster of differentiation 31 (CD31) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PECAM1 gene found on chromosome17q23.3.[5][6][7][8] PECAM-1 plays a key role in removing aged neutrophils from the body.

Tissue distribution[edit]

CD31 is normally found on endothelial cells, platelets, macrophages and Kupffer cells, granulocytes, lymphocytes (T cells, B cells, and NK cells), megakaryocytes, and osteoclasts.

CD31 is also expressed in certain tumors, including epithelioid hemangioendothelioma, epithelioid sarcoma-like hemangioendothelioma, other vascular tumors, histiocytic malignancies, and plasmacytomas. It is rarely found in some sarcomas, such as Kaposi's sarcoma,[9][10] and carcinomas.


Micrograph of an angiosarcoma stained with a CD31 immunostain (dark brown).

In immunohistochemistry, CD31 is used primarily to demonstrate the presence of endothelial cells in histological tissue sections. This can help to evaluate the degree of tumor angiogenesis, which can imply a rapidly growing tumor. Malignant endothelial cells also commonly retain the antigen, so that CD31 immunohistochemistry can also be used to demonstrate both angiomas and angiosarcomas. It can also be demonstrated in small lymphocytic and lymphoblastic lymphomas, although more specific markers are available for these conditions.[11]


PECAM-1 is found on the surface of platelets, monocytes, neutrophils, and some types of T-cells, and makes up a large portion of endothelial cell intercellular junctions. The encoded protein is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily and is likely involved in leukocyte transmigration, angiogenesis, and integrin activation.[5] CD31 on endothelial cells binds to the CD38 receptor on natural killer cells for those cells to attach to the endothelium.[12][13]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000261371 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000020717 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule".
  6. ^ Newman PJ, Berndt MC, Gorski J, White GC, Lyman S, Paddock C, Muller WA (March 1990). "PECAM-1 (CD31) cloning and relation to adhesion molecules of the immunoglobulin gene superfamily". Science. 247 (4947): 1219–22. Bibcode:1990Sci...247.1219N. doi:10.1126/science.1690453. PMID 1690453.
  7. ^ Gumina RJ, Kirschbaum NE, Rao PN, vanTuinen P, Newman PJ (June 1996). "The human PECAM1 gene maps to 17q23". Genomics. 34 (2): 229–32. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0272. PMID 8661055.
  8. ^ Xie Y, Muller WA (October 1996). "Fluorescence in situ hybridization mapping of the mouse platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM1) to mouse chromosome 6, region F3-G1". Genomics. 37 (2): 226–8. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0546. PMID 8921400.
  9. ^ Ganjei-Azar, Parvin (2007). Color Atlas of Immunocytochemistry in Diagnostic Cytology. [New York]: Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. p. 47. ISBN 978-0387-32121-9.
  10. ^ Paolo Gattuso, ed. (2010). Differential diagnosis in surgical pathology (2nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Saunders/Elsevier. p. 108. ISBN 978-1-4160-4580-9.
  11. ^ Leong, Anthony S-Y; Cooper, Kumarason; Leong, F Joel W-M (2003). Manual of Diagnostic Cytology (2 ed.). Greenwich Medical Media, Ltd. p. 103. ISBN 978-1-84110-100-2.
  12. ^ Zambello R, Barilà G, Sabrina Manni S (2020). "NK cells and CD38: Implication for (Immuno)Therapy in Plasma Cell Dyscrasias". Cells. 9 (3): 768. doi:10.3390/cells9030768. PMC 7140687. PMID 32245149.
  13. ^ Glaría E, Valledor AF (2020). "Roles of CD38 in the Immune Response to Infection". Cells. 9 (1): 228. doi:10.3390/cells9010228. PMC 7017097. PMID 31963337.

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