Visa requirements for Bolivian citizens

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Visa requirements for Bolivian citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Bolivia. As of 1 January 2018, Bolivian citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 77 countries and territories, ranking the Bolivian passport 62nd in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.[1]

Bolivian citizens may use their ID card rather than their passport when travelling to Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Ecuador, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay and Venezuela.[2]

Visa requirements map[edit]

Visa requirements for Bolivian citizens
  Bolivia
  ID card travel
  Visa free access
  Visa on arrival
  eVisa
  Visa available both on arrival or online
  Visa required

Visa requirements[edit]

Visa requirements for holders of normal passports travelling for tourist purposes:

Bolivia is an associated member of Mercosur. As such, its citizens enjoy unlimited access to any of the full members (Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay and Uruguay) and other associated members (Chile, Peru, Colombia and Ecuador) with the right to residence and work, with no requirement other than nationality. Citizens of these nine countries (including Bolivia) may apply for the grant of "temporary residence" for up to two years in another country of the bloc.[3] Then, they may apply for "permanent residence" just before the term of their "temporary residence" expires.[4][5]

Country Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Afghanistan Visa required[6]
 Albania Visa required[7]
 Algeria Visa required[8]
 Andorra Visa required[9]
 Angola Visa required[10]
 Antigua and Barbuda Electronic Entry Visa[11]
 Argentina Visa not required[12] 90 days
  • Entry is allowed with a valid Bolivian identity card that is less than 10 years old.
  • Bolivians can live and work legally in Argentina under the Mercosur (and Associated Members) immigration agreement with no requirement other than being a Bolivian citizen for over 5 years and passing a background check.
 Armenia eVisa / Visa on arrival[13] 120 days
 Australia Visa required[15]
  • May apply online (Online Visitor e600 visa).[16]
 Austria Visa required[17]
 Azerbaijan Electronic Entry Visa[18]
 Bahamas Visa not required[19] 3 months
 Bahrain Visa on arrival[20] 14 days
  • Visa is also obtainable online.[21]
 Bangladesh Visa on arrival[22] 30 days
  • Not available at all entry points.[23]
 Barbados Visa required[24]
 Belarus Visa required[25]
  • Visas are issued on arrival at the Minsk International Airport
    if the support documents were submitted not later than 3 business days before expected date of arrival.[26]
 Belgium Visa required[27]
 Belize Visa not required[28] 30 days
 Benin eVisa / Visa on arrival[29][30] 30 days / 8 days
  • Must have an international vaccination certificate.
 Bhutan Visa required[31]
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa required[32]
 Botswana Visa required[33]
 Brazil Visa not required[34] 90 days
  • Entry is allowed with a valid Bolivian identity card that is less than 10 years old.
  • Bolivians can live and work legally in Brazil under the Mercosur (and Associated Members) immigration agreement with no requirement other than being a Bolivian citizen for over 5 years and passing a background check.
 Brunei Visa required[35]
 Bulgaria Visa required[36]
 Burkina Faso Visa required[37]
 Burundi Visa required[38]
 Cambodia eVisa / Visa on arrival[39] 30 days
  • Visa is also obtainable online.[40]
 Cameroon Visa required[41]
 Canada Visa required[42]
 Cape Verde Visa on arrival[43]
  • Not available at all entry points.[44]
 Central African Republic Visa required[45]
 Chad Visa required[46]
 Chile Visa not required[47] 90 days
  • Entry is allowed with a valid Bolivian identity card that is less than 10 years old.
  • Bolivians can live and work legally in Chile under the Mercosur (and Associated Members) immigration agreement with no requirement other than being a Bolivian citizen for over 5 years and passing a background check.
 China Visa required[48]
 Colombia Visa not required[49] 90 days
  • Entry is allowed with a valid Bolivian identity card that is less than 10 years old.
  • Bolivians can live and work legally in Colombia under the Mercosur (and Associated Members) immigration agreement with no requirement other than being a Bolivian citizen for over 5 years and passing a background check.
 Comoros Visa on arrival[50]
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[51]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[52]
 Costa Rica Visa not required[53] 90 days
 Côte d'Ivoire Visa required[54]
 Croatia Visa required[55]
 Cuba Tourist Card required[56]
 Cyprus Visa required[57]
 Czech Republic Visa required[58]
 Denmark Visa required[59]
 Djibouti eVisa[60] 31 days
 Dominica Visa not required[61] 6 months
 Dominican Republic Visa not required[62] 90 days
 Ecuador Visa not required[63] 90 days[64]
  • Entry is allowed with a valid Bolivian identity card that is less than 10 years old.
  • Bolivians can live and work legally in Ecuador under the Mercosur (and Associated Members) immigration agreement with no requirement other than being a Bolivian citizen for over 5 years and passing a background check.
 Egypt Visa on arrival[65] 30 days
 El Salvador Visa required[66]
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[67]
 Eritrea Visa required[68]
 Estonia Visa required[69]
 Eswatini Visa required[70]
 Ethiopia eVisa[71] up to 90 days
 Fiji Visa required[72]
 Finland Visa required[73]
 France and territories Visa required[74]
 Gabon eVisa[75]
 Gambia Visa required[76]
 Georgia e-Tourist Visa[77]
 Germany Visa required[78]
 Ghana Visa required[79]
 Greece Visa required[80]
 Grenada Visa required[81]
 Guatemala Visa required[82]
  • Visa not required if holding a valid Canadian, U.S. or Schengen Visa.
 Guinea Visa required[83]
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[84] 90 days
 Guyana Visa on arrival[85]
 Haiti Visa not required[86] 3 months
 Honduras Visa required[87]
 Hungary Visa required[88]
 Iceland Visa required[89]
 India e-Visa[90] 60 days
  • e-Visa holders must arrive via 26 designated airports[Note 1] or 3 designated seaports.[Note 2][91]
  • An Indian e-Tourist Visa can only be obtained twice in one calendar year.
 Indonesia Visa not required[92] 30 days
 Iran Visa not required[93] 30 days
 Iraq Visa required[94]
 Ireland Visa not required[95] 90 days
 Israel Visa required[96]
 Italy Visa required[97]
 Jamaica Visa not required[98] 30 days
 Japan Visa required[99]
 Jordan Visa on arrival[100]
  • Conditions apply.[101]
  • Not available at all entry points.[102]
 Kazakhstan Visa required[103]
 Kenya eVisa / Visa on arrival[104] 3 months
 Kiribati Visa required[105]
 North Korea Visa required[106]
 South Korea Visa required[107]
 Kuwait Visa required[108]
 Kyrgyzstan e-Visa[109]
 Laos Visa on arrival[111] 30 days
  • Conditions apply.
  • Available at international airports Luangphabang, Pakse, Savannakhet and Vientiane, and at 4 land borders Friendship Bridge,[Note 3] and at 13 border crossings[Note 4] as well as Tanalaeng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkai, Thailand.[112]
  • Entry points Lalai, Lantui, Meuang mom, Pakxan, and Phoudou are open only to visa holders.
  • Extendable up to 60 days.
 Latvia Visa required[113]
 Lebanon Visa required[114]
 Lesotho eVisa[115][116]
 Liberia Visa required[117]
 Libya Visa required[118]
 Liechtenstein Visa required[119]
 Lithuania Visa required[120]
 Luxembourg Visa required[121]
 Macedonia Visa required[122]
 Madagascar Visa on arrival[123] 90 days
 Malawi Visa on arrival[124]
 Malaysia Visa not required[125] 1 month
 Maldives Visa on arrival[126] 30 days[64]
 Mali Visa required[127]
 Malta Visa required[128]
 Marshall Islands Visa required[129]
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[130]
 Mauritius Visa on arrival[131] 60 days
 Mexico Visa required[132]
 Micronesia Visa not required[133] 30 days
 Moldova Visa required[134]
 Monaco Visa required[135]
 Mongolia Visa required[136]
 Montenegro Visa required[137]
 Morocco Visa required[138]
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[139] 30 days
 Myanmar eVisa[141] 28 days
 Namibia Visa required[142]
 Nauru Visa required[143]
   Nepal Visa on arrival[144] 90 days
 Netherlands Visa required[145]
 New Zealand Visa required[146]
  • May transit without a visa.[147]
 Nicaragua Visa on arrival[148] 90 days
 Niger Visa required[149]
 Nigeria Visa required[150]
 Norway Visa required[151]
 Oman eVisa[152] 30 days
 Pakistan Visa required[153]
 Palau Visa on arrival[154] 30 days
 Panama Visa not required[155] 180 days
 Papua New Guinea Visa required[156]
 Paraguay Visa not required[157] 90 days
  • Entry is allowed with a valid Bolivian identity card that is less than 10 years old.
  • Bolivians can live and work legally in Paraguay under the Mercosur (and Associated Members) immigration agreement with no requirement other than being a Bolivian citizen for over 5 years and passing a background check.
 Peru Visa not required[158] 90 days
  • Entry is allowed with a valid Bolivian identity card that is less than 10 years old.
  • Bolivians can live and work legally in Peru under the Mercosur (and Associated Members) immigration agreement with no requirement other than being a Bolivian citizen for over 5 years and passing a background check.
 Philippines Visa not required[159] 30 days
 Poland Visa required[160]
 Portugal Visa required[161]
 Qatar Visa not required[162] 30 days
 Romania Visa required[163]
 Russia Visa not required[164] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Rwanda eVisa / Visa on arrival[165] 30 days
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Visa not required[166] 3 months
 Saint Lucia Visa on arrival[167] 6 weeks
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[168] 1 month
 Samoa Entry Permit on arrival[169] 60 days
 San Marino Visa required[170]
 São Tomé and Príncipe Visa required[171]
  • Visa is obtained online.[172]
 Saudi Arabia Visa required[173]
 Senegal Visa required[174]
 Serbia Visa not required[175] 90 days
 Seychelles Visitor's Permit on arrival[176] 3 months[64]
 Sierra Leone Visa required[177]
 Singapore Visa not required[178] 30 days
 Slovakia Visa required[179]
 Slovenia Visa required[180]
 Solomon Islands Visa required[181]
 Somalia Visa on arrival[182] 30 days
 South Africa Visa not required[183] 30 days
 South Sudan Visa required[184]
 Spain Visa required[185]
 Sri Lanka eVisa / Visa on arrival[186] 30 days
 Sudan Visa required[187]
 Suriname Visa on arrival[188] 90 days
 Sweden Visa required[189]
  Switzerland Visa required[190]
 Syria Visa required[191]
 Tajikistan eVisa[192][193] 45 days
 Tanzania eVisa / Visa on arrival[194][195] 3 months
 Thailand Visa required[196]
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[197] 30 days
  • Not available at all entry points.[198]
 Togo Visa on arrival[199] 7 days
 Tonga Visa required[200]
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa required[201]
 Tunisia Visa required[202]
 Turkey Visa not required[203] 3 months
 Turkmenistan Visa required[204]
 Tuvalu Visa on arrival[205] 1 month[64]
 Uganda eVisa / Visa on arrival[206]
  • Determined at the port of entry.
  • May apply online.[207]
 Ukraine eVisa[208]
 United Arab Emirates Visa required[209]
 United Kingdom Visa required[210]
 United States Visa required[211]
 Uruguay Visa not required[212] 3 months
  • Entry is allowed with a valid Bolivian identity card that is less than 10 years old.
  • Bolivians can live and work legally in Uruguay under the Mercosur (and Associated Members) immigration agreement with no requirement other than being a Bolivian citizen for over 5 years and passing a background check.
 Uzbekistan Visa required[213]
 Vanuatu Visa required[214]
  Vatican City Visa required[215]
 Venezuela Visa not required[216] 90 days
  • Entry is allowed with a valid Bolivian identity card that is less than 10 years old.[citation needed]
 Vietnam Visa required[217]
 Yemen Visa required[220]
 Zambia eVisa / Visa on arrival[221] 90 days
 Zimbabwe eVisa[222]

Unrecognized or partially recognized countries[edit]

Countries Conditions of access
 Abkhazia Visa required[223]
 Kosovo Visa required[224]
  • Visa not required for holders of a valid biometric residence permit issued by one of the Schengen member states or a valid multi-entry Schengen Visa , a holder of a valid Laissez-Passer issued by United Nations Organizations, NATO, OSCE, Council of Europe or European Union a holder of a valid travel documents issued by EU Member and Schengen States, United States of America, Canada, Australia and Japan based on the 1951 Convention on Refugee Status or the 1954 Convention on the Status of Stateless Persons, as well as holders of valid travel documents for foreigners (max. 15 days stay)[225]
 Northern Cyprus Visa not required[226]
 Nagorno-Karabakh Visa required[227]
 Palestine Visa required[228]
 South Ossetia Visa not required[229]
 Taiwan Visa required[230]
 Transnistria Visa required[231]

Dependent and autonomous territories[edit]

Countries Conditions of access Notes
United Kingdom
 Anguilla Visa required[232]
 Bermuda Visa required[233]
 British Virgin Islands Visa not required[234]
 Cayman Islands Visa required[235]
 Falkland Islands Visa required[236]
 Gibraltar UK visa required[237]
 Guernsey Visa required[238]
 Isle of Man Visa required[239]
 Jersey Visa required[240]
 Montserrat Visa required[241]
 Saint Helena eVisa[242][243]
China
 Hong Kong Visa not required 30 days[244]
 Macau Visa on arrival 30 days[245]
Denmark
 Faroe Islands Visa required[246]
 Greenland Visa required[247]
Netherlands
 Aruba Visa required 90 days
Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands Visa required[248] (includes Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba)
 Curaçao Visa required
 Sint Maarten Visa required
France
 French Guiana Visa not required 90 days
 French Polynesia Visa not required[249]
France French West Indies Visa not required 90 days includes overseas departments of Guadeloupe and Martinique

France Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy

Visa not required
 Mayotte Visa not required 90 days
 New Caledonia Visa not required [250]
 Réunion Visa not required 90 days
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Visa not required 90 days
 Wallis and Futuna Visa not required 90 days
New Zealand
 Cook Islands Visa not required 31 days[251]
 Niue Visa not required 30 days[252]
 Tokelau Visa required[253]
United States
 American Samoa Visa required[254]
 Guam Visa required[255]
 Northern Mariana Islands Visa required[256]
 U.S. Virgin Islands Visa required[257]
 Puerto Rico Visa required[258]

Non-visa restrictions[edit]

Many countries have entry restrictions on foreigners that go beyond the common requirement of having either a valid visa or a visa exemption. Such restrictions may be health related or impose additional documentation requirements on certain classes of people for diplomatic or political purposes.

Passport validity length[edit]

In the absence of specific bilateral agreements, countries requiring passports to be valid at least 6 months on arrival include Afghanistan, Algeria, Anguilla, Bahrain,[259] Bhutan, Botswana, British Virgin Islands, Brunei, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Central African Republic, Chad, Comoros, Costa Rica, Côte d'Ivoire, Curaçao, Ecuador, Egypt, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Fiji, Gabon, Guinea Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Indonesia, Iran, Iraq, Israel,[260] Jordan, Kenya, Kiribati, Kuwait, Laos, Madagascar, Malaysia, Maldives, Marshall Islands, Mongolia, Myanmar, Namibia, Nepal, Nicaragua, Nigeria, Oman, Palau, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Rwanda, Samoa, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Solomon Islands, Somalia, Sri Lanka, Sudan, Suriname, Tanzania, Thailand, Timor-Leste, Tokelau, Tonga, Tuvalu, Uganda, United Arab Emirates, Vanuatu, Venezuela and Vietnam.[261]

Turkey requires passports to be valid for at least 150 days upon entry.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 4 months on arrival include Micronesia and Zambia.

Countries requiring passports valid for at least 3 months beyond the period of intended stay include European Union countries (except the Republic of Ireland and the United Kingdom), Iceland, Liechtenstein, Norway and Switzerland (and always excepting EU/EEA/Swiss nationals), Azerbaijan, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Nauru, Moldova, New Zealand and 3 months validity on arrival in Albania, Honduras, Macedonia, Panama, Qatar and Senegal.

Bermuda requires passports to be valid for at least 45 days upon entry.

Countries that require a passport validity of at least one month beyond the period of intended stay include Eritrea, Hong Kong, Lebanon, Macau and South Africa.

Other countries require either a passport valid on arrival or a passport valid throughout the period of the intended stay. Some countries have bilateral agreements with other countries to shorten the period of passport validity required for each other's citizens[262][263] or even accept passports that have already expired (but not been cancelled).[264]

Blank passport pages[edit]

Many countries require a minimum number of blank pages in the passport being presented, generally one or two pages.[265] Endorsement pages, which often appear after the visa pages, are not counted as being available.

Vaccination[edit]

An International Certificate of Vaccination required to prove that someone has been vaccinated against yellow fever

Many African countries, including Angola, Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Republic of the Congo, Côte d'Ivoire, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, Ghana, Guinea, Liberia, Mali, Mauritania, Niger, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Sierra Leone, Uganda, and Zambia, require all incoming passengers to have a current International Certificate of Vaccination.

Some other countries require vaccination only if the passenger is coming from an infected area or has recently visited one.[266]

Israeli stamps[edit]

Israeli border control Entry Permit (issued as a stand-alone document rather than a stamp affixed in a passport)

Kuwait,[267] Lebanon,[268] Libya,[269] Saudi Arabia,[270] Sudan,[271] Syria[272] and Yemen[273] do not allow entry to people with passport stamps from Israel or whose passports have either a used or an unused Israeli visa, or where there is evidence of previous travel to Israel such as entry or exit stamps from neighbouring border posts in transit countries such as Jordan and Egypt.

To circumvent this Arab League boycott of Israel, the Israeli immigration services have now mostly ceased to stamp foreign nationals' passports on either entry to or exit from Israel. Since 15 January 2013, Israel no longer stamps foreign passports at Ben Gurion Airport, giving passengers a card instead that reads: "Since January 2013 a pilot scheme has been introduced whereby visitors are given an entry card instead of an entry stamp on arrival. You should keep this card with your passport until you leave. This is evidence of your legal entry into Israel and may be required, particularly at any crossing points into the Occupied Palestinian Territories." [274] Passports are still (as of 22 June 2017) stamped at Erez when travelling into and out of Gaza. Also, passports are still stamped (as of 22 June 2017) at the Jordan Valley/Sheikh Hussein and Yitzhak Rabin/Arava land borders with Jordan.

Iran refuses admission to holders of passports containing an Israeli visa or stamp that is less than 12 months old.

Armenian ethnicity[edit]

Due to a state of war existing between Armenia and Azerbaijan, the government of Azerbaijan not only bans entry of citizens from Armenia, but also all citizens and nationals of any other country who are of Armenian descent, to the Republic of Azerbaijan[275][276] (although there have been exceptions, notably for Armenia's participation at the 2015 European Games held in Azerbaijan).

Azerbaijan also strictly bans any visit by foreign citizens to the separatist region of Nagorno-Karabakh[277] (the de facto independent Republic of Artsakh), its surrounding territories and the Azerbaijani exclaves of Karki, Yuxarı Əskipara, Barxudarlı and Sofulu which are de jure part of Azerbaijan but under control of Armenia, without the prior consent of the government of Azerbaijan. Foreign citizens who enter these occupied territories will be permanently banned from entering the Republic of Azerbaijan[278] and will be included in their "list of personae non gratae".[279] As of April 2018 the list contains 710 persons.

Upon request, the authorities of the largely unrecognized Republic of Artsakh may attach their visa and/or stamps to a separate piece of paper in order to avoid detection of travel to their country.

Criminal record[edit]

Some countries (for example: Australia, Canada, Fiji, New Zealand and the United States [280]) routinely deny entry to non-citizens who have a criminal record.

Persona non grata[edit]

The government of a country can declare a diplomat persona non grata, banning their entry into that country. In non-diplomatic use, the authorities of a country may also declare a foreigner persona non grata permanently or temporarily, usually because of unlawful activity. Attempts to enter the Gaza strip by sea may attract a 10-year ban on entering Israel.[281]

Fingerprinting[edit]

Iris recognition biometric systems apply mathematical pattern-recognition techniques to images of the irises of an individual's eyes.

Several countries mandate that all travellers, or all foreign travellers, be fingerprinted on arrival and will refuse admission to or even arrest those travellers that refuse to comply. In some countries, such as the United States, this may apply even to transit passengers who merely wish to quickly change planes rather than go landside.[282]

Fingerprinting countries include Afghanistan,[283][284] Argentina,[285] Brunei, Cambodia,[286] China when entering through Shenzhen airport,[287] Ethiopia,[288] Ghana, India, Japan,[289][290] Malaysia upon entry and departure,[291] Paraguay, Saudi Arabia,[292] Singapore, South Korea,[293] and Taiwan.[294]

Additionally, the United Arab Emirates conducts iris scanning on visitors who need to apply for a visa.[295][296]

See also[edit]

References and Notes[edit]

References
  1. ^ "Global Ranking - Passport Index 2018" (PDF). Henley & Partners. Retrieved 9 January 2018.
  2. ^ "Segundo acuerdo modificatorio del anexo del acuerdo sobre documentos de viaje de los Estados parte del Mercosur y Estados associados" (PDF). Mercosur. Retrieved 11 March 2018.
  3. ^ "Residir e trabalhar no Mercosul" , www.mercosur.int
  4. ^ "Perguntas mais freqüentes sobre integração regional e MERCOSUL" (in Portuguese). MRE.
  5. ^ "Paraguai assina acordos sobre migração no Mercosul" (in Portuguese). ansa.it.
  6. ^ Visa information, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan.
  7. ^ Visa regime for foreign citizens, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs of Albania.
  8. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  9. ^ Travel to Andorra, Ministry of External Affairs of Andorra.
  10. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  11. ^ Countries exempt from visa, Department of Immigration of Antigua and Barbuda.
  12. ^ Visa regime, National Directorate of Migrations of Argentina (in Spanish).
  13. ^ Visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Armenia.
  14. ^ e-Visa - Republic of Armenia Electronic Visa System
  15. ^ Visitor visa options, Department of Home Affairs of Australia.
  16. ^ "Visitor e600 Visa Online Applications". Department of Immigration and Border Protection.
  17. ^ Schengen visa, Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs of Austria.
  18. ^ Countries with visa-free travel regime, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan (in Azerbaijani).
  19. ^ Visa requirements for foreigners travelling to the Bahamas, Government of the Bahamas, 18 February 2014.
  20. ^ Bahrain eVisas, Ministry of Interior of Bahrain.
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  23. ^ Available at Shahjalal International Airport, Shah Amanat International Airport and Osmani International Airport only.
  24. ^ Visa requirements for foreign nationals entering Barbados, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Barbados, 3 June 2009.
  25. ^ Visa-free travel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus.
  26. ^ [2]
  27. ^ Visa for Belgium, Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs of Belgium.
  28. ^ Countries not requiring an entry visa, Department of Immigration and Nationality Services of Belize, September 2016.
  29. ^ Visa, Emigration and Immigration Directorate of Benin.
  30. ^ eVisa Benin
  31. ^ Visa, Tourism Council of Bhutan.
  32. ^ Visas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  33. ^ Requirements for visa application, Government of Botswana.
  34. ^ Visas to travel to Brazil, Ministry of External Relations of Brazil (in Portuguese and English).
  35. ^ Country category for visa application, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Brunei.
  36. ^ Visa for Bulgaria, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.
  37. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  38. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  39. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  40. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-07-28. Retrieved 2014-07-28.
  41. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  42. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  43. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  44. ^ Obtainable at Nelson Mandela International Airport, Cesária Évora Airport, Amílcar Cabral International Airport and Aristides Pereira International Airport.
  45. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  46. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  47. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  48. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  49. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  50. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  51. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  52. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  53. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  54. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  55. ^ Visa requirements overview, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of Croatia.
  56. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  57. ^ Visa policy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus.
  58. ^ List of states whose citizens are exempt from visa requirement, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Czech Republic, 13 July 2017.
  59. ^ Countries with a visa requirement and visa-free countries, Danish Immigration Service, 8 December 2017.
  60. ^ eVisa
  61. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  62. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  63. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  64. ^ a b c d Extendable length of stay.
  65. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  66. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  67. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  68. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  69. ^ Who does not need a visa to visit Estonia?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Estonia, 2 November 2017.
  70. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  71. ^ "Ethiopia electronic visa". Main Department for Immigration and Nationality Affairs, Ethiopia. Retrieved 24 November 2018.
  72. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  73. ^ Visa requirement and travel documents accepted by Finland, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.
  74. ^ Foreign nationals holding ordinary passports exempt from visa requirements, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs of France, January 2016.
  75. ^ Gabon e-Visa
  76. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  77. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  78. ^ Overview of visa requirements/exemptions for entry into the Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Foreign Office of Germany.
  79. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  80. ^ Countries requiring or not requiring a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece, 13 June 2017.
  81. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  82. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  83. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  84. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  85. ^ Visa entry requirements (countries), Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Guyana, 4 April 2017.
  86. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  87. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  88. ^ Countries that do not need a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Hungary.
  89. ^ Who does not need a visa, Directorate of Immigration of Iceland.
  90. ^ "Indian e-Visa". Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.
  91. ^ e-Visa
  92. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  93. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  94. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  95. ^ Countries that need a visa for Ireland, Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service.
  96. ^ Tourist visa table, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 23 May 2017.
  97. ^ Visa for Italy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Italy.
  98. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  99. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  100. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  101. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  102. ^ Visa on arrival obtainable at most international ports of entry and at most international land border crossings (except King Hussein/Allenby Bridge crossing).
  103. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  104. ^ Republic of Kenya - eCitizen portal
  105. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  106. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  107. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  108. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  109. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  110. ^ "e-VISA". evisa.e-gov.kg. Retrieved 29 September 2018.
  111. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  112. ^ "The Department Of Immigration. Checkpoints". The Department Of Immigration Of Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Retrieved 22 July 2018.
  113. ^ Countries whose citizens may enter Latvia without a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia, 9 October 2017.
  114. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  115. ^ eVisa Lesotho
  116. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  117. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  118. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  119. ^ Visa, Government of Liechtenstein (in German).
  120. ^ Do I need a visa?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania, 30 August 2017.
  121. ^ Staying in Luxembourg for less than 90 days, Government of Luxembourg.
  122. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  123. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  124. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  125. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  126. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  127. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  128. ^ Who requires a visa?, Identity Malta.
  129. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  130. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  131. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  132. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  133. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  134. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  135. ^ Before you leave, Monaco Government Tourist Office.
  136. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  137. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  138. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  139. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  140. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 5 May 2014.[permanent dead link]
  141. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  142. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  143. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  144. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  145. ^ Short-stay Schengen visa (90 days or less), Government of the Netherlands.
  146. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  147. ^ Transit visa country waiver list
  148. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  149. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  150. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  151. ^ Persons who do not need a visa to visit Norway, Norwegian Directorate of Immigration.
  152. ^ Sultanate of Oman - Royal Oman Police - eVisa
  153. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  154. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  155. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  156. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  157. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  158. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  159. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  160. ^ Visa-free countries, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Poland.
  161. ^ Third countries whose citizens are required to have a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Portugal.
  162. ^ [3]
  163. ^ Do I need a visa?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Romania.
  164. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  165. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  166. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  167. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  168. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  169. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  170. ^ Border formalities, San Marino Tourism Board.
  171. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  172. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-05-21. Retrieved 2015-05-21.
  173. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  174. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  175. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  176. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  177. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  178. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  179. ^ Consular information and travel visa, Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs of Slovakia.
  180. ^ Visa regimes and visas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Slovenia.
  181. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  182. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  183. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  184. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  185. ^ Entry requirements, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Cooperation of Spain.
  186. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  187. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  188. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  189. ^ List of foreign citizens who require visa for entry into Sweden, Government of Sweden.
  190. ^ Overview of ID and visa provisions according to nationality, State Secretariat for Migration of Switzerland.
  191. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  192. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  193. ^ https://www.evisa.tj
  194. ^ eVisa Tanzania
  195. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  196. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  197. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  198. ^ Obtainable at the Presidente Nicolau Lobato International Airport or at the Dili Sea Port.
  199. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  200. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  201. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  202. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  203. ^ "Visa Information". Timatic. Retrieved 5 May 2014.
  204. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  205. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  206. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  207. ^ Uganda Electronic Visa/Permit Application System
  208. ^ [4]
  209. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  210. ^ UK visa requirements: list for carriers, Government of the United Kingdom, 2 October 2017.
  211. ^ Travel without a visa, United States Department of State.
  212. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  213. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  214. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  215. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  216. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  217. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  218. ^ http://www.phuquocislandguide.com/phu-quoc-island-vietnam-visa-on-arrival/
  219. ^ [5]
  220. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  221. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  222. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  223. ^ "MINISTRY OF FOREIGN AFFAIRS REPUBLIC OF ABKHAZIA". Archived from the original on 2016-01-30. Retrieved 2016-02-11.
  224. ^ "Visas For Foreign Citizens - For Kosovo Citizens - Consular Services - Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Republic of Kosovo". Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Republic of Kosovo.
  225. ^ "Visas For Foreign Citizens - For Kosovo Citizens - Consular Services - Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Republic of Kosovo". Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Republic of Kosovo. Archived from the original on 2013-03-10.
  226. ^ "VISA Regulations". Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus.
  227. ^ "The procedure of foreign citizens' entry to the NKR".
  228. ^ Tourist visa table, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 23 May 2017.
  229. ^ [6]
  230. ^ "線上填寫簽證申請系統".
  231. ^ "Министерство иностранных дел - Приднестровской Молдавской Республики". Министерство иностранных дел.
  232. ^ Visa requirements for Anguilla, Government of Anguilla, October 2016.
  233. ^ Bermuda entry visas, Government of Bermuda.
  234. ^ Visas, Tourism Board of the British Virgin Islands.
  235. ^ Visa-free and visa-required countries, Department of Immigration of the Cayman Islands.
  236. ^ Immigration Ordinance 1999, Falkland Islands Government, 31 July 2017.
  237. ^ Visas and immigration, Government of Gibraltar.
  238. ^ "Do I require an entry clearance/ VISA". Archived from the original on 2013-12-02. Retrieved 2018-05-09.
  239. ^ "Immigration Details for the Isle of Man". Archived from the original on 2014-06-29. Retrieved 2014-07-30.
  240. ^ States of Jersey. "Visa and passport requirements for visitors".
  241. ^ Countries not requiring a visa, Immigration Department of Montserrat.
  242. ^ "Saint Helena eVisa". Saint Helena Government.
  243. ^ "VISA REQUIREMENTS FOR VISITING ST HELENA". St Helena Government. 14 December 2017. Retrieved 25 January 2018.
  244. ^ Visit visa / entry permit requirements for the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, Immigration Department of Hong Kong, April 2017.
  245. ^ Entry and exit of non-residents, Public Security Police Force of Macau.
  246. ^ "Passport and visa". Visit Faroe Islands. Archived from the original on 2014-07-20. Retrieved 2014-07-30.
  247. ^ "Advice & Services for travelling to and staying in Greenland".
  248. ^ Do I need a visa for the Caribbean parts of the Kingdom?, Government of the Netherlands.
  249. ^ Ruling of 29 December 2011 regarding the documents and visas required for the entry of foreigners in the territory of French Polynesia, Légifrance (in French).
  250. ^ Ruling of 22 July 2011 regarding the documents and visas required for the entry of foreigners in the territory of New Caledonia, Légifrance (in French).
  251. ^ Visas and immigration, Discover Cook Islands.
  252. ^ Travelling to Niue, Niue Tourism Office.
  253. ^ "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-03-15. Retrieved 2014-03-15.
  254. ^ General information, American Samoa Visitors Bureau.
  255. ^ Travel without a visa, United States Department of State.
  256. ^ Travel without a visa, United States Department of State.
  257. ^ Travel without a visa, United States Department of State.
  258. ^ Travel without a visa, United States Department of State.
  259. ^ ]https://www.evisa.gov.bh/VisaBhr5En.html]
  260. ^ [7]
  261. ^ Timatic
  262. ^ "Foreign Affairs Manual, 9 FAM 403.9-3(B)(2) f". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  263. ^ "How long should my passport be valid when traveling to the United States?" (PDF). U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 10 October 2017.
  264. ^ "Countries whose citizens are allowed to enter Turkey with their expired passports". Ministry of Foreign Affairs. Republic of Turkey. Archived from the original on 8 October 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2018. Countries whose citizens are allowed to enter Turkey with their expired passports: 1. Germany – Passports expired within the last year / ID’s expired within the last year, 2. Belgium - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 3. France - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 4. Spain - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 5. Switzerland - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 6. Luxemburg - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 7. Portugal - Passports expired within the last 5 years, 8. Bulgaria – Valid ordinary passport
  265. ^ "Country Information". Bureau of Consular Affairs, U.S. Department of State. Retrieved 11 September 2017.
  266. ^ Country list - Yellow fever vaccination requirements and recommendations; and malaria situation; and other vaccination requirement
  267. ^ "Travel Report - Kuwait". Voyage.gc.ca. 2012-11-16. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  268. ^ Travel Advice for Lebanon - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Archived 2008-12-24 at the Wayback Machine. and Lebanese Ministry of Tourism Archived 2009-03-27 at the Wayback Machine.
  269. ^ "Travel Advice for Libya - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Smartraveller.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2013-06-22. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  270. ^ Michael Freund, Canada defends Saudi policy of shunning tourists who visited Israel, 2008-12-07, Jerusalem Post
  271. ^ "Travel Advice for Sudan - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Smartraveller.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2013-07-05. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  272. ^ Travel Advice for Syria - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade Archived 2008-12-19 at the Wayback Machine. and Syrian Ministry of Tourism
  273. ^ "Travel Advice for Yemen - Australian Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade". Smartraveller.gov.au. Archived from the original on 2011-08-20. Retrieved 2013-07-01.
  274. ^ "Israel travel advice - GOV.UK". www.gov.uk. Retrieved 2015-12-17.
  275. ^ Azerbaijan Country Page Archived 2009-03-08 at the Wayback Machine.. NCSJ: Advocates on behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia. Accessed 23 May 2010.
  276. ^ Azerbaijan doesn't allow Armenians in the country - Panarmenian.net
  277. ^ "Azerbaijan Country Page of the NCSJ (advocates on behalf of Jews in Russia, Ukraine, the Baltic States & Eurasia) accessed 23 May 2010". Archived from the original on 8 March 2009. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
  278. ^ "Warning for the foreign nationals wishing to travel to the occupied territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  279. ^ "List of foreign citizens illegally visited occupied territories of the Republic of Azerbaijan". Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Azerbaijan. Retrieved 23 November 2017.
  280. ^ Government of Canada -- Overcome criminal convictions
  281. ^ "How to Apply Singapore Visas for Indians-Singapore Visa". Archived from the original on 2014-04-13. Retrieved 2018-11-24.
  282. ^ Calder, Simon (24 April 2017). "Airline lobbying for a relaxation of draconian rules for London-Auckland travellers". The Independent. Retrieved 7 July 2018. Travellers heading west from the UK to New Zealand may soon be able to avoid the onerous requirement to clear US border control during the refuelling stop at Los Angeles airport (LAX). Unlike almost every other country in the world, the US insists on a full immigration check even for travellers who simply intend to re-board their plane to continue onwards to a foreign destination. Air New Zealand, which flies daily from Heathrow via Los Angeles to Auckland, says there are currently “strict requirements for travellers” in transit at LAX. Through passengers to Auckland on flight NZ1 or Heathrow on NZ2 must apply in advance for an ESTA (online visa) even though they have no intention of staying in the US. They also have to undergo screening by the Transportation Security Administration.
  283. ^ "How to enter Afghanistan. The Entry Requirements for Afghanistan - CountryReports". Countryreports.org.
  284. ^ Nordland, Rod (19 November 2011). "In Afghanistan, Big Plans to Gather Biometric Data". Nytimes.com.
  285. ^ "Argentina strengthens migratory control". Archived from the original on 2 December 2013.
  286. ^ "Cambodia Foreign Entry Requirements". Us-passport-information.com.
  287. ^ "China to require fingerprints of all foreign visitors as new security step". Boing Boing. 8 Feb 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2018. The fingerprinting of foreigners will be introduced at Shenzhen airport in the south from Friday, and it will then be gradually rolled out at other entry points around the country, the ministry said in a statement. All foreign passport holders aged 14-70 will have to give their fingerprints, it said, without saying if other biometric data would also be collected. The ministry said the regulation would strengthen immigration controls and increase efficiency.
  288. ^ "Äthiopien: Reise- und Sicherheitshinweise". Auswaertiges-amt.de.
  289. ^ "Japan fingerprints foreigners as anti-terror move". 20 November 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2017 – via Reuters.
  290. ^ "Anger as Japan moves to fingerprint foreigners - World". Theage.com.au.
  291. ^ "Malaysia". CountryReports. Retrieved 7 July 2018.
  292. ^ "Saudi Arabia mandates fingerprints and biometrics for foreigners - SecureIDNews". secureidnews.com. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  293. ^ F_161. "S Korea to scan fingerprints of suspicious foreign visitors - People's Daily Online". peopledaily.com.cn. Retrieved 3 March 2017.
  294. ^ "How to Apply Singapore Visas for Indians-Singapore Visa - How to Apply Singapore Visas for Indians-Singapore Visa". mytipsinhindi.com. Archived from the original on 20 June 2018.{{|date=July 2018}}
  295. ^ "Iris Scan Implemented at Doha International Airport". Archived from the original on 8 January 2012.
  296. ^ "Iris Scanner Could Replace Emirates ID In UAE". SimplyDXB. 11 June 2017. Retrieved 7 July 2018. The breach of privacy is probably the biggest threat to the biometric technique of iris recognition. Secondly, a device error can false reject or false accept the identity which can also have some heinous consequences. Lastly, the method isn’t the most cost-effective one. It is complex and therefore expensive. Furthermore, the maintenance of devices and data can also be relatively burdensome. However, thanks to the oil money and spending ability of Dubai, they are economically equipped to effectively embrace this system.
Notes
  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
    • Vientiane
    • Savannakhet
    • Khammuan
    • Bokeo
  4. ^
    • Panghok - Taichang (Vietnam)
    • Samliemkham - (Thailand and Myanmar)
    • Nonghaed - Nam kanh (Vietnam)
    • Nam phao - Cau treo (Vietnam)
    • Na pao - Cha lo (Vietnam)
    • Daensavan - Lao bao (Vietnam)
    • Veunkham - Nong nok khian (Cambodia)
    • Vang tao - Chongmek (Thailand)
    • Boten - Bo han (China)
    • Nam ngeun - Huay konl (Thailand)
    • Namheuang - Nakaseng (Thailand)
    • Nam soy - Na meo (Vietnam)
    • Phoukeua - Kontoum (Vietnam)