Visa requirements for Kazakhstani citizens

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Front cover of biometric Kazakhstani passport

Visa requirements for Kazakhstani citizens are administrative entry restrictions by the authorities of other states placed on citizens of Kazakhstan. As of May 2018, Kazakhstani citizens had visa-free or visa on arrival access to 76 countries and territories, ranking the Kazakhstani passport 64th in terms of travel freedom according to the Henley Passport Index.[1]

Visa requirements map[edit]

Visa requirements for holders of regular Kazakhstani passports
  Kazakhstan
  Visa-free
  Visa on arrival
  Electronic authorization or eVisa
  Visa available both on arrival or online
  Visa required

Changes[edit]

Visa requirements for Kazakh citizens were lifted[2] by Turkey (2 April 1992), Mongolia (2 January 1995), Barbados (21 September 1995), Micronesia (3 March 1998), Albania (29 June 1998), Samoa (15 December 1998), Ecuador, (15 July 1999), Cook Islands (4 February 2002), Antigua and Barbuda (17 February 2002), Haiti (14 February 2004), Philippines (15 April 2014),[3] Dominica (13 May 2004), Namibia (2 August 2005), Niue (11 February 2007), Saint Vincent and the Grenadines (5 March 2007), Serbia (28 May 2012), Hong Kong (26 July 2012), Colombia (2014), Argentina (1 November 2014), South Korea (29 November 2014), Indonesia (September 2015), Brazil (6 September 2016), Costa Rica (December 2016)[4] and United Arab Emirates (10 March 2018).[5]

Visa on arrival were introduced Cambodia (15 November 1995), Palau (2 July 1996), Cape Verde (27 March 1998), Laos (1 July 1998), Lebanon (4 March 1999), Kenya (15 March 1999), Bolivia (30 June 1999), Jordan (19 July 2000), Nicaragua (23 August 2000) Bangladesh (19 March 2001), Comores (1 July 2001), Jamaica (14 March 2002), Macao (11 May 2002), Uganda (9 November 2002), Zambia (15 January 2003), Nepal (16 February 2003), Madagascar (28 September 2003), Mauritius (19 January 2004), Tuvalu (15 October 2006), Mozambique (1 September 2008), Qatar (22 June 2017) and Rwanda (1 January 2018).

Electronic visas for Kazakh citizens were introduced: Australia (Electronic Visitor visa from November 2013), Lesotho (1 May 2017), Djibouti (18 February 2018), India (5 March 2018) and Ethiopia (1 June 2018).[6]

Following countries have reinstated visa requirements for Kazakh citizens: Estonia (1 July 1992),[7] Latvia (1993), Lithuania (1 November 1993),[8] Slovakia (6 May 1994),[9] Hungary (6 November 1996),[10] Bulgaria (1 January 1999),[11] Turkmenistan (19 June 1999), Romania (1 July 2000),[12] Czech Republic (22 October 2000)[13] and Poland (12 January 2001).[14]

Visa requirements[edit]

Country Visa requirement Allowed stay Notes (excluding departure fees)
 Afghanistan Visa required[15]
 Albania Visa not required[16] 90 days
 Algeria Visa required[17]
 Andorra Visa required[18]
 Angola Visa required[19]
 Antigua and Barbuda Visa not required[20] 1 month
 Argentina Visa not required[21] 30 days
 Armenia Visa not required[22]
 Australia Visa required[23]
  • May apply online (Online Visitor e600 visa).[24]
 Austria Visa required[25]
 Azerbaijan Visa not required[26] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180-day period
  • If staying more than 10 days passengers visiting relatives must register with local police. If staying in a hotel, this will be arranged by the hotel.
  • Who are of Armenian descent Government of Azerbaijan bans the entry.
 Bahamas Visa required[27]
 Bahrain eVisa / Visa on arrival[28] 14 days
 Bangladesh Visa on arrival[29] 30 days
 Barbados Visa not required[30] 28 days
 Belarus Visa not required[31]
 Belgium Visa required[32]
 Belize Visa required[33]
 Benin eVisa / Visa on arrival[34][35] 30 days / 8 days
  • Must have an international vaccination certificate.
 Bhutan Visa required[36]
 Bolivia Visa on arrival[37] 90 days
 Bosnia and Herzegovina Visa required[38]
 Botswana Visa required[39]
 Brazil Visa not required[40] 30 days
 Brunei Visa required[41]
 Bulgaria Visa required[42]
 Burkina Faso Visa required[43]
 Burundi Visa required[44]
 Cambodia eVisa / Visa on arrival[45] 30 days
 Cameroon Visa required[46]
 Canada Visa required[47]
 Cape Verde Visa on arrival[48]
 Central African Republic Visa required[49]
 Chad Visa required[50]
 Chile Visa required[51]
 China Visa required[52]
 Colombia Visa not required[57] 180 days
  • 90 days - extendable up to 180-days stay within a one year period
 Comoros Visa on arrival[58]
 Republic of the Congo Visa required[59]
 Democratic Republic of the Congo Visa required[60]
 Costa Rica Visa not required[61] 90 days
 Côte d'Ivoire Visa required[62]
 Croatia Visa required[63]
 Cuba Visa required[64]
  • A visa-free agreement (30 days within year period) was signed in December 2015 and is yet to be ratified.
 Cyprus Visa required[65]
 Czech Republic Visa required[66]
 Denmark Visa required[67]
 Djibouti eVisa[68] 31 days
 Dominica Visa not required[69] 21 days
 Dominican Republic Visa not required[70] 90 days
 Ecuador Visa not required[71] 90 days
 Egypt Visa required[72]
  • 30 days on arrival for group tourists. Individual travelers need to get visa in advance.
 El Salvador Visa required[73]
 Equatorial Guinea Visa required[74]
 Eritrea Visa required[75]
 Estonia Visa required[76]
 Ethiopia eVisa[77]
 Fiji Visa required[78]
 Finland Visa required[79]
 France Visa required[80]
 Gabon eVisa[81]
 Gambia Visa required[82]
 Georgia Visa not required[83] 1 year
 Germany Visa required[84]
 Ghana Visa required[85]
 Greece Visa required[86]
 Grenada Visa on arrival[87] 3 months
 Guatemala Visa required[88]
 Guinea Visa required[89]
 Guinea-Bissau eVisa / Visa on arrival[90] 90 days
 Guyana Visa required[91]
 Haiti Visa not required[92] 3 months
 Honduras Visa required[93]
 Hungary Visa required[94]
 Iceland Visa required[95]
 India eVisa[96]
  • e-Visa holders must arrive via 25 designated airports[Note 1] or 3 designated seaports.[Note 2][97]
  • An Indian e-Tourist Visa can only be obtained twice in one calendar year.
 Indonesia Visa not required[98] 30 days
  • Select ports of entry.
 Iran Visa on arrival[99] 30 days
  • Select ports of entry.
 Iraq Visa required[100]
 Ireland Visa required[101]
  • Visa waiver for UK 'C' visa holders until 31 October 2021. Entry permitted only if first point of entry to the Common Travel Area is in the UK.[102]
 Israel Visa required[103]
 Italy Visa required[104]
 Jamaica Visa on arrival[105]
 Japan Visa required[106]
 Jordan Visa on arrival[107] 3 months
 Kenya eVisa / Visa on arrival[108] 3 month
  • eVisa or visa on arrival, for a maximum stay of 3 months. A valid "East African Tourist Visa" issued by Rwanda or Uganda is accepted provided having first entered the country that issued the visa.
 Kiribati Visa required[109]
 North Korea Visa required[110]
 South Korea Visa not required[111] 30 days
  • 60 days within each period of 180 days
 Kuwait Visa required[112]
 Kyrgyzstan Visa not required[113]
 Laos Visa on arrival[114] 30 days
  • Conditions apply.
  • Available at international airports Luangphabang, Pakse, Savannakhet and Vientiane, and at 4 land borders Friendship Bridge,[Note 3] and at 13 border crossings[Note 4] as well as Tanalaeng train station in Vientiane, which connects to the train station in Nongkai, Thailand.[115]
  • Entry points Lalai, Lantui, Meuang mom, Pakxan, and Phoudou are open only to visa holders.
  • Extendable up to 60 days.
 Latvia Visa required[116]
 Lebanon Visa on arrival[117] 1 month
  • 1 month extendable for 2 additional months
  • Granted free of charge at Beirut International Airport or any other port of entry if there is no Israeli visa or seal, holding a telephone number, an address in Lebanon, and a non refundable return or circle trip ticket.
 Lesotho eVisa[118][119]
 Liberia Visa required[120]
 Libya Visa required[121]
 Liechtenstein Visa required[122]
 Lithuania Visa required[123]
 Luxembourg Visa required[124]
 Macedonia Visa not required[125] 90 days
 Madagascar Visa on arrival[126] 90 days
 Malawi Visa required[127]
 Malaysia Visa not required[128] 30 days
 Maldives Visa on arrival[129] 30 days
 Mali Visa required[130]
 Malta Visa required[131]
 Marshall Islands Visa required[132]
 Mauritania Visa on arrival[133]
 Mauritius Visa on arrival[134] 60 days
 Mexico Visa required[135]
 Micronesia Visa not required[136] 30 days
 Moldova Visa not required[137] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Monaco Visa required[138]
 Mongolia Visa not required[139] 90 days
 Montenegro Visa not required (temporary)[140] 30 days
  • Temporary visa exemption from 1 April to 31 October 2018.[141]
 Morocco Visa required[142]
 Mozambique Visa on arrival[143] 30 days
 Myanmar eVisa[144] 28 days
 Namibia Visa not required[145] 3 months
 Nauru Visa required[146]
   Nepal Visa on arrival[147] 90 days
 Netherlands Visa required[148]
 New Zealand Visa required[149]
 Nicaragua Visa on arrival[150] 90 days
 Niger Visa required[151]
 Nigeria Visa required[152]
 Norway Visa required[153]
 Oman Visa required[154]
  • eVisa for residents or holders of a visa of USA, Canada, Australia, UK or Schengen countries. Must have return tickets and confirmed hotel reservation.
 Pakistan Visa required[155]
  • Visa on arrival when travelling on business valid for 30 days. Conditions apply.[156]
 Palau Visa on arrival[157] 30 days
 Panama Visa required[158]
 Papua New Guinea Visa required[159]
 Paraguay Visa required[160]
 Peru Visa required[161]
 Philippines Visa not required[162] 30 days
 Poland Visa required[163]
 Portugal Visa required[164]
 Qatar eVisa / Visa on arrival[165] 30 days
 Romania Visa required[166]
  • Visa not required for 5 days for holders of a visa issued by Bulgaria.
 Russia Visa not required[167] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 Rwanda eVisa / Visa on arrival[168] 30 days
 Saint Kitts and Nevis Visa required[169]
  • Visa obtainable online.[170]
 Saint Lucia Visa required[171]
 Saint Vincent and the Grenadines Visa not required[172] 1 month
 Samoa Entry Permit on arrival[173] 60 days
 San Marino Visa required[174]
 São Tomé and Príncipe Visa required[175]
  • Visa is obtained online.[176]
 Saudi Arabia Visa required[177]
 Senegal Visa required[178]
 Serbia Visa not required[179] 30 days
 Seychelles Visitor's Permit on arrival[180] 3 months
 Sierra Leone Visa required[181]
 Singapore eVisa[182]
 Slovakia Visa required[183]
 Slovenia Visa required[184]
 Solomon Islands Visa required[185]
 Somalia Visa on arrival[186] 30 days
 South Africa Visa required[187]
 South Sudan Visa required[188]
 Spain Visa required[189]
 Sri Lanka eVisa / Visa on arrival[190] 30 days
 Sudan Visa required[191]
 Suriname Visa required[192]
 Swaziland Visa required[193]
 Sweden Visa required[194]
  Switzerland Visa required[195]
 Syria Visa required
  • According to the Law No. 2 of 2014 all visitors require visas prior to arrival.[196][197][198] According to the IATA database, visa may be obtained on arrival and is valid for 15 days.[199]
 Tajikistan Visa not required[200]
 Tanzania Visa required[201]
 Thailand Visa on arrival[202] 15 days
 Timor-Leste Visa on arrival[203] 30 days
 Togo Visa on arrival[204] 7 days
 Tonga Visa required[205]
 Trinidad and Tobago Visa required[206]
 Tunisia Visa required[207]
  • Visa not required for tourist groups organised by a travel agency.
 Turkey Visa not required[208] 30 days
 Turkmenistan Visa required[209]
 Tuvalu Visa on arrival[211] 1 month
 Uganda eVisa / Visa on arrival[212]
 Ukraine Visa not required[214] 90 days
  • 90 days within any 180 day period
 United Arab Emirates Visa not required[215] 30 days
 United Kingdom Visa required[216]
 United States Visa required[217]
 Uruguay Visa required[218]
 Uzbekistan Visa not required[219]
 Vanuatu Visa required[220]
  Vatican City Visa required[221]
 Venezuela Visa required[222]
 Vietnam eVisa[223] 30 days[224]
 Yemen Visa required[225]
 Zambia eVisa / Visa on arrival[226] 90 days
 Zimbabwe eVisa / Visa on arrival[227] 3 months

Dependent, Disputed, or Restricted territories[edit]

Unrecognized or partially recognized countries
Countries Conditions of access Notes
 Abkhazia Visa not required[228] 14 days
 Kosovo Visa required[229]
 Northern Cyprus Visa not required[230]
 Nagorno-Karabakh Visa not required[231] Travellers with Nagorno-Karabakh visa (expired or valid) or evidence of travel to Nagorno-Karabakh (stamps) will be permanently denied entry to Azerbaijan.[232]
 Palestine Visa not required[233] Arrival by sea to Gaza Strip not allowed.[234]
 Somaliland Visa on arrival 30 days for 30 US dollars, payable on arrival.[235][236]
 South Ossetia Visa not required[237] Multiple entry visa to Russia and three day prior notification are required to enter South Ossetia.[238][239]
 Taiwan Visa required[240]
 Transnistria Visa not required[241] Registration required after 24h.[242][243]
Dependent and autonomous territories
Countries Conditions of access Notes
China
 Hong Kong Visa not required[244] 14 days
 Macau Visa on arrival[245]
Denmark
 Faroe Islands Visa required[246]
 Greenland Visa required[247]
France
 French Guiana Visa required[248]
 French Polynesia Visa required[249]
France French West Indies Visa required French West Indies refers to Martinique, Guadeloupe, Saint Martin and Saint Barthélemy.
 Mayotte Visa required[250]
 New Caledonia Visa required[251]
 Réunion Visa required[252]
 Saint Pierre and Miquelon Visa required[253]
 Wallis and Futuna Visa required[254]
Netherlands
 Aruba Visa required[255]
Netherlands Caribbean Netherlands Visa required[256] (includes Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba)
 Curaçao Visa required[257]
 Sint Maarten Visa required[258]
New Zealand
 Cook Islands Visa not required[259] 31 days
 Niue Visa not required[260] 30 days
 Tokelau Visa required[261]
United Kingdom
 Anguilla Visa required[262] Holders of a valid visa issued by the United Kingdom do not require a visa.[263]
 Bermuda Visa required[264] Visa free for a maximum stay of 3 months if transiting through the United Kingdom.
 British Indian Ocean Territory Special permit required Special permit required.[265]
 British Virgin Islands Visa required[266]
 Cayman Islands Visa required[267]
 Falkland Islands Visa required[268]
 Gibraltar Visa required[269]
 Guernsey Visa required[270]
 Isle of Man Visa required[271]
 Jersey Visa required[272]
 Montserrat eVisa[273]
 Pitcairn Islands Visa not required 14 days visa free and landing fee 35 USD or tax of 5 USD if not going ashore.[274][275][276]
 Ascension Island Entry Permit required Entry Permit must be obtained minimum 28 days in advance (3 months for 20/30 pounds sterling, single/double entry).[277]
 Saint Helena eVisa[278][279]
 Tristan da Cunha Permission required Permission to land required for 15/30 pounds sterling (yacht/ship passenger) for Tristan da Cunha Island or 20 pounds sterling for Gough Island, Inaccessible Island or Nightingale Islands.[280]
 South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands Permit required Pre-arrival permit from the Commissioner required (72 hours/1 month for 110/160 pounds sterling).[281][282]
 Turks and Caicos Islands Visa required[283] Holders of a valid visa issued by Canada, United Kingdom or the USA do not required a visa for a maximum stay of 90 days.
United States
 American Samoa Visa required[284]
 Guam Visa required[285]
 Northern Mariana Islands Visa required[286]
 U.S. Virgin Islands Visa required[287]
 Puerto Rico Visa required[288]
Antarctica and adjacent islands
Special permits required for  Bouvet Island,  British Antarctic Territory,  French Southern and Antarctic Lands,  Argentine Antarctica, Australia Australian Antarctic Territory, Antártica Chilena Province Chilean Antarctic Territory, Australia Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Norway Peter I Island, Norway Queen Maud Land, New Zealand Ross Dependency.[289][290][291][292][293][294][295][296][297][298][299][300]

See also[edit]

References and Notes[edit]

References
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  2. ^ [1]
  3. ^ [2]
  4. ^ [3]
  5. ^ [4]
  6. ^ Ethiopia Opens Up e-Visas To Travelers of Any Nationality
  7. ^ "Eesti Vabariigi viisaeeskirjade" kinnitamise ja rakendamise kohta (in Estonian)
  8. ^ [5]
  9. ^ [6]
  10. ^ Agreement between the Government of the Republic of Kazakhstan and the Government of the Republic of Hungary about the order of mutual visa-free trips of citizens with diplomatic and service passports. See Article 7.3 (in Russian)
  11. ^ [7]
  12. ^ [8]
  13. ^ [9]
  14. ^ [10]
  15. ^ Visa information, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Afghanistan.
  16. ^ Visa regime for foreign citizens, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs of Albania.
  17. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  18. ^ Travel to Andorra, Ministry of External Affairs of Andorra.
  19. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  20. ^ Countries exempt from visa, Department of Immigration of Antigua and Barbuda.
  21. ^ Visa regime, National Directorate of Migrations of Argentina (in Spanish).
  22. ^ Visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Armenia.
  23. ^ Visitor visa options, Department of Home Affairs of Australia.
  24. ^ "Visitor e600 Visa Online Applications". Department of Immigration and Border Protection. 
  25. ^ Schengen visa, Federal Ministry for Europe, Integration and Foreign Affairs of Austria.
  26. ^ Countries with visa-free travel regime, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Azerbaijan (in Azerbaijani).
  27. ^ Visa requirements for foreigners travelling to the Bahamas, Government of the Bahamas, 18 February 2014.
  28. ^ Bahrain eVisas, Ministry of Interior of Bahrain.
  29. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  30. ^ Visa requirements for foreign nationals entering Barbados, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Foreign Trade of Barbados, 3 June 2009.
  31. ^ Visa-free travel, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Belarus.
  32. ^ Visa for Belgium, Federal Public Service Foreign Affairs of Belgium.
  33. ^ Countries not requiring an entry visa, Department of Immigration and Nationality Services of Belize, September 2016.
  34. ^ Visa, Emigration and Immigration Directorate of Benin.
  35. ^ eVisa Benin
  36. ^ Visa, Tourism Council of Bhutan.
  37. ^ Requirements to enter Bolivia, General Directorate of Migration of Bolivia (in Spanish).
  38. ^ Visas, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bosnia and Herzegovina.
  39. ^ Requirements for visa application, Government of Botswana.
  40. ^ Visas to travel to Brazil, Ministry of External Relations of Brazil (in Portuguese and English).
  41. ^ Country category for visa application, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Brunei.
  42. ^ Visa for Bulgaria, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Bulgaria.
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  55. ^ 3-day visa-free stay for Kazakhstanis in Chinese Tacheng
  56. ^ Kazakhstan citizens enjoy 72-hour visa-free services at Jeminay Port
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  64. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  65. ^ Visa policy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Cyprus.
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  67. ^ Countries with a visa requirement and visa-free countries, Danish Immigration Service, 8 December 2017.
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  73. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  75. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  76. ^ Who does not need a visa to visit Estonia?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Estonia, 2 November 2017.
  77. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  78. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  79. ^ Visa requirement and travel documents accepted by Finland, Ministry for Foreign Affairs of Finland.
  80. ^ Foreign nationals holding ordinary passports exempt from visa requirements, Ministry for Europe and Foreign Affairs of France, January 2016.
  81. ^ Gabon e-Visa
  82. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  83. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  84. ^ Overview of visa requirements/exemptions for entry into the Federal Republic of Germany, Federal Foreign Office of Germany.
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  86. ^ Countries requiring or not requiring a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Greece, 13 June 2017.
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  92. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  93. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  94. ^ Countries that do not need a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and Trade of Hungary.
  95. ^ Who does not need a visa, Directorate of Immigration of Iceland.
  96. ^ [11]
  97. ^ e-Visa
  98. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  99. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  100. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  101. ^ Countries that need a visa for Ireland, Irish Naturalisation and Immigration Service.
  102. ^ The Irish Short-stay Visa Waiver Programme
  103. ^ Tourist visa table, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, 23 May 2017.
  104. ^ Visa for Italy, Ministry of Foreign Affairs and International Cooperation of Italy.
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  107. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  115. ^ "The Department Of Immigration. Checkpoints". The Department Of Immigration Of Lao People’s Democratic Republic. Retrieved 22 July 2018. 
  116. ^ Countries whose citizens may enter Latvia without a visa, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Latvia, 9 October 2017.
  117. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  118. ^ eVisa Lesotho
  119. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  120. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  121. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  122. ^ Visa, Government of Liechtenstein (in German).
  123. ^ Do I need a visa?, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Lithuania, 30 August 2017.
  124. ^ Staying in Luxembourg for less than 90 days, Government of Luxembourg.
  125. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  135. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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  137. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  138. ^ Before you leave, Monaco Government Tourist Office.
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  140. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  141. ^ http://www.mvp.gov.me/en/sections/consular-affairs/visa-regimes-for-foreign-citizens/kazakhstan
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  143. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  144. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  145. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  146. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  147. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  148. ^ Short-stay Schengen visa (90 days or less), Government of the Netherlands.
  149. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  150. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  151. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  152. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  153. ^ Persons who do not need a visa to visit Norway, Norwegian Directorate of Immigration.
  154. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
  155. ^ Travel Information Manual, International Air Transport Association (IATA).
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Notes
  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^
    • Vientiane
    • Savannakhet
    • Khammuan
    • Bokeo
  4. ^
    • Panghok - Taichang (Vietnam)
    • Samliemkham - (Thailand and Myanmar)
    • Nonghaed - Nam kanh (Vietnam)
    • Nam phao - Cau treo (Vietnam)
    • Na pao - Cha lo (Vietnam)
    • Daensavan - Lao bao (Vietnam)
    • Veunkham - Nong nok khian (Cambodia)
    • Vang tao - Chongmek (Thailand)
    • Boten - Bo han (China)
    • Nam ngeun - Huay konl (Thailand)
    • Namheuang - Nakaseng (Thailand)
    • Nam soy - Na meo (Vietnam)
    • Phoukeua - Kontoum (Vietnam)

External links[edit]