|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2015)|
|Municipality||1 April 1886|
|Municipal corporation||2 March 2007|
|Boroughs||5 Suburbs: Tirupati(urban), Tirumala, Tiruchanur, Renigunta, Chandragiri|
|• Type||Municipal Corporation|
|• Body||Tirupati Municipal Corporation (MCT)|
|• MLA||M.Suguna (Telugu Desam Party)|
|• MP||Varaprasad Rao Velagapalli|
|• Municipal Commissioner||Vinay Chand|
|• City||24.00 km2 (9.27 sq mi)|
|• Density||12,000/km2 (31,000/sq mi)|
|Time zone||IST (UTC+5:30)|
|Vehicle registration||AP 03|
|Website||Tirupati Mucnicipal Corporation|
Tirupati is a city in Chittoor district of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh. It serves as the headquarters of Tirupati (urban) mandal and also Tirupati revenue division. As of 2011[update] census, the city had a population of 287,035, making it the ninth largest city in the state in terms of population. It is the seventh most urban agglomerated city in the state, with a population of 459,985.
It is one of the holiest Hindu pilgrimage site because of Tirumala Venkateswara Temple, which is located at about 20 kilometres (12 mi) north west of Tirupati in the Tirumala hills at an elevation of 853 metres (2,799 ft). The city is also home for other historical Temples like Sri Padmavathi Temple, Sri Govinda Raja Swamy Temple, Sri Kodanda Rama Swamy Temple, Sri Kalyana Venkateswara Swamy Temple, Kapilatheertham. Silathoranam(Natural Arch) is a distinctive geological wonder located in the Tirumala Hills. Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams is headquartered at Tirupati.
Tirupati is also home for many educational institutions and Universities. For the year 2012-13, Ministry of Tourism awarded Tirupati as the Best Heritage City recognising city's tourism potentiality.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Culture
- 6 Tourism
- 7 Government and politics
- 8 Economy
- 9 Infrastructure
- 10 Education
- 11 Media
- 12 References
- 13 External links
As per Anthropological Survey of India, the word Tirupati is derived from the Tamil words. Where Tiru means Divine or Holy and Pathi meaning "Husband or Lord". The sangam poet mamulanar refers Tirupati in his poem as Pullikundram. Tirupati is also referred as Lower Tirupati and Tirumala can be referred to as Upper Tirupati.
Tirumala (Upper Tirupati)
The town was an established center of Vaishnavism around 5th century A.D. during which it was praised by Alvars. The temple rites were formalized by the Vaishnavite saint Ramanujacharya in the 11th century AD. Tirupati survived the Muslim and British invasions. During the Muslim invasion of South India, the deity of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Srirangam was brought to Tirupati for safekeeping.
The temple was built and upgraded in parts by various kingdoms. The inscriptions in the temple were found in Sanskrit, Tamil, Telugu and Kannada languages of which majority are in Tamil followed by Kannada and a few in Telugu  which specify the contributions of the Pallava Kingdom around 9th Century AD, Chola Kingdom around 10th century AD and the Vijayanagara Empire in 14th century AD. During 15th century, Sri Tallapaka Annamacharya sung many songs in praise of holy town in Telugu. He compared it to be divine, including the rocks, streams, trees, animals, and adds that it is heaven on the earth. One of those songs include:
kaTTedura vaikunTamu kANAchaina konDa
teTTalAya mahimalE tirumala konDa ||
vEdamulE Silalai velasinadi konDa
yEdesa puNya rAsulE yErulainadi konDa
gAdili brahmAdi lOkamula konalu konDa
Sree dEvuDunDETi SEshAdri konDa ||
“ Tirumala, in all its right, is heaven. Its powers are indescribable.The Vedas have taken the form of rocks and appeared on Tirumala. Holiness has taken the form of water and is flowing as streams on Tirumala. Its holy peaks are Brahmaloka and other lokas. Srinivasa lives on Seshadri. ”
Tirupati (Lower Tirupati)
There was no human settlement at Lower Tirupati until 1500 year. With the growing importance of Upper TIrupati a village is formed at the present day Kapilatheertham Road area and was named as "kotturu" . It was later shifted to the vicinity of Govinda Raja Swamy Temple which was concecrated around the year 1130 CE. Later the village was grown into its present day form around Govindaraja Swamy Temple which is now the heart of the city.
In 1932, Tirumala Venkateswara Temple was handed over to Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams by the TTD Act of 1932. In 2006, Tirupati Urban Development Aothority(TUDA) and TTD together conducted "Tirupati Utsavam" which focused on the history of development of Tirupati town, kings who visited Tirumala and their contribution for development of the temple.
Tirupati is located at Seshachalam Hills of Eastern Ghats which were formed during Precambrian era. One of its suburbTirumala which is the home to Sri Venkateswara Temple is also located within the hills. Tirupati is surrounded by Srikalahasti towards east, Puttur towards South, Poothalapattu towards west and Seshachalam hills towards North.. It lies at the foot of
Monsoon remains moderate and summer experiences temperatures ranging from 35 to 40 degrees Celsius. In winter the minimum temperatures will be between 18 and 20 degrees Celsius. Usually summer lasts from March to June, with the advent of rainy season in July, followed by winter which lasts till the end of February.The city experiences maximum rainfall in November during northeast monsoon season.
|Climate data for Tirupati, India|
|Average high °C (°F)||29.9
|Average low °C (°F)||18.7
|Average precipitation mm (inches)||17.9
|Source: Indian Meteorological Department|
As of 2011[update] Census of India, the city had a population of 287,035. The total population constitute, 145,977 males and 141,058 females — a sex ratio of 966 females per 1000 males, higher than the national average of 940 per 1000. 24,643 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 12, 869 are boys and 11,744 are girls. The average literacy rate stands at 87.55% (male 92.74%; female 82.21%), significantly higher than the national average of 73%. The Urban agglomeration had a population of 459,985, of which males constitute 231,456, females constitute 228,529 — a sex ratio of 987 females per 1000 males and 41,589 children are in the age group of 0–6 years. There are a total of 356,558 literates with an average literacy rate of 85.22%.
Telugu is the official language while Tamil is also spoken due to the large number of visiting pilgrims. Hinduism is the major religion and most of the temples in Tirupati are of Dravidian architecture.
The city celebrates all major Hindu festivals including Sankranti, Ugadi, Maha Shivaratri, Vinayaka Chaviti, Deepavali, Rama Navami and Kartik Poornima with great splendor, while the Sri Venkateswara Brahmotsavams celebrated every year during October is the most important festival in Tirumala when it receives millions of devotees over a short span of a week. Vaikunta Ekadasi, the day on which it is believed that Vaikunta Dwarams will be opened and the most important Vasihnavite festival, is celebrated with grandeur in Tirumala. The Tirumala Venkateswara Temple will be flooded with devotees on a single day with numbers reaching upto 1.5 lakhs, to have a darshan of Venkateswara through special entrance which encircles inner sanctum called "Vaikunta Dwaram". The other Vishnu temples maintained by TTD in Tirupati also witness huge number of devotees on this day. Rathasapthami is another festival, celebrated during February, when Lord Venkateswara's miniature idol(Malayappa) is taken in a procession around the temple on seven different vahanams starting from early morning to late night. Tirupati also celebrates a carnival(Jathara) Tirupati Ganga Jatara, held during second week of May every year. This is a week long festival where Goddess Gangamma(Grama Devatha) is worshiped. Sri Krishna janmastami also known as Gokulashtami is celebrated with great fervor at Tirupati. The Lotus Temple belonging to International Society for Krishna Consciousness(ISKCON) will be illuminated with lamps and paintings displaying themes from Srimad Bhagavatham. The celebrations include offering prayers to Sri Krishna, Utlotsavam, Annamayya Kirtana alapana, Geetha Parayanam etc. On this day 'Gokulashtami Asthanam' will be held at Tirumala Venkateswara Temple. TTD will also celebrate the janmastami at Sri Venkateswara Gosamrakshana Shala where prayers will be offered to cows, horses and elephants.
Tirupati is known for world famous 'Tirupati Laddu'. It is given at Tirumala Sri Venkateswara Temple as prasadam. Tirupati Laddu had got Geographical indication tag which entitles only Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams to make or sell it.
Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams established Sri Venkateswara Musueum, one at Tirumala and the other at Tirupati. It has a wonderful collection of Tirupati temple architecture and historical artefacts, such as ancient weaponry, pooja items and idols. It has a comprehensive photo gallery that gives a unique insight into the Tirupati region's culture and traditions. It also boasts a meditation centre. In 1988-89 Archaeological Survey of India had established an Archaeological Museum in the Chandragiri fort at Chandragiri. It exhibits rich collection of stone and metal sculptures of hindu gods and other cultural vestiges retrieved from other historical places like Gudimallam, Gandikota and Yaganti. It also includes galleries for medieval weaponry swords and daggers, coins and paper documents.
Sri Venkateswara Temple, Tirumala is one of the world's richest and famous Vaishnavite Temple dedicated to Lord Venkateswara. The Lord will recite in the main garba griha referred to as Ananda Nilayam. The Temple is situated at an elevation of 853 metres on Tirumala Hills of Seshachalam Hill ranges. The temple is believed to be as old as 300 BC and is built and developed over time by many kingdoms. The Temple is administered by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams Temple will be flooded with Devotees dialy where the number reaches to a lakh on festive days.
Sri Padmavathi Temple, Tiruchanur is the temple dedicated to Goddess Padmavathi or Alamelumanga, the wife of Lord Venkateswara. The Temple is situated in Tiruchanur, a suburb of Tirupati and is at a distance of 5 KM . There is a Tank behind the Temple known as Padma Pushkarini, where Chakra Snanam will be held on last day of Annual Padmavathi Brahmotsavams (Panchami Teertham) which will witness lakhs of Devotees taking a dip in the holy waters. There is also a temple dedicated to Lord Surya Narayana infront of Pushkarini.
Sri Govindaraja Swamy Temple, Tirupati is the temple dedicated to Sri Govindaraja Swamy who is believed to be brother of Lord Venkateswara. The Temple was concecrated in the year 1130 AD by Sri Vaishnavite, Saint Ramanujacharya. Before Sri Govindaraja Swamy, Sri Parthasarathy Swamy was the presiding deity of the Temple.The temple is situated at the heart of the Tirupati city. It has tall seven storied outer Gopuram with 11 kalasas and dated back to 14-15th century. This temple is one of the huge temples in Chittoor district.
Kapila Theertham is the holy water falls in Tirupati named after Kapila Muni. It hosts Kapileswara Temple which is dedicated to Lord Shiva and the deity is referred to as Kapileswara. The water falls directly fall from the hill rocks into the pond opposite to the temple. The Temple and the falls are considered highly devotional. The greatness of the Temple deity was found in the Kulothunga Chola Inscriptions of 10th Century. The Temple is under the administration of Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams. The Maha Shivaratri and Kartik Poornima are the most auspiciuos occasions celebrated in this temple.
Other famous Temples in Tirupati include Sri Kodandarama Swamy Temple, Sri Kalyana Venkateswara Swamy Temple, Tirupati Gangamma Temple, Alipiri Padala mandapam, ISKCON Hare Krishna Temple.
Flora and fauna
Sri Venkateswara National Park
Sri Venkateswara National Park is a national park and biosphere reserve which is part of Seshachalam Hills. The total area of the park is 353 km2. The park is home for about 1,500 vascular plant species belonging to 174 families. Some of the rare and endemic plant species like red sanders, Shorea talura, Shorea thumburggaia, Terminalia pallida, sandalwood, Syzygium alternifolium, Psilotum nudum occur in this region.
About 178 species of birds from this national park have been identified which includes the globally threatened yellow-throated bulbul, Pompadour green pigeon, critically endangered Oriental white-backed vulture, large hawk-cuckoo, blue-faced malkoha, yellow-browed bulbul, Indian scimitar-babbler and Loten's sunbird. Among predators the leopard is quite common, along with the wild dog. Among reptiles, the most interesting species is the gliding lizard, found in some deep forested valleys. Another important reptile of this national park is the golden gecko.
Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park 
Established in 1987, Tirupati Zoo or Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park is a zoo located at Tirupati and is Asia's Second largest Zoo with an area of 5500 acres. It is built on the concept of Hindhu Mythology. It exhibits only animals that are mentioned in our ancient epics like Ramayana, Mahabharatha, Panchatantra. The enclosures are also named based on Indian Mythology. It hosts wide range of animals, Reptiles and Birds like Deers, Monkeys, Lions, Tigers, Bears, Elephants, Peafowl, Grey pelican, Marsh crocodile, Starred tortoise etc.
Sri Venkateswara Gosamrakshana shala
Sri Venkateswara Gosamrakshana Shala is home for Cattle received as a donation(Godanam). It was established in the year 1956 by TTD and later renamed to S.V. Gosamrakshana Shala during 2004. It is located at Chandragiri Road, Tirupati. It is maintained by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams based on the funds received under Sri Venkateswara Gosamrakshana Shala Trust. Activities of the Trust includes includes providing good environment, managment ,feeding to the Cattle. The milk and its products produced here are being used by TTD for daily rituals at Sri Venkateswara Temple and other TTD Temples.
Other places o interest include Govindaraja Temple, Padala Mandapam (Alipiri) temple, Thathayagunta Gangamma temple Kapila Theertham, Chandragiri Fort, Sri Venkateswara Zoological Park which is the second largest zoo park in Asia, are the places known in and around the city.
Government and politics
Tirupati is part of Tirupati (Lok Sabha constituency). Tirupati is also an assembly constituency.
Tirupati Municipal Corporation oversees the administration of the city. Tirupati was constituted to municipality on 01, April, 1886 and it was upgraded as second grade municipality on 01.10.1962. Tirupati municipality was upgraded into a first grade municipality on 12, December, 1965, special grade municipality on 13, February, 1970 and selection grade municipality on 07, October, 1998. Tirupati Municipality was upgraded as a municipal corporation (Tirupati Municipal Corporation) on 02, March, 2007. The area of the municipal corporation at the time of formation was 16.59 square kilometres (6.41 sq mi). The area was expanded in July, 2013 to 24 square kilometres (9.3 sq mi).
Tirupati Urban Development Authority (TUDA)
Tirupati Urban Development Authority (abbreviated as TUDA) is the urban planning authority. It was constituted in the year 1981, with Tirupati town and 89 villages under its jurisdiction. In 2008, it included Srikalahasti, Puttur and surrounding 69 villages into its jurisdiction. At present TUDA covers an area of 1,211.51 km2 (467.77 sq mi).
Tourism is the major industry in Tirupati. Entire economy is directly or indirectly depends on Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams(TTD). TTD is head quatered at Tirupati. Established in 1932, TTD is an independent Trust which manages Tirumala Venkateswara Temple and other temples in Tirupati and all over the world. It is also involved in several social activities. Being a major religious tourist destination, Hospitality Industry is also a major industry in Tirupati which includes many 3 star hotels and lodges. Andhra Pradesh Southern Power Distribution Company Limited(APSPDCL) is also head quatered at Tirupati. Gandhi Road, Prakasam Road, V.V Mahal Road, AIR Bypass Road are highly commercial areas in the City. Major brands of Automobile, Textile, Mobile, Electrical and Electronic companies have their outlets in Tirupati. APIIC Industrial Park is located at Gajulamandyam, Renigunta. Industries like Sri Venkateswara Cooperative Sugar Factory Limited, AshwiniBio Pharma Ltd and others are situated in this park. Amara Raja factory is located at Karakambadi, Renigunta. Lanco cement factory is located at Eerpedu mandal. The majority of the city residents are employed under TTD.
There are two foot step paths from Tirupati to Tirumala. These paths are called Sopanamargas. The Devotees to fulfil their Vow to Lord Venkateswara will take this path to reach Tirumala on foot from Tirupati. The first and Ancient path starts from Alipiri and consists of a total 3550 Steps which makes a distance of 11 KM. At Alipiri there is a temple dedicated to Lord Venkateswara called Padalamandapam. There are Four Gopurams(Temple Towers) on the way. The other is referred to as 'Sri Vari Mettu' starts from Srinivasa Mangapuram and is 6 KM long. Both the paths are completely roofed and passes through seven hills which are part of Seshachalam Hills.
Sri Hari bus station is one of the largest in the state and has direct bus services to major towns across South India. There is a bus terminal at Alipiri for buses to Tirumala. A number of buses are operated by government operator APSRTC and private operators connecting Tirupati to other major cities and towns such as Chennai, Vellore, Hyderabad, Vijayawada, Visakhapatnam and Bangalore. Due to its proximity with Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, buses from KSRTC, TNSTC, SETC also operate to Tirupati. The Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam runs free buses from Railway station and Central bus stand to Alipiri for the benefit of pilgrims.
Tirupati Main is under the jurisdiction of Guntakal railway division of South Central Railway zone. It is also connected to Chennai Suburban Railway's North Line. Renigunta Junction which lies on the Chennai - Mumbai rail corridor is 15 km away from Tirupati main station. Other stations in the city include Chandragiri, Tirupati West, Tiruchanur.
Tirupati Airport is located 15 km from the city center and has regular flights to Coimbatore, Hyderabad, Kolkata, Mumbai, New Delhi, Vijayawada and Visakhapatnam. The closest international airport is Chennai International Airport which is 130 km (81 mi) from Tirupati. There are plans to upgrade the airport to international status and work is in progress.
Tirupati is a medical hub with major hospitals situated in its vicinity. Many of these are either run under State government or run/funded by TTD.
Sri Venkateswara Ram Narayan Ruia(SVRR) Government hospital is one of the largest in the state of Andhra Pradesh and is the main government hospital for Rayalaseema region. It is started in the year 1962 with a donation of Rs.5 lakhs from Sri Radha Krishna N. Ruia and 15 lakhs from Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams. At present it is having 750 beds with super-specialty departments like Neurosurgery, Neurology, Plastic Surgery, Pediatric surgery, Nephrology & Surgical oncology.
Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences(SVIMS) is the another major medical institute established in the year 1986 in the lines of AIIMS by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams with the tag line "Manavasevae - Madhavaseva". It provides services in Anaesthesiology, Anatomy, Biochemistry, C.T.Surgery, Cardiology, Endocrinology, General Surgery, Hematology, Medical Gastroenterology, Medical Oncology, Medicine, Microbiology, Nephrology, Neurology, Neurosurgery, Nuclear Medicine , Pathology, Physiology, Plastic Surgery Radiology, Radiation Oncology, Surgical Gastroenterology, Surgical Oncology , Transfusion Medicine and Urology departments.
Balaji Institute of Surgery, Research and Rehabilitation for the Disabled (BIRRD) with 250 beds, is a medical hospital established in 1985 by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam to treat patients suffering from polio myelitis, cerebral palsy, congenital anomalies, spinal injuries, and the orthopaedically handicapped. This hospital is a non-profit organisation and is run with funds granted by Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams and donations from the public. Aswini Hospital in Tirumala is a general hospital in Tirumala maintained by TTD. Other than these there are TTD run central hospital for its employees, many private dental, eye care, skin care hospitals, clinics and laboratories within the city.
Tirupati is given status of Urban Police District which consists of 25 police stations, 2 circles, 7 Sub-Divisions with 1 SP, 4 Additional Ss.P, 17 DSsP, 24 Inspectors of Police, 90 Sls, 81 ASIs, 223 HCs and 1056 PCs in Civil and 1 DSP, 4 RIs, 12 RSIs, 33 ARSIs, 99 ARHCs and 429 ARPCs for Armed Reserves.  Tirupati temple was deployed with 100 Octopus (Organisation For Counter Terrorist Operations) commandos to look over its security. This was formed by Government of Andhra Pradesh in the year 2012. The elite commando force has been specially trained for in house intervention, hostage rescue and Israeli combat technique Krav Maga.
At Alipiri, the state-of-the-art ‘Sapthagiri Security Zone’ was established to screen the Vehicles and Pilgrims those are entering Tirumala. The aim of this toll gate cum security point is to safeguard the hills from terrorists and anti-social elements. To assure more safety in Tirumala-Tirupati, Government of Andhra Pradesh has started a project "Safe City-Tirupati". Under this project the Tirupati temple and the city will be placed under 24*7 CCTV surveillace with 3000 CCTV cameras. A state-of-the-art command-and-control centre will monitor these activities. Baggage scanners and Explosive detectors are installed at several places.
Tirupati is a major educational hub in Andhra Pradesh. There are several peculiar universities and colleges including state government and Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanam sponsored medical, pharmacy, agricultural and engineering colleges in the city. Majority of them are named after preseiding deity of Tirupati temple, Lord Venkateswara and his concert Goddess Padmavati.
Universities and Colleges
- Sri Venkateswara University established in 1954.
- Sri Padmavati Mahila Visvavidyalayam is a dedicated women's university situated in Tirupati.
- Medical colleges include Sri Venkateswara Medical College, and Sri Padmavathi Medical College for Women. Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences(SVIMS) is also a medical institute noted for conducting various DM, MCh, MD courses.
- Sri Venkateswara Vedic University to preserve, foster and promote oral traditions of Vedic, Agamic and Cognate Literature, with focus on right intonations.
- Rashtriya Sanskrit Vidyapeetha, a University established for higher learning in Sanskrit studies, Traditional Sastras and Pedagogy.
- Sri Venkateswara Veterinary University to strengthen education and services in the fields of Veterinary Science, Dairy Technology and Fishery Science in the State of Andhra Pradesh.
- Sri Venkateswara Institute of Traditional Sculpture and Architecture (SVITSA) run by TTD is one of the two institutions in India offering courses in traditional sculpture and architecture to students. Seven different Diploma Courses are offered in subjects such as Temple Architecture, Stone Sculpture, Sudai Sculpture, Metal Sculpture, Wood Sculpture, Traditional Painting and Traditional Kalamkari Art.
- A culinary institute sponsored by the Ministry of Tourism (India) is located at Tirupati.
The city is set to get an Indian Institutes of Technology (IIT) and Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research(IISER) which were alloted by Government of India to the state of Andhra Pradesh.
- Sri Venkateswara Medical College, Tirupati is selected for establishment of Multidisciplinary Research Units (MRUs),Model rural Health Research Units (MRHRU) by The Indian Council of Medical Research(ICMR).
- Sri Venkateswara Institute of Medical Sciences(SVIMS), Tirupati is selected for establishment of college level Viral Diagnostic Research Labs
- A sub-centre for All India Coordinated Research Project(AICRP) on groundnut is established at the Regional Agricultural Research Station(RARS), Tirupati to conduct research activities on new high. The research will help to meet the needs of the country’s 100 arid districts which receive less than 500 mm rainfall. RARS has so far developed 12 groundnut varieties.
Telugu newspapers – Andhra Bhoomi, Saakshi, Eenadu, Vaartha, Andhra Jyothi, Andhra Prabha, Tamil newspapers - Dinamalar, Dinakaran, Daily Thanthi and English newspapers – Deccan Chronicle, The Hindu, Indian Express, Times of India, The Hans India are available in the city. Devotional channel SVBC TV is telecasted from Tirumala. Tirupati has All India Radio station and is served by FM stations like 92.7 Big FM, 93.5 Red FM.
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