|Description||A vegetarian diet is derived from plants, with or without eggs or dairy.|
|Varieties||Ovo, Lacto, Ovo-lacto, Veganism, Raw veganism, Fruitarianism, Hindu vegetarianism, Buddhist vegetarianism, Jain vegetarianism|
Vegetarianism // is the practice of abstaining from the consumption of meat (red meat, poultry, seafood, and the flesh of any other animal), and may also include abstention from by-products of animal slaughter.
Vegetarianism may be adopted for various reasons. Many people object to eating meat out of respect for sentient life. Such ethical motivations have been codified under various religious beliefs, as well as animal rights advocacy. Other motivations for vegetarianism are health-related, political, environmental, cultural, aesthetic, economic, or personal preference. There are variations of the diet as well: an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet includes both eggs and dairy products, an ovo-vegetarian diet includes eggs but not dairy products, and a lacto-vegetarian diet includes dairy products but not eggs. A vegan diet excludes all animal products, including eggs and dairy. Some vegans also avoid other animal products such as beeswax, leather or silk clothing, and goose-fat shoe polish.
Packaged and processed foods, such as cakes, cookies, candies, chocolate, yogurt, and marshmallows, often contain unfamiliar animal ingredients, so may be a special concern for vegetarians due to the likelihood of such additions. Often, prior to purchase or consumption, vegetarians will scrutinize products for animal-derived ingredients . Vegetarians' feelings vary with regard to these ingredients. For example, while some vegetarians may be unaware of animal-derived rennet's role in the production of cheese, and may therefore unknowingly consume the product, other vegetarians may not take issue with its consumption.
Semi-vegetarian diets consist largely of vegetarian foods, but may include fish or poultry, or sometimes other meats, on an infrequent basis. Those with diets containing fish or poultry may define meat only as mammalian flesh and may identify with vegetarianism. A pescetarian diet has been described as "fish but no other meat". The common use association between such diets and vegetarianism has led vegetarian groups such as the Vegetarian Society to state that diets containing these ingredients are not vegetarian, because fish and birds are also animals.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 History
- 3 Varieties
- 4 Health effects
- 5 Ethics and diet
- 6 Religion and diet
- 7 Environment and diet
- 8 Labor conditions and diet
- 9 Economics and diet
- 10 Demographics
- 11 See also
- 12 Notes
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
The term 'vegetarian' has been in use since 1839 to refer to what was previously described as a "vegetable diet". The word is commonly believed to be a compound of vegetable and the suffix -arian (as in agrarian). (John Davis shows that it was probably not derived from the Latin word vegetus.) The term was popularized with the foundation of the Vegetarian Society in Manchester, UK in 1847. The earliest occurrences of the term seem to be related to Alcott House, a school on the north side of Ham Common, London, opened in July 1838 by James Pierrepont Greaves. From 1841, it was known as A Concordium, or Industry Harmony College, from which time the institution began to publish its own pamphlet, "The Healthian", which provides some of the earliest appearances of the term "vegetarian".
Vegetarianism was also practiced about seven centuries later in another instance (between 30 BC–50 AD) in northern Thracian region, the Moesi tribe who inhabited present day Serbia and Bulgaria, feeding themselves on honey, milk and cheese.
In the Indian culture, the diet was closely connected with the attitude of nonviolence towards animals (called ahimsa in India) and was promoted by religious groups and philosophers. The ancient Indian work of Tirukkural explicitly and unambiguously emphasizes vegetarianism and non-killing. Chapter 26 of the Tirukkural, through couplets 251 to 260, deals exclusively on vegetarianism or veganism. Among the Hellenes, Egyptians and others, it had medical or ritual purification purposes.
"Twenty-six years after my coronation various animals were declared to be protected – parrots, mainas, aruna, ruddy geese, wild ducks, nandimukhas, gelatas, bats, queen ants, terrapins, boneless fish, vedareyaka, gangapuputaka, sankiya fish, tortoises, porcupines, squirrels, deer, bulls, okapinda, wild asses, wild pigeons, domestic pigeons and all four-footed creatures that are neither useful nor edible. Those nanny goats, ewes and sows which are with young or giving milk to their young are protected, and so are young ones less than six months old. Cocks are not to be caponized, husks hiding living beings are not to be burnt and forests are not to be burnt either without reason or to kill creatures. One animal is not to be fed to another." —Edicts of Ashoka, Fifth Pillar
Following the Christianization of the Roman Empire in late antiquity, vegetarianism practically disappeared from Europe, as it did on other continents, except India. Several orders of monks in medieval Europe restricted or banned the consumption of meat for ascetic reasons, but none of them eschewed fish. (The medieval definition of "fish" included such animals as seals, porpoises, dolphins, barnacle geese, puffins, and beavers.) It re-emerged during the Renaissance, becoming more widespread in the 19th and 20th centuries. In 1847, the first Vegetarian Society was founded in the United Kingdom; Germany, the Netherlands, and other countries followed. In 1886, the vegetarian colony Nueva Germania was founded in Paraguay, though its vegetarian aspect would prove short-lived.:345–358 The International Vegetarian Union, an association of the national societies, was founded in 1908. In the Western world, the popularity of vegetarianism grew during the twentieth century as a result of nutritional, ethical, and more recently, environmental and economic concerns.
There are a number of vegetarian diets that exclude or include various foods.
- Buddhist vegetarianism. Different Buddhist traditions have differing teachings on diet, which may also vary for ordained monks and nuns compared to others. Many interpret the precept 'not to kill' to require abstinence from meat, but not all. In Taiwan, su vegetarianism excludes not only all animal products but also vegetables in the allium family (which have the characteristic aroma of onion and garlic): onion, garlic, scallions, leeks, chives, or shallots.
- Fruitarianism permits only fruit, nuts, seeds, and other plant matter that can be gathered without harming the plant.
- Jain vegetarianism includes dairy but excludes eggs and honey, as well as root vegetables.
- Macrobiotic diets consist mostly of whole grains and beans.
- Lacto vegetarianism includes dairy products but not eggs.
- Ovo vegetarianism includes eggs but not dairy products.
- Ovo-lacto vegetarianism (or lacto-ovo vegetarianism) includes animal/dairy products such as eggs, milk, and honey.
- Sattvic diet (also known as yogic diet), a plant based diet which may also include dairy (not eggs) and honey, but excludes anything from the onion or leek family, red lentils, durian fruit, mushrooms, blue cheeses, fermented foods or sauces, alcoholic drinks and often also excludes coffee, black or green tea, chocolate, nutmeg or any other type of stimulant such as excess sharp spices.
- Veganism excludes all animal flesh and by-products, such as milk, honey (not always), and eggs, as well as items refined or manufactured through any such product, such as bone-char refined white sugar or animal-tested baking soda.
Some vegetarians also avoid products that may use animal ingredients not included in their labels or which use animal products in their manufacturing; for example, sugars that are whitened with bone char, cheeses that use animal rennet (enzymes from animal stomach lining), gelatin (derived from the collagen inside animals' skin, bones and connective tissue), some cane sugar (but not beet sugar) and apple juice/alcohol clarified with gelatin or crushed shellfish and sturgeon, while other vegetarians are unaware of or do not mind such ingredients.
Individuals sometimes label themselves "vegetarian" while practicing a semi-vegetarian diet, as some dictionary definitions incorrectly describe vegetarianism as sometimes including the consumption of fish, or only include mammalian flesh as part of their definition of meat, while other definitions exclude fish and all animal flesh. In other cases, individuals may describe themselves as "flexitarian". These diets may be followed by those who reduce animal flesh consumed as a way of transitioning to a complete vegetarian diet or for health, ethical, environmental, or other reasons. Semi-vegetarian diets include:
- Macrobiotic diet consisting mostly of whole grains and beans, but may sometimes include fish.
- Pescetarianism, which includes fish and possibly other forms of seafood;
- "Pollo-pescetarian", which includes poultry and fish, or "white meat" only;
- Pollotarianism, which includes chicken and possibly other poultry;
Semi-vegetarianism is contested by vegetarian groups, such as the Vegetarian Society, which states that vegetarianism excludes all animal flesh.
Studies on the health effects of vegetarian diets observe heterogeneous effects on mortality. One review found a decreased overall risk of all cause mortality, cancer(except breast) and cardiovascular disease, however another meta analysis found lower risk for ischemic heart disease and cancer, but no effect on overall mortality or cerebrovascular disease. Possible limitations include varying definitions used of vegetarianism, and the observation of increased risk of lung cancer morality in those on a vegetarian diet for less than five years. An analysis pooling 2 large studies found vegetarians in the UK have similar all cause mortality as meat eaters. An older meta analysis found similar results, only finding decreased mortality in vegetarians, pescatarians, and irregular meat eaters in ischemic heart disease, but not from any other cause.
A vegetarian diet which is poorly planned can lead to hyperhomocysteinemia and platelet disorders; this risk may be offset by ensuring sufficient consumption of vitamin B 12 and polyunsaturated fatty acids.
The Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics and Dietitians of Canada have stated that at all stages of life, a properly planned vegetarian diet is "healthful, nutritionally adequate, and provides health benefits in the prevention and treatment of certain diseases". Large-scale studies have shown that mortality from ischemic heart disease was 30% lower among vegetarian men and 20% lower among vegetarian women than in non-vegetarians. Vegetarian diets offer lower levels of saturated fat, cholesterol and animal protein, and higher levels of carbohydrates, fibre, magnesium, potassium, folate, and antioxidants such as vitamins C and E and phytochemicals.
"Vegetarian diets can meet guidelines for the treatment of diabetes and some research suggests that diets that are more plant-based reduce risk of type-2 diabetes. Rates of self-reported Seventh-day Adventists (SDA) were less than half of those of the general population, and, among SDA, vegetarians had lower rates of diabetes than non-vegetarians. Among possible explanations for a protective effect of vegetarian diet are the Lower BMI of vegetarians and higher fiber intake, both of which improve insulin sensitivity."
The relationship between vegetarian diet and bone health remains unclear. According to some studies, a vegetarian lifestyle can be associated with vitamin B 12 deficiency and low bone mineral density. However, a study of vegetarian and non-vegetarian adults in Taiwan found no significant difference in bone mineral density between the two groups. Other studies, exploring animal protein's negative effects on bone health, suggest that vegetarians may be less prone to osteoporosis than omnivores, as vegetarian subjects had greater bone mineral density and more bone formation.
The China-Cornell-Oxford Project, a 20-year study conducted by Cornell University, the University of Oxford, and the government of China has established a correlation between the consumption of animal products and a variety of chronic illnesses, such as coronary heart disease, diabetes, and cancers of the breast, prostate and bowel (see The China Study).
Western vegetarian diets are typically high in carotenoids, but relatively low in omega-3 fatty acids and vitamin B12. Vegans can have particularly low intake of vitamin B and calcium if they do not eat enough items such as collard greens, leafy greens, tempeh and tofu (soy). High levels of dietary fiber, folic acid, vitamins C and E, and magnesium, and low consumption of saturated fat are all considered to be beneficial aspects of a vegetarian diet. A well planned vegetarian diet will provide all nutrients in a meat-eater's diet to the same level for all stages of life.
Protein intake in vegetarian diets is lower than in meat diets but can meet the daily requirements for most people. Studies at Harvard University as well as other studies conducted in the United States, United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, New Zealand and various European countries, confirmed vegetarian diets provide sufficient protein intake as long as a variety of plant sources are available and consumed. Pumpkin seeds, peanut butter, hemp seed, almonds, pistachio nuts, flaxseed, tofu, oats, soybeans, walnuts, are great sources of protein for vegetarians. Proteins are composed of amino acids, and a common concern with protein acquired from vegetable sources is an adequate intake of the essential amino acids, which cannot be synthesised by the human body. While dairy and egg products provide complete sources for ovo-lacto vegetarian, several vegetable sources have significant amounts of all eight types of essential amino acids, including lupin beans, soy, hempseed, chia seed, amaranth, buckwheat, pumpkin seeds spirulina, pistachios, and quinoa. However, the essential amino acids can also be obtained by eating a variety of complementary plant sources that, in combination, provide all eight essential amino acids (e.g. brown rice and beans, or hummus and whole wheat pita, though protein combining in the same meal is not necessary). A 1994 study found a varied intake of such sources can be adequate.
Vegetarian diets typically contain similar levels of iron to non-vegetarian diets, but this has lower bioavailability than iron from meat sources, and its absorption can sometimes be inhibited by other dietary constituents. According to the Vegetarian Resource Group, consuming food that contains vitamin C, such as citrus fruit or juices, tomatoes, or broccoli, is a good way to increase the amount of iron absorbed at a meal. Vegetarian foods rich in iron include black beans, cashews, hempseed, kidney beans, broccoli, lentils, oatmeal, raisins, spinach, cabbage, lettuce, black-eyed peas, soybeans, many breakfast cereals, sunflower seeds, chickpeas, tomato juice, tempeh, molasses, thyme, and whole-wheat bread. The related vegan diets can often be higher in iron than vegetarian diets, because dairy products are low in iron. Iron stores often tend to be lower in vegetarians than non-vegetarians, and a few small studies report very high rates of iron deficiency (up to 40%, and 58% of the respective vegetarian or vegan groups). However, the American Dietetic Association states that iron deficiency is no more common in vegetarians than non-vegetarians (adult males are rarely iron deficient); iron deficiency anaemia is rare no matter the diet.
According to the United States National Institutes of Health, vitamin B12 is not generally present in plants and is naturally found in foods of animal origin. Lacto-ovo vegetarians can obtain B12 from dairy products and eggs, and vegans can obtain it from fortified foods (including some soy products and some breakfast cereals) and dietary supplements. Vitamin B12 can also be obtained from fortified yeast extract products.
The recommended dietary allowance of B12 in the United States is, per day, 0.4 mcg (0–6 months), rising to 1.8 mcg (9–13 years), 2.4 mcg (14+ years), and 2.8 mcg (lactating female). While the body's daily requirement for vitamin B12 is very small, deficiency of the vitamin is very serious leading to anemia and irreversible nerve damage.
Plant-based, or vegetarian, sources of Omega 3 fatty acids include soy, walnuts, pumpkin seeds, canola oil, kiwifruit, hempseed, algae, chia seed, flaxseed, echium seed and leafy vegetables such as lettuce, spinach, cabbage and purslane. Purslane contains more Omega 3 than any other known leafy green. Olives (and olive oil) are another important plant source of unsaturated fatty acids. Plant foods can provide alpha-linolenic acid which the human body uses to synthesize the long-chain n-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA. EPA and DHA can be obtained directly in high amounts from oily fish or fish oils. Vegetarians, and particularly vegans, have lower levels of EPA and DHA than meat-eaters. While the health effects of low levels of EPA and DHA are unknown, it is unlikely that supplementation with alpha-linolenic acid will significantly increase levels.[clarification needed] Recently, some companies have begun to market vegetarian DHA supplements containing seaweed extracts. Similar supplements providing both DHA and EPA have also begun to appear. Whole seaweeds are not suitable for supplementation because their high iodine content limits the amount that may be safely consumed. However, certain algae such as spirulina are good sources of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), linoleic acid (LA), stearidonic acid (SDA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), and arachidonic acid (AA).
Calcium intake in vegetarians and vegans can be similar to non-vegetarians, as long as the diet is properly planned. Lacto-ovo vegetarians that include dairy products can still obtain calcium from dairy sources like milk, yogurt, and cheese.
Non-dairy milks that are fortified with calcium, such as soymilk and almond milk can also contribute a significant amount of calcium in the diet. The calcium found in broccoli, bok choy, and kale have also been found to have calcium that is well absorbed in the body. Though the calcium content per serving is lower in these vegetables than a glass of milk, the absorption of the calcium into the body is higher. Other foods that contain calcium include calcium-set tofu, blackstrap molasses, turnip greens, mustard greens, soybeans, tempeh, almonds, okra, dried figs, and tahini. Though calcium can be found in Spinach, swiss chard, beans and beet greens, they are generally not considered to be a good source since the calcium binds to oxalic acid and is poorly absorbed into the body. Phytic acid found in nuts, seeds, and beans may also impact calcium absorption rates. See the National Institutes of Health Office of Dietary Supplements for calcium needs for various ages, the Vegetarian Resource Group and the Vegetarian Nutrition Calcium Fact Sheet from the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics for more specifics on how to obtain adequate calcium intake on a vegetarian or vegan diet.
Vitamin D needs can be met via the human body's own generation upon sufficient and sensible exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light in sunlight. Products including milk, soy milk and cereal grains may be fortified to provide a source of Vitamin D. For those who do not get adequate sun exposure or food sources, Vitamin D supplementation may be necessary.
- Fungus, from USDA nutrient database:
- Mushrooms, portabella, exposed to ultraviolet light, raw: Vitamin D2: 11.2 μg (446 IU)
- Mushrooms, portabella, exposed to ultraviolet light, grilled: Vitamin D2: 13.1 μg (524 IU)
- Mushrooms, shiitake, dried: Vitamin D2: 3.9 μg (154 IU)
- Mushrooms, shiitake, raw: Vitamin D2: 0.4 μg (18 IU)
- Mushrooms, portabella, raw: Vitamin D2: 0.3 μg (10 IU)
- Mushroom powder, any species, illuminated with sunlight or artificial ultraviolet light sources
Vitamin D2, or ergocalciferol is found in fungus (except alfalfa which is a plantae) and created from viosterol, which in turn is created when ultraviolet light activates ergosterol (which is found in fungi and named as a sterol from ergot). Any UV-irradiated fungus including yeast form vitamin D2. Human bioavailability of vitamin D2 from vitamin D2-enhanced button mushrooms via UV-B irradiation is effective in improving vitamin D status and not different from a vitamin D2 supplement according to study. For example, Vitamin D2 from UV-irradiated yeast baked into bread is bioavailable. By visual assessment or using a chromometer, no significant discoloration of irradiated mushrooms, as measured by the degree of "whiteness", was observed making it hard to discover if they have been treated without labeling. Claims have been made that a normal serving (approx. 3 oz or 1/2 cup, or 60 grams) of mushrooms treated with ultraviolet light increase their vitamin D content to levels up to 80 micrograms, or 2700 IU if exposed to just 5 minutes of UV light after being harvested.
A 1999 metastudy combined data from five studies from western countries. The metastudy reported mortality ratios, where lower numbers indicated fewer deaths, for fish eaters to be 0.82, vegetarians to be 0.84, occasional meat eaters (eat meat less than once per week) to be 0.84. Regular meat eaters had the base mortality rate of 1.0, while the number for vegans was very uncertain (anywhere between 0.7 and 1.44) due to too few data points. The study reported the numbers of deaths in each category, and expected error ranges for each ratio, and adjustments made to the data. However, the "lower mortality was due largely to the relatively low prevalence of smoking in these [vegetarian] cohorts". Out of the major causes of death studied, only one difference in mortality rate was attributed to the difference in diet, as the conclusion states: "...vegetarians had a 24% lower mortality from ischaemic heart disease than non-vegetarians, but no associations of a vegetarian diet with other major causes of death were established".
In Mortality in British vegetarians, a similar conclusion is drawn:
- "British vegetarians have low mortality compared with the general population. Their death rates are similar to those of comparable non-vegetarians, suggesting that much of this benefit may be attributed to non-dietary lifestyle factors such as a low prevalence of smoking and a generally high socio-economic status, or to aspects of the diet other than the avoidance of meat and fish."
The Adventist Health Studies is ongoing research that documents the life expectancy in Seventh-day Adventists. This is the only study among others with similar methodology which had favourable indication for vegetarianism. The researchers found that a combination of different lifestyle choices could influence life expectancy by as much as 10 years. Among the lifestyle choices investigated, a vegetarian diet was estimated to confer an extra 1–1/2 to 2 years of life. The researchers concluded that "the life expectancies of California Adventist men and women are higher than those of any other well-described natural population" at 78.5 years for men and 82.3 years for women. The life expectancy of California Adventists surviving to age 30 was 83.3 years for men and 85.7 years for women.
The Adventist health study is again incorporated into a metastudy titled "Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans?" published in American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, which concluded that low meat eating (less than once per week) and other lifestyle choices significantly increase life expectancy, relative to a group with high meat intake. The study concluded that "The findings from one cohort of healthy adults raises the possibility that long-term (≥ 2 decades) adherence to a vegetarian diet can further produce a significant 3.6-y increase in life expectancy." However, the study also concluded that "Some of the variation in the survival advantage in vegetarians may have been due to marked differences between studies in adjustment for confounders, the definition of vegetarian, measurement error, age distribution, the healthy volunteer effect, and intake of specific plant foods by the vegetarians." It further states that "This raises the possibility that a low-meat, high plant-food dietary pattern may be the true causal protective factor rather than simply elimination of meat from the diet." In a recent review of studies relating low-meat diet patterns to all-cause mortality, Singh noted that "5 out of 5 studies indicated that adults who followed a low meat, high plant-food diet pattern experienced significant or marginally significant decreases in mortality risk relative to other patterns of intake."
Statistical studies, such as comparing life expectancy with regional areas and local diets in Europe also have found life expectancy considerably greater in southern France, where a low meat, high plant Mediterranean diet is common, than northern France, where a diet with high meat content is more common.
A study by the Institute of Preventive and Clinical Medicine, and Institute of Physiological Chemistry looked at a group of 19 vegetarians (lacto-ovo) and used as a comparison a group of 19 omnivorous subjects recruited from the same region. The study found that this group of vegetarians (lacto-ovo) have a significantly higher amount of plasma carboxymethyllysine and advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) compared to this group of non-vegetarians. Carboxymethyllysine is a glycation product which represents "a general marker of oxidative stress and long-term damage of proteins in aging, atherosclerosis and diabetes" and "[a]dvanced glycation end products (AGEs) may play an important adverse role in process of atherosclerosis, diabetes, aging and chronic renal failure".
In Western medicine, patients are sometimes advised[by whom?] to adhere to a vegetarian diet. According to studies by the Permanente Journal and the National Institute for Health (NIH), vegetarian diets are affordable and can help reduce health risks like high blood pressure, cardiovascular disease, and cholesterol levels. A plant based diet has the potential to lower the risk of heart disease as well as reducing the amount of medications prescribed in instances of chronic illness. A change to a plant based diet, or vegetarianism, has had dramatic positive effects on the health of patients with chronic illnesses, significantly more than exercise alone  Vegetarian diets have been used as a treatment for rheumatoid arthritis, but the evidence is inconclusive whether this is effective. Certain alternative medicines, such as Ayurveda and Siddha, prescribe a vegetarian diet as a normal procedure. Maya Tiwari notes that Ayurveda recommends small portions of meat for some people, though "the rules of hunting and killing the animal, practiced by the native peoples, were very specific and detailed". Now that such methods of hunting and killing are not observed, she does not recommend the use of "any animal meat as food, not even for the Vata types".
The human digestive system is omnivorous, capable of consuming a wide variety of plant and animal material. Some nutritional experts believe that early hominids evolved into eating meat as a result of huge climatic changes that took place three to four million years ago, when forests and jungles dried up and became open grasslands and opened hunting and scavenging opportunities.[further explanation needed]
The American Dietetic Association has presented evidence that vegetarian diets may be more common among adolescents with eating disorders. At the same time the association cautions however, that the adoption of a vegetarian diet may not necessarily lead to eating disorders, rather that "vegetarian diets may be selected to camouflage an existing eating disorder". Other studies and statements by dietitians and counselors support this conclusion.[nb 1]
Ethics and diet
Various ethical reasons have been suggested for choosing vegetarianism, usually predicated on the interests of non-human animals. In many societies, controversy and debate have arisen over the ethics of eating animals. Some people, while not vegetarians, refuse to eat the flesh of certain animals due to cultural taboo, such as cats, dogs, horses or rabbits. Others support meat eating for scientific, nutritional and cultural reasons, including religious ones. Some meat eaters abstain from the meat of animals reared in particular ways, such as factory farms, or avoid certain meats, such as veal or foie gras. Some people follow vegetarian or vegan diets not because of moral concerns involving the raising or consumption of animals in general, but because of concerns about the specific treatment and practises involved in the raising and slaughter of animals, i.e. factory farming and the industrialisation of animal slaughter. Others still avoid meat because meat production is claimed to place a greater burden on the environment than production of an equivalent amount of plant protein.
Ethical objections based on consideration for animals are generally divided into opposition to the act of killing in general, and opposition to certain agricultural practices surrounding the production of meat.
Ethics of killing for food
Princeton University professor and founder of the animal rights movement, Peter Singer, believes that if alternative means of survival exist, one ought to choose the option that does not cause unnecessary harm to animals. Most ethical vegetarians argue that the same reasons exist against killing animals to eat as against killing humans to eat. Singer, in his book Animal Liberation listed possible qualities of sentience in non-human creatures that gave such creatures the scope to be considered under utilitarian ethics, and this has been widely referenced by animal rights campaigners and vegetarians. Ethical vegetarians also believe that killing an animal, like killing a human, can only be justified in extreme circumstances and that consuming a living creature for its enjoyable taste, convenience, or nutrition value is not a sufficient cause. Another common view is that humans are morally conscious of their behaviour in a way other animals are not, and therefore subject to higher standards.
Opponents of ethical vegetarianism argue that animals are not moral equals to humans and so consider the comparison of eating livestock with killing people to be fallacious. This view does not excuse cruelty, but maintains that animals do not possess the rights a human has.
Dairy and eggs
One of the main differences between a vegan and a typical vegetarian diet is the avoidance of both eggs and dairy products such as milk, cheese, butter and yogurt. Ethical vegans do not consume dairy or eggs because they state that their production causes the animal suffering or a premature death.
To produce milk from dairy cattle, calves are separated from their mothers soon after birth and slaughtered or fed milk replacer in order to retain the cows milk for human consumption. Vegans state that this breaks the natural mother and calf bond. Unwanted male calves are either slaughtered at birth or sent for veal production. To prolong lactation, dairy cows are almost permanently kept pregnant through artificial insemination. After about five years, once the cows milk production has dropped, they are considered "spent" and sent to slaughter for beef and their hides. A dairy cow's natural life expectancy is about twenty years.
Treatment of animals
Ethical vegetarianism has become popular in developed countries particularly because of the spread of factory farming, faster communications, and environmental consciousness. Some believe that the current mass demand for meat cannot be satisfied without a mass-production system that disregards the welfare of animals, while others believe that practices like well-managed free-ranging and consumption of game, particularly from species whose natural predators have been significantly eliminated, could substantially alleviate the demand for mass-produced meat.
Classical Greek and Roman philosophy
Ancient Greek philosophy has a long tradition of vegetarianism. Pythagoras was reportedly vegetarian (and studied at Mt. Carmel, where some historians say there was a vegetarian community), as his followers were expected to be.
Roman writer Ovid concluded his magnum opus Metamorphoses, in part, with the impassioned argument (uttered by the character of Pythagoras) that in order for humanity to change, or metamorphose, into a better, more harmonious species, it must strive towards more humane tendencies. He cited vegetarianism as the crucial decision in this metamorphosis, explaining his belief that human life and animal life are so entwined that to kill an animal is virtually the same as killing a fellow human.
Everything changes; nothing dies; the soul roams to and fro, now here, now there, and takes what frame it will, passing from beast to man, from our own form to beast and never dies...Therefore lest appetite and greed destroy the bonds of love and duty, heed my message! Abstain! Never by slaughter dispossess souls that are kin and nourish blood with blood!
Religion and diet
Jainism teaches vegetarianism as moral conduct as do some major sects of Hinduism. Buddhism in general does not prohibit meat eating, while Mahayana Buddhism encourages vegetarianism as beneficial for developing compassion. Other denominations that advocate a vegetarian diet include the Seventh-day Adventists, the Rastafari movement, the Ananda Marga movement and the Hare Krishnas. Sikhism does not equate spirituality with diet and does not specify a vegetarian or meat diet.
While there are no dietary restrictions in the Bahá'í Faith, `Abdu'l-Bahá, the son of the religion's founder, noted that a vegetarian diet consisting of fruits and grains was desirable, except for people with a weak constitution or those that are sick. He stated that there are no requirements that Bahá'ís become vegetarian, but that a future society should gradually become vegetarian. `Abdu'l-Bahá also stated that killing animals was contrary to compassion. While Shoghi Effendi, the head of the Bahá'í Faith in the first half of the 20th century, stated that a purely vegetarian diet would be preferable since it avoided killing animals, both he and the Universal House of Justice, the governing body of the Bahá'ís have stated that these teachings do not constitute a Bahá'í practice and that Bahá'ís can choose to eat whatever they wish but should be respectful of others' beliefs.
Theravadins in general eat meat. If Buddhist monks "see, hear or know" a living animal was killed specifically for them to eat, they must refuse it or else incur an offense. However, this does not include eating meat which was given as alms or commercially purchased. In the Theravada canon, Buddha did not make any comment discouraging them from eating meat (except specific types, such as human, elephant meat, horse, dog, snake, lion, tiger, leopard, bear, and hyena flesh) but he specifically refused to institute vegetarianism in his monastic code when a suggestion had been made.
In several Sanskrit texts of Mahayana Buddhism, Buddha instructs his followers to avoid meat. However, each branch of Mahayana Buddhism selects which sutra to follow, and some branches, including the majority of Tibetan and Japanese Buddhists, do eat meat, while many Chinese Buddhist branches do not.
There is no specific teaching on diet in traditional Christianity—except that nothing is forbidden on religious principles. The eating of meat is neither encouraged nor discouraged. Christians have always been free to make their own decisions about what to eat; however, there are groups within Christianity that practice specific dietary restrictions for various reasons.
The early sect known as the Ebionites are considered to have practiced vegetarianism. Surviving fragments from their Gospel indicate their belief that – as Christ is the Passover sacrifice and eating the Passover lamb is no longer required – a vegetarian diet may (or should) be observed. However, orthodox Christianity does not accept their teaching as authentic. Indeed, their specific injunction to strict vegetarianism was cited as one of the Ebionites' "errors".
At a much later time, the Bible Christian Church founded by Reverend William Cowherd in 1809 followed a vegetarian diet. Cowherd was one of the philosophical forerunners of the Vegetarian Society. Cowherd encouraged members to abstain from eating of meat as a form of temperance.
Seventh-day Adventists are encouraged to engage in healthy eating practices, and ova-lacto-vegetarian diets are recommended by the General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists Nutrition Council (GCNC). They have also sponsored and participated in many scientific studies exploring the impact of dietary decisions upon health outcomes. The GCNC has in addition adapted the USDA's food pyramid for a vegetarian dietary approach. However, the only kinds of meat specifically frowned upon by the SDA health message are unclean meats, or those forbidden in scripture.
Additionally, some monastic orders follow a vegetarian diet, and members of the Orthodox Church follow a vegan diet during fasts. There is also a strong association between the Quakers and vegetarianism dating back at least to the 18th century. The association grew in prominence during the 19th century, coupled with growing Quaker concerns in connection with alcohol consumption, anti-vivisection and social purity. The association between the Quaker tradition and vegetarianism, however, becomes most significant with the founding of the Friends' Vegetarian Society in 1902 "to spread a kindlier way of living amongst the Society of Friends."
According to Canon Law, Roman Catholics are required to abstain from meat (defined as all animal flesh excluding water animals) on Ash Wednesday and all Fridays of Lent including Good Friday. Canon Law also obliges Catholics to abstain from meat on the Fridays of the year outside of Lent (excluding certain holy days) unless, with the permission of the local conference of bishops, another penitential act is substituted. The restrictions on eating meat on these days is solely as an act of penance and not because of a religious objection to eating meat.
Seventh Day Adventist
Since the formation of the Seventh-day Adventist Church in the 1860s when the church began, wholeness and health have been an emphasis of the Adventist church, and has been known as the "health message" belief of the church. Adventists are well known for presenting a health message that recommends vegetarianism and expects adherence to the kosher laws in Leviticus 11. Obedience to these laws means abstinence from pork, shellfish, and other animals proscribed as "unclean". The church discourages its members from consuming alcoholic beverages, tobacco or illegal drugs (compare Christianity and alcohol). In addition, some Adventists avoid coffee, tea, cola, and other beverages containing caffeine. Adventist who follow the vegetarian lifestyle tend to live up to 10 years longer than people who do eat meat. Adventists believe in taking care of one's body and eating as God intended from the Garden of Eden, all natural fruits, grains, nuts and vegetables.
The pioneers of the Adventist Church had much to do with the common acceptance of breakfast cereals into the Western diet, and the "modern commercial concept of cereal food" originated among Adventists. John Harvey Kellogg was one of the early founders of Adventist health work. His development of breakfast cereals as a health food led to the founding of Kellogg's by his brother William. In both Australia and New Zealand, the church-owned Sanitarium Health and Wellbeing Company is a leading manufacturer of health and vegetarian-related products, most prominently Weet-Bix.
Research funded by the U.S. National Institutes of Health has shown that the average Adventist in California lives 4 to 10 years longer than the average Californian. The research, as cited by the cover story of the November 2005 issue of National Geographic, asserts that Adventists live longer because they do not smoke or drink alcohol, have a day of rest every week, and maintain a healthy, low-fat vegetarian diet that is rich in nuts and beans. The cohesiveness of Adventists' social networks has also been put forward as an explanation for their extended lifespan. Since Dan Buettner's 2005 National Geographic story about Adventist longevity, his book, The Blue Zones: Lessons for Living Longer From the People Who've Lived the Longest, named Loma Linda, California a "blue zone" because of the large concentration of Seventh-day Adventists. He cites the Adventist emphasis on health, diet, and Sabbath-keeping as primary factors for Adventist longevity.
Adventists' clean lifestyles were recognized by the U.S. military in 1954 when 2,200 Adventists volunteered for Operation Whitecoat to be human test subjects for a range of diseases the effects of which were still unknown:
The first task for the scientists was to find people willing to be infected by pathogens that could make them very sick. They found them in the followers of the Seventh-day Adventist faith. Although willing to serve their country when drafted, the Adventists refused to bear arms. As a result many of them became medics. Now the U.S. was offering recruits an opportunity to help in a different manner: to volunteer for biological tests as a way of satisfying their military obligations. When contacted in late 1954, the Adventist hierarchy readily agreed to this plan. For Camp Detrick scientists, church members were a model test population, since most of them were in excellent health and they neither drank, smoked, nor used caffeine. From the perspective of the volunteers, the tests gave them a way to fulfill their patriotic duty while remaining true to their beliefs.
Hinduism is more of a practice that was classified as a religion. Though there is no strict rule on what to consume and what not to, paths of Hinduism hold vegetarianism as an ideal influenced by Jains. Some reasons are: the principle of nonviolence (ahimsa) applied to animals; the intention to offer only "pure" (vegetarian) food to a deity and then to receive it back as prasad; and the conviction that a sentient diet is beneficial for a healthy body and mind and that non-vegetarian food is not recommended for a better mind and for spiritual development. Other reasons maybe lack of availability of meat and forced diet by rulers.
However, the food habits of Hindus vary according to their community, location, custom and varying traditions. Historically and currently, those Hindus who eat meat prescribe Jhatka meat, while some Hindus believe that the cow is a holy animal whose slaughter for meat is forbidden. This belief varies according to region.
Some followers of Islam, or Muslims, chose to be vegetarian for health, ethical, or personal reasons. However, the choice to become vegetarian for non-medical reasons can sometimes be controversial due to conflicting fatwas and differing interpretations of the Quran. Though some more traditional Muslims may keep quiet about their vegetarian diet, the number of vegetarian Muslims is increasing.
Vegetarianism has been practiced by some influential Muslims including the Iraqi theologian, female mystic and poet Râbi‘ah al-‘Adawîyah of Basrah, who died in the year 801, and the Sri Lankan Sufi master Bawa Muhaiyaddeen who established The Bawa Muhaiyaddeen Fellowship of North America in Philadelphia. The former Indian president Dr. A. P. J. Abdul Kalam was also famously a vegetarian.
In January 1996, The International Vegetarian Union announced the formation of the Muslim Vegetarian/Vegan Society.
Many non-vegetarian Muslims will select vegetarian (or seafood) options when dining in non-halal restaurants. However, this is a matter of not having the right kind of meat rather than preferring not to eat meat on the whole.
Followers of Jainism believe that all living organisms whether they are micro-organism are living and have a soul, and have one or more senses out of five senses and they go to great lengths to minimise any harm to any living organism. Most Jains are lacto-vegetarians but more devout Jains do not eat root vegetables because they believe that root vegetables contain a lot more micro-organisms as compared to other vegetables, and that, by eating them, violence of these micro-organisms is inevitable. So they focus on eating beans and fruits, whose cultivation do not involve killing of a lot of micro-organisms. No products obtained from dead animals are allowed, because when a living beings dies, a lot of micro-organisms (called as decomposers) will reproduce in the body which decomposes the body, and in eating the dead bodies, violence of decomposers is inevitable. Jain monks usually do a lot of fasting, and when they knew through spiritual powers that their life is very little, they start fasting until death. Some particularly dedicated individuals are fruitarians. Honey is forbidden, because honey is the regurgitation of nectar by bees  and may also contain eggs, excreta and dead bees. Some Jains do not consume plant parts that grow underground such as roots and bulbs, because tiny animals may be killed when the plants are pulled up.
While it is neither required (required only in special holidays [Pessach, Sukot and Shavuot] according to some traditions, but not in Shabbat [Friday], when just bread and wine/grape juice is required) nor prohibited for Jews to eat meat, a number of medieval scholars of Jewish religion (e.g., Joseph Albo and Isaac Arama) regard vegetarianism as a moral ideal, not just because of a concern for the welfare of animals, but because the slaughter of animals might cause the individual who performs such acts to develop negative character traits. One modern-day scholar who is in favour of vegetarianism is the late Rabbi Abraham Isaac Kook, the Chief Rabbi of Mandate Palestine. In his writings, Rabbi Kook speaks of vegetarianism as an ideal, and points to the fact that Adam did not partake of the flesh of animals, as all humans and animals were originally commanded by God to only eat plants. In context, Rabbi Kook makes those comments in his portrayal of the eschatological (messianic) era. However, he personally refrained from eating meat except on the Sabbath and Festivals, and one of his leading disciples, Rabbi David Cohen, known as the "Nazirite" of Jerusalem, was a devout vegetarian. Several other members of Rabbi Kook's circle were also vegetarians.
According to some Kabbalists, only a mystic, who is able to sense and elevate the reincarnated human souls and "divine sparks", is permitted to consume meat, though eating the flesh of an animal might still cause spiritual damage to the soul. A number of Orthodox Jewish vegetarian groups and activists promote such ideas and believe that the halakhic permission to eat meat is a temporary leniency for those who are not ready yet to accept the vegetarian diet. Jewish law also commands people to ritually slaughter animals when killing them, and goes into precise detail on the rituals of both animal sacrifice and ordinary slaughter (shechita). According to medieval sage Rabbi Shlomo Ephraim Luntschitz, author of the Torah commentary Kli Yakar, the complexity of these laws was intended to discourage the consumption of meat and make it less painful for the animals.
Within the Afro-Caribbean community, a minority are Rastafari and follow the dietary regulations with varying degrees of strictness. The most orthodox eat only "Ital" or natural foods, in which the matching of herbs or spices with vegetables is the result of long tradition originating from the African ancestry and cultural heritage of Rastafari. "Ital", which is derived from the word vital, means essential to human existence. Ital cooking in its strictest form prohibits the use of salt, meat (especially pork), preservatives, colorings, flavorings and anything artificial. Most Rastafari are vegetarian.
The tenets of Sikhism do not advocate a particular stance on either vegetarianism or the consumption of meat, but leave the decision of diet to the individual. The tenth guru, Guru Gobind Singh, however, prohibited "Amritdhari" Sikhs, or those that follow the Sikh Rehat Maryada (the Official Sikh Code of Conduct) from eating Kutha meat, or meat which has been obtained from animals which have been killed in a ritualistic way. This is understood to have been for the political reason of maintaining independence from the then-new Muslim hegemony, as Muslims largely adhere to the ritualistic halal diet.
"Amritdharis" that belong to some Sikh sects (e.g. Akhand Kirtani Jatha, Damdami Taksal, Namdhari and Rarionwalay, etc.) are vehemently against the consumption of meat and eggs (though they do consume and encourage the consumption of milk, butter and cheese). This vegetarian stance has been traced back to the times of the British Raj, with the advent of many new Vaishnava converts. In response to the varying views on diet throughout the Sikh population, Sikh Gurus have sought to clarify the Sikh view on diet, stressing their preference only for simplicity of diet. Guru Nanak said that over-consumption of food (Lobh, Greed) involves a drain on the Earth's resources and thus on life. Passages from the Guru Granth Sahib (the holy book of Sikhs, also known as the Adi Granth) say that it is "foolish" to argue for the superiority of animal life, because though all life is related, only human life carries more importance: "Only fools argue whether to eat meat or not. Who can define what is meat and what is not meat? Who knows where the sin lies, being a vegetarian or a non-vegetarian?" The Sikh langar, or free temple meal, is largely lacto-vegetarian, though this is understood to be a result of efforts to present a meal that is respectful of the diets of any person who would wish to dine, rather than out of dogma.
Environment and diet
Environmental vegetarianism is based on the concern that the production of meat and animal products for mass consumption, especially through factory farming, is environmentally unsustainable. According to a 2006 United Nations initiative, the livestock industry is one of the largest contributors to environmental degradation worldwide, and modern practices of raising animals for food contribute on a "massive scale" to air and water pollution, land degradation, climate change, and loss of biodiversity. The initiative concluded that "the livestock sector emerges as one of the top two or three most significant contributors to the most serious environmental problems, at every scale from local to global."
In addition, animal agriculture is a large source of greenhouse gases. According to a 2006 report it is responsible for 18% of the world's greenhouse gas emissions as estimated in 100-year CO2 equivalents. Livestock sources (including enteric fermentation and manure) account for about 3.1 percent of US anthropogenic GHG emissions expressed as carbon dioxide equivalents. This EPA estimate is based on methodologies agreed to by the Conference of Parties of the UNFCCC, with 100-year global warming potentials from the IPCC Second Assessment Report used in estimating GHG emissions as carbon dioxide equivalents.
Meat produced in a laboratory (called in vitro meat) may be more environmentally sustainable than regularly produced meat. Reactions of vegetarians vary. Rearing a relatively small number of grazing animals can be beneficial, as the Food Climate Research Network at Surrey University reports: "A little bit of livestock production is probably a good thing for the environment.
In May 2009, Ghent, Belgium, was reported to be "the first [city] in the world to go vegetarian at least once a week" for environmental reasons, when local authorities decided to implement a "weekly meatless day". Civil servants would eat vegetarian meals one day per week, in recognition of the United Nations' report. Posters were put up by local authorities to encourage the population to take part on vegetarian days, and "veggie street maps" were printed to highlight vegetarian restaurants. In September 2009, schools in Ghent are due to have a weekly veggiedag ("vegetarian day") too.
Labor conditions and diet
Some groups, such as PETA, promote vegetarianism as a way to offset poor treatment and working conditions of workers in the contemporary meat industry. These groups cite studies showing the psychological damage caused by working in the meat industry, especially in factory and industrialised settings, and argue that the meat industry violates its labourers' human rights by assigning difficult and distressing tasks without adequate counselling, training and debriefing. However, the working conditions of agricultural workers as a whole, particularly non-permanent workers, remain poor and well below conditions prevailing in other economic sectors. Accidents, including pesticide poisoning, among farmers and plantation workers contribute to increased health risks, including increased mortality. According to the International Labour Organization, agriculture is one of the three most dangerous jobs in the world.
Economics and diet
Similar to environmental vegetarianism is the concept of economic vegetarianism. An economic vegetarian is someone who practices vegetarianism from either the philosophical viewpoint concerning issues such as public health and curbing world starvation, the belief that the consumption of meat is economically unsound, part of a conscious simple living strategy or just out of necessity. According to the Worldwatch Institute, "Massive reductions in meat consumption in industrial nations will ease their health care burden while improving public health; declining livestock herds will take pressure off rangelands and grainlands, allowing the agricultural resource base to rejuvenate. As populations grow, lowering meat consumption worldwide will allow more efficient use of declining per capita land and water resources, while at the same time making grain more affordable to the world's chronically hungry."
A 1992 market research study conducted by the Yankelovich research organisation concluded that "of the 12.4 million people [in the US] who call themselves vegetarian, 68% are female, while only 32% are male".
At least one study indicates that vegetarian women are more likely to have female babies. A study of 6,000 pregnant women in 1998 "found that while the national average in Britain is 106 boys born to every 100 girls, for vegetarian mothers the ratio was just 85 boys to 100 girls". Catherine Collins of the British Dietetic Association has dismissed this as a "statistical fluke" given that it is actually the male's genetic contribution which determines the sex of a baby.
- Adolf Hitler and vegetarianism
- Cookbook:Vegetarian cuisine
- Cultured meat
- Economic vegetarianism
- Environmental impact of meat production
- Environmental vegetarianism
- Food and drink prohibitions
- History of vegetarianism
- Lacto vegetarianism
- List of diets
- List of vegetarian festivals
- List of vegetarian restaurants
- List of vegetarians
- Meat-free day
- Ovo vegetarianism
- Ovo-lacto vegetarianism
- Single-cell protein
- Vegetarianism and religion
- Vegetarianism by country
- Vegetarian cuisine
- Vegetarian Diet Pyramid
- Vegetarian nutrition
- Vegetarianism and Romanticism
- Vesanto Melina, a British Columbian registered dietitian and author of Becoming Vegetarian, stresses there is no cause and effect relationship between vegetarianism and eating disorders, although people who have eating disorders may label themselves as vegetarians "so that they won't have to eat." Indeed, research indicates that the large majority of vegetarian or vegan anorexics and bulimics chose their diets after the onset of their disease. The "restricted" eating patterns of vegetarianism and veganism can legitimize the removal of numerous high-fat, energy-dense foods such as meat, eggs, cheese. However, the eating pattern chosen by those with anorexia or bulimia nervosa is far more restrictive than a healthful vegetarian diet, eliminating nuts, seeds, avocados, and limiting overall caloric intake.
- "Frequently Asked Questions – Definitions". International Vegetarian Union (IVU). Retrieved August 6, 2013.
- "What is a vegetarian?". The Vegetarian Society. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
- "Frequently Asked Questions - Ingredients 1: Gelatine". International Vegetarian Union (IVU). Retrieved February 7, 2013.
[S]ince the gelatin product is from hides or bones – not real flesh – and has undergone such significant changes, it is no longer considered 'fleishig' (meat) but 'pareve', and can be eaten with dairy products. ...Rennet is like gelatin in the sense that it's a common food additive but the foods containing it are often considered vegetarian.
- Forrest, Jamie (December 18, 2007). "Is Cheese Vegetarian?". Serious Eats. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
Some vegetarians are OK eating cheeses made with animal rennet, but many will seek out ones made with vegetarian rennet, especially since the latter are quite prevalent nowadays.
- "Things to look out for if you are a vegetarian/vegan". The Vegetarian Society. Retrieved December 11, 2010.
- Keevican, Michael. "What's in Your Cheese?". Vegetarian Resource Group. Retrieved December 10, 2010.
Many vegetarians don't consider that some of the cheeses they are eating could actually contain unfamiliar animal ingredients.
- "Frequently Asked Questions — Food Ingredients". Vegetarian Resource Group. Retrieved July 9, 2010.
One of the most frequently asked questions is: Why are some cheeses labeled as "vegetarian cheese"? Why wouldn't cheese be vegetarian? What is rennet?
- Shorter Oxford English Dictionary (2002 and 2007) defines "vegetarian" (noun) as "A person who on principle abstains from animal food; esp. one who avoids meat but will eat dairy produce and eggs and sometimes also fish (cf. VEGAN noun)."
- Barr SI, Chapman GE (March 2002). "Perceptions and practices of self-defined current vegetarian and nonvegetarian women". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 102 (3): 354–360. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(02)90083-0. PMID 11902368.
- "Pescetarian - Definition and more from the Free Merriam-Webster Dictionary". Merriam-webster.com. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "Vegetarians don't eat fish, shellfish or crustacea, but they can still enjoy one of the healthiest diets available.". Vegetarian Society. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- John Davis (June 1, 2011). "The Vegetus Myth.". Vegsource.com. VegSource Interactive, Inc. Retrieved October 12, 2014.
- OED vol. 19, second edition (1989), p. 476; Webster’s Third New International Dictionary p. 2537; The Oxford Dictionary of English Etymology, Oxford, 1966, p. 972; The Barnhart Dictionary of Etymology (1988), p. 1196; Colin Spencer, The Heretic's Feast. A History of Vegetarianism, London 1993, p. 252. The OED writes that the word came into general use after the formation of the Vegetarian Society at Ramsgate in 1847, though it offers two examples of usage from 1839 and 1842:
- 1839: "If I had had to be my own cook, I should inevitably become a vegetarian." (F. A. Kemble, Jrnl. Residence on Georgian Plantation (1863) 251)
- 1842: "To tell a healthy vegetarian that his diet is very uncongenial with the wants of his nature." (Healthian, Apr. 34) The 1839 occurrence remains under discussion; the Oxford English Dictionary's 1839 source is in fact an 1863 publication: Fanny Kemble, Journal of a Residence on a Georgian Plantation 1838–1839. The original manuscript has not been located.
- "History of Vegetarianism - Extracts from some journals 1843-48". Ivu.org. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- Extracts from some journals 1842-48 - the earliest known uses of the word 'vegetarian' Compiled by John Davis.
- "History of Vegetarianism - Extracts from some journals 1843-48". Ivu.org. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- Olivelle, transl. from the original Sanskrit by Patrick (1998). Upaniṣads (Reissued ed.). Oxford [u.a.]: Oxford Univ. Press. ISBN 978-0192835765.
- Bajpai, Shiva (2011). The History of India - From Ancient to Modern Times. Himalayan Academy Publications (Hawaii, USA). ISBN 978-1-934145-38-8.
- Spencer, Colin. The Heretic's Feast: A History of Vegetarianism. Fourth Estate Classic House. pp. 33–68, 69–84. ISBN 978-0874517606.
- Encyclopedia of religion (13 ed.).
- Religious Vegetarianism From Hesiod to the Dalai Lama, ed. Kerry S. Walters and Lisa Portmess, Albany 2001, p. 13–46.
- Pope, GU (1886). Thirukkural English Translation and Commentary (PDF). W.H. Allen, & Co. p. 160.
- http://www.thehindubusinessline.com/2001/09/05/stories/14050204.htm. Retrieved June 30, 2016. Missing or empty
- Passmore John (1975). "The Treatment of Animals". Journal of the History of Ideas. 36 (2): 196–201. doi:10.2307/2708924.
- Lutterbach, Hubertus. "Der Fleischverzicht im Christentum," Saeculum 50/II (1999) p. 202.
- Mortimer, Ian. "The Time Traveler's Guide to Medieval England," (2008) p. 184.
- Spencer p. 180–200.
- Spencer p. 252–253, 261–262.
- Bauer, K., "The Domestication of Radical Ideas and Colonial Spaces," in M. Schulze, et al., eds., German Diasporic Experiences (Waterloo, ON: Wilfrid Laurier University Press, 2008), pp. 345–358.
- Craig WJ, Mangels AR (July 2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian Diets". Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 109 (7): 1266–1282. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864. Retrieved 6 January 2016.
- "Vegetarian Frequently Asked Questions -Definitions". Ivu.org. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- Yabroff, Jennie. "No More Sacred Cows", Newsweek, December 31, 2009.
- Gale, Catharine R. et al. "IQ in childhood and vegetarianism in adulthood: 1970 British cohort study", British Medial Journal, December 15, 2006, vol 333, issue 7581, p. 245.
- Meat: definition 2b, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2010. Retrieved January 5, 2010.
- "2003 Words of the Year". American Dialect Society. January 13, 2007. Retrieved September 27, 2012.
- DietaryGuidelines. (PDF) . Retrieved on 2011-05-25.
- Li D (2014). "Effect of the vegetarian diet on non-communicable diseases". J. Sci. Food Agric. (Review). 94 (2): 169–73. doi:10.1002/jsfa.6362. PMID 23965907.
- Huang, Tao; Yang, Bin; Zheng, Jusheng; Li, Guipu; Wahlqvist, Mark L.; Li, Duo (1 January 2012). "Cardiovascular disease mortality and cancer incidence in vegetarians: a meta-analysis and systematic review". Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. 60 (4): 233–240. doi:10.1159/000337301. ISSN 1421-9697.
- Appleby, Paul N; Crowe, Francesca L; Bradbury, Kathryn E; Travis, Ruth C; Key, Timothy J (20 January 2017). "Mortality in vegetarians and comparable nonvegetarians in the United Kingdom123". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 103 (1): 218–230. doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.119461. ISSN 0002-9165.
- Key, T. J.; Fraser, G. E.; Thorogood, M.; Appleby, P. N.; Beral, V.; Reeves, G.; Burr, M. L.; Chang-Claude, J.; Frentzel-Beyme, R.; Kuzma, J. W.; Mann, J.; McPherson, K. (1 September 1999). "Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 70 (3 Suppl): 516S–524S. ISSN 0002-9165.
- "Position of the American Dietetic Association: Vegetarian diets". July 2009. Retrieved November 18, 2012.
- Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, Burr ML, Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Kuzma JW, Mann J, McPherson K (1999). "Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 70 (3 Suppl): 516S–524S. doi:10.1079/phn19980006. PMID 10479225.
- "Rejecting meat 'keeps weight low'". BBC News. 2006-03-14. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets" (PDF). Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103 (6): 748–65. 2003. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID 12778049.
- Fraser GE (2009). "Vegetarian diets: what do we know of their effects on common chronic diseases?". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 89 (5): 1607S–1612S. doi:10.3945/ajcn.2009.26736K. PMC . PMID 19321569.
- "Position of the American Dietetic Association and Dietitians of Canada: Vegetarian diets.". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 103 (6): 748–65. 2003. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142. PMID 12778049. Retrieved 2014-10-27.
- "Vitamin B12 Linked to Osteoporosis and Bone Loss in Vegetarians". April 29, 2011. Retrieved November 4, 2011.
- Wang YF, Chiu JS, Chuang MH, Chiu JE, Lin CL (2008). "Bone mineral density of vegetarian and non-vegetarian adults in Taiwan". Asia Pac J Clin Nutr. NIH. 17: 101–6. PMID 18364334.
- Ellis FR, Holesh S, Ellis JW (1972). "Incidence of osteoporosis in vegetarians and omnivores". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 25 (6): 555–8. PMID 5033736.
- "Boning Up on Osteoporosis". Ars.usda.gov. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "China-Cornell-Oxford Project". Cornell University. Archived from the original on 2009-02-23. Retrieved March 31, 2012.
- Brody, Jane E. (May 8, 1990). "Huge Study Of Diet Indicts Fat And Meat". The New York Times.
- Key TJ, Appleby PN, Rosell MS (2006). "Health effects of vegetarian and vegan diets". Proceedings of the Nutrition Society. 65 (1): 35–41. doi:10.1079/PNS2005481. PMID 16441942.
- Davey GK, Spencer EA, Appleby PN, Allen NE, Knox KH, Key TJ (2003). "EPIC-Oxford: lifestyle characteristics and nutrient intakes in a cohort of 33 883 meat-eaters and 31 546 non meat-eaters in the UK". Public Health Nutrition. 6 (3): 259–69. doi:10.1079/PHN2002430. PMID 12740075.
- "Vegetarian and vegan eating | Better Health Channel". Betterhealth.vic.gov.au. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- Peter Emery, Tom Sanders (2002). Molecular Basis of Human Nutrition. Taylor & Francis Ltd. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-7484-0753-8.
- Brenda Davis, Vesanto Melina (2003). The New Becoming Vegetarian. Book Publishing Company. pp. 57–58. ISBN 978-1-57067-144-9.
- "Soybeans, mature seeds, raw". NutritionData.com. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- "Seeds, chia seeds, dried". NutritionData.com. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- "Amaranth, uncooked". NutritionData.com. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- "Buckwheat". NutritionData.com. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- "Pumpkin Seeds". NutritionData.com. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- "Spirulina". NutritionData.com. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- "Pistachio". NutritionData.com. Retrieved October 3, 2013.
- "Quinoa, cooked". NutritionData.com. Retrieved August 28, 2012.
- Young VR, Pellett PL (1994). "Plant proteins in relation to human protein and amino acid nutrition". Am. J. Clinical Nutrition. 59 (5 Suppl): 1203S–1212S. PMID 8172124.
- "Vegetarian Society - Factsheet - Iron". Vegsoc.org. 2014-09-22. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "Vegetarianism in a Nutshell". Vrg.org. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "// Health Issues // Optimal Vegan Nutrition". Goveg.com. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- Waldmann A, Koschizke JW, Leitzmann C, Hahn A (2004). "Dietary Iron Intake and Iron Status of German Female Vegans: Results of the German Vegan Study". Ann Nutr Metab. 48 (2): 103–108. doi:10.1159/000077045. PMID 14988640.
- Krajcovicová-Kudlácková M, Simoncic R, Béderová A, Grancicová E, Magálová T (1997). "Influence of vegetarian and mixed nutrition on selected haematological and biochemical parameters in children". Nahrung. 41 (5): 311–14. doi:10.1002/food.19970410513. PMID 9399258.
- Craig WJ, Mangels AR (2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets". Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 109 (7): 1266–82. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864.
- "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin B12". National Institutes of Health: Office of Dietary Supplements. Retrieved November 13, 2009.
- "Food and description" (PDF). Mext.go.jp. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- （科学技術・学術政策局政策課資源室）. "五訂増補日本食品標準成分表：文部科学省". Mext.go.jp. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "CiNii Articles - Vegans (pure vegetarians) and vitamin B_12 deficiency". Ci.nii.ac.jp. 2003-12-20. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "What Every Vegan Should Know About Vitamin B12". Vegan Society. October 31, 2001. Retrieved October 27, 2010.
- Donaldson MS (2000). "Metabolic vitamin B12 status on a mostly raw vegan diet with follow-up using tablets, nutritional yeast, or probiotic supplements". Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism. 44 (5-6): 229–34. doi:10.1159/000046689. PMID 11146329.
- "Vitamins and minerals - NHS Choices". Nhs.uk. 2015-02-18. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- Mozafar, A. (1997). "Is there vitamin B12 in plants or not? A plant nutritionist's view". Vegetarian Nutrition: an International Journal (1/2). pp. 50–52.
- Rosell MS, Lloyd-Wright Z, Appleby PN, Sanders TA, Allen NE, Key TJ (2003). "Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in plasma in British meat-eating, vegetarian, and vegan men". Am J Clin Nutr. 82 (2): 327–34. PMID 16087975.
- "Water4life: health-giving vegetarian dietary supplements". Retrieved May 17, 2008.
- Babadzhanov A; Abdusamatova N; Yusupova F; Faizullaeva N; Mezhlumyan LG; Malikova MKh (2004). "Chemical Composition of Spirulina platensis Cultivated in Uzbekistan". Chemistry of Natural Compounds. 40 (3): 276–279. doi:10.1023/B:CONC.0000039141.98247.e8.
- Tokuşoglu Ö, Uunal MK (2003). "Biomass Nutrient Profiles of Three Microalgae: Spirulina platensis, Chlorella vulgaris, and Isochrisis galena". Journal of Food Science. 68 (4): 1144–1148. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2621.2003.tb09615.x.
- "Meeting Calcium Recommendations on a Vegan Diet" (PDF). Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- "Calcium Fact Sheet". Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- Mangels, Reed. "Calcium in the Vegan Diet". Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- NIH. "Overview of Calcium". Retrieved 29 April 2014.
- "Vitamin D is Synthesized From Cholesterol and Found in Cholesterol-Rich Foods". Cholesterol and Health.
- Crissey SD, Ange KD, Jacobsen KL, Slifka KA, Bowen PE, Stacewicz-Sapuntzakis M, Langman CB, Sadler W, Kahn S, Ward A (2003). "Serum concentrations of lipids, vitamin D metabolites, retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherols and selected carotenoids in twelve captive wild felid species at four zoos". The Journal of Nutrition. 133 (1): 160–6. PMID 12514284.
- "Dietary Supplement Fact Sheet: Vitamin D". National Institutes of Health. Archived from the original on September 10, 2007. Retrieved September 10, 2007.
- "Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases". Sun.ars-grin.gov. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "USDA nutrient database – use the keyword 'portabella' and then click submit".
- Bowerman, Susan (March 31, 2008). "If mushrooms see the light". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 25, 2010.
- P Urbain; F Singler; G Ihorst; H-K Biesalski; H Bertz (4 May 2011). "Bioavailability of vitamin D2 from UV-B-irradiated button mushrooms in healthy adults deficient in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D: a randomized controlled trial". European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 65 (8): 965–971. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2011.53. PMID 21540874. Retrieved 8 January 2016.
- Hohman EE, Martin BR, Lachcik PJ, Gordon DT, Fleet JC, Weaver CM (May 24, 2012). "Bioavailability and Efficacy of Vitamin D 2 from UV-Irradiated Yeast in Growing, Vitamin D-Deficient Rats". J. Agric. Food Chem. 59: 2341–6. doi:10.1021/jf104679c. PMC . PMID 21332187.
- Koyyalamudi SR, Jeong SC, Song CH, Cho KY, Pang G (2009). "Vitamin D2 formation and bioavailability from Agaricus bisporus button mushrooms treated with ultraviolet irradiation". Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry. 57 (8): 3351–5. doi:10.1021/jf803908q. PMID 19281276.
- Using Fresh Mushrooms as a Source of Vitamin D. "Using Fresh Mushrooms as a Source of Vitamin D / Nutrition / Healthy Eating". Fitday.com. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- "Bringing Mushrooms Out of the Dark". MSNBC. April 18, 2006. Retrieved August 6, 2007.
- Key TJ, Fraser GE, Thorogood M, Appleby PN, Beral V, Reeves G, Burr ML, Chang-Claude J, Frentzel-Beyme R, Kuzma JW, Mann J, McPherson K (September 1999). "Mortality in vegetarians and non-vegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies". American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 70 (3): 516S–524S. doi:10.1079/phn19980006. PMID 10479225. Retrieved October 30, 2009.
- Key TJ, Appleby PN, Davey GK, Allen NE, Spencer EA, Travis RC (2003). "Mortality in British vegetarians: review and preliminary results from EPIC-Oxford". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 78 (3 Suppl): 533S–538S. PMID 12936946.
- Appleby PN, Key TJ, Thorogood M, Burr ML, Mann J (2002). "Mortality in British vegetarians". Public health nutrition. 5 (1): 29–36. doi:10.1079/PHN2001248. PMID 12001975.
- Loma Linda University Adventist Health Sciences Center, New Adventist Health Study research noted in Archives of Internal Medicine, Loma Linda University, July 26, 2001. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
- Singh PN, Sabaté J, Fraser GE (2003). "Does low meat consumption increase life expectancy in humans". Am J Clin Nutr. 78 (3): 526S–532S. PMID 12936945. Retrieved 28 September 2012.
- Trichopoulou A, Orfanos P, Norat T, Bueno-de-Mesquita B, Ocké MC, Peeters PH, van der Schouw YT, Boeing H, Hoffmann K, Boffetta P, Nagel G, Masala G, Krogh V, Panico S, Tumino R, Vineis P, Bamia C, Naska A, Benetou V, Ferrari P, Slimani N, Pera G, Martinez-Garcia C, Navarro C, Rodriguez-Barranco M, Dorronsoro M, Spencer EA, Key TJ, Bingham S, Khaw KT, Kesse E, Clavel-Chapelon F, Boutron-Ruault MC, Berglund G, Wirfalt E, Hallmans G, Johansson I, Tjonneland A, Olsen A, Overvad K, Hundborg HH, Riboli E, Trichopoulos D (2005). "Modified Mediterranean diet and survival: EPIC-elderly prospective cohort study". BMJ. 330 (7498): 991. doi:10.1136/bmj.38415.644155.8F. PMC . PMID 15820966. Lay summary.
- "Advanced Glycation End Products and Nutrition". PHYSIOLOGY RESEARCH. Retrieved April 11, 2008.
- L M Tierney, S J McPhee, M A Papadakis (2002). Current medical Diagnosis & Treatment. International edition. New York: Lange Medical Books/McGraw-Hill. ISBN 0-07-137688-7.
- Tuso, Philip J; et al. (2013). "Nutritional Update for Physicians: Plant-Based Diets". The Permanente Journal (17.2): 61–66.
- Hagen KB, Byfuglien MG, Falzon L, Olsen SU, Smedslund G (2009). Hagen, Kåre Birger, ed. "Dietary interventions for rheumatoid arthritis". Cochrane Database Syst Rev (1): CD006400. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD006400.pub2. PMID 19160281.
- Maya Tiwari. Ayurveda: A Life of Balance Healing Arts Press. Rochester, VT. 1995.
- Haenel H (1989). "Phylogenesis and nutrition". Nahrung. 33 (9): 867–87. PMID 2697806.
- Cordain, Loren (2007). "Implications of Plio-pleistocene diets for modern humans". In Peter S. Ungar. Evolution of the human diet: the known, the unknown and the unknowable. pp. 264–5.
"Since the evolutionary split between homininis and pongids approximately 7 million years ago, the available evidence shows that all species of hominins ate an omnivorous diet composed of minimally processed, wild-plant, and animal foods.
- Milton, Katharine, "A hypothesis to explain the role of meat-eating in human evolution", Evolutionary Anthropology: Issues, News, and Reviews Volume 8, Issue 1, 1999, Pages: 11–21
- "ABC". ABC. February 25, 2003. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- Craig WJ, Mangels AR (2009). "Position of the American Dietetic Association: vegetarian diets". J Am Diet Assoc. 109 (7): 1266–1282. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.027. PMID 19562864.
- Katherine Dedyna, Healthy lifestyle, or politically correct eating disorder?, Victoria Times Colonist, CanWest MediaWorks Publications Inc., January 30, 2004. Retrieved January 10, 2010.
- O'Connor MA, Touyz SW, Dunn SM, Beumont PJ (1987). "Vegetarianism in anorexia nervosa? A review of 116 consecutive cases". Med J Aust. 147 (11–12): 540–2. PMID 3696039.
In only four (6.3%) of these did meat avoidance predate the onset of their anorexia nervosa.
- David Benatar (2001). "Why the Naive Argument against Moral Vegetarianism Really is Naive". Environmental Values. 10 (1): 103–112. doi:10.3197/096327101129340769.
- "Animals and Ethics [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy]". Iep.utm.edu. January 13, 2010. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
- Erik Marcus (2000). Vegan: The New Ethics of Eating. ISBN 9781590133446.
- Vegetarian Society. "Dairy Cows & Welfare".
- Vegetarian Society. "Egg Production & Welfare".
- Ovid, Metamorphoses, Book XV, translated by A.D. Melville, Oxford University Press, 1986.
- Kochhal, M. (October 2004). "Vegetarianism: Jainism and vegetarianism (ahisma)".
- Teachings on Love, Thich Nhat Hanh, Berkeley: Parallax Press, 1998.
- Junior Encyclopaedia of Sikhism (1985)l by H. S. Singha; p. 124 ISBN 0-7069-2844-X / 0-7069-2844-X
- Kakshi, S.R. (2007). "12". In S. R. Bakshi; Rashmi Pathak. Punjab Through the Ages. 4 (1st ed.). New Delhi: Sarup and Sons. p. 241. ISBN 81-7625-738-9.
- "Shiromani Gurudwara Prabhandhak Committee". Sgpc.net. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- "The Sikhism Home Page". Sikhs.org. February 15, 1980. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- Smith, Peter (2000). "Diet". A concise encyclopedia of the Bahá'í Faith. Oxford: Oneworld Publications. pp. 121–122. ISBN 1-85168-184-1.
- Esslemont, J.E. (1980). Bahá'u'lláh and the New Era (5th ed.). Wilmette, Illinois, USA: Bahá'í Publishing Trust. ISBN 0-87743-160-4.
- `Abdu'l-Bahá (1912). MacNutt, ed. The Promulgation of Universal Peace. Wilmette, Illinois, US: Bahá'í Publishing Trust (published 1982). ISBN 0-87743-172-8.
- Research Department, Universal House of Justice. "Writings Concerning Health, Healing, and Nutrition". Retrieved May 25, 2009.
- "Buddhist Studies: Vegetarianism". Buddhanet.net. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
-  Archived October 7, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- Mahavagga Pali – Bhesajjakkhandhaka – Vinaya Pitaka
- "Buddhism and Vegetarianism, The Rationale for the Buddha's Views on the Consumption of Meat" by Dr V. A. Gunasekara" 'The rule of vegetarianism was the fifth of a list of rules which Devadatta had proposed to the Buddha. Devadatta was the founder of the tapasa movement in Buddhism and his special rules involved ascetic and austere practices (forest-dwelling, wearing only rags, etc). The Buddha rejected all the proposed revisions of Devadatta, and it was in this context that he reiterated the tikoiparisuddha rule. (On this see the author's Western Buddhism and a Theravada heterodoxy, BSQ Tracts on Buddhism'
- "Buddhism and Eating Meat". Urbandharma.org. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "Life as a Vegetarian Tibetan Buddhist Practitioner". Serv-online.org. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- Apparitions of the Self: The Secret Autobiographies of a Tibetan Visionary - Google Books. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- The Life of Shabkar: The Autobiography of a Tibetan Yogin - Google Books. Books.google.com. 2014-06-03. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
-  Archived November 5, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Code of Canon Law". vatican.va. Retrieved July 28, 2013.
- Epiphanius, Panarion, 30.22.4
- Isidore of Seville, Etymologies, VIII.v.36
- "The Bible Christian Church". International Vegetarian Union.
- "History of Vegetarianism – Early Ideas". The Vegetarian Society. Retrieved July 8, 2008.; Gregory, James (2007) Of Victorians and Vegetarians. London: I. B. Tauris pp. 30–35.
- "William Cowherd (brief information)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography. Retrieved July 8, 2008.
- "Position Statement on Vegetarian Diet". Sdada.org. Retrieved September 12, 2012.
-  Archived May 13, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- "The Seventh-day Adventist Health Message". Sdada.org. Retrieved November 28, 2012.
- "Living an Orthodox Life: Fasting". Orthodoxinfo.com. May 27, 1997. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- "The Great War and the Interwar Period". ivu.org. Retrieved August 14, 2009.
- "Fast and Abstinence". EWTN. Retrieved November 2, 2015.
- "Health". Archived from the original on October 3, 2006. Retrieved 2006-10-06.[dead link]
- Buettner, Dan (November 16, 2005). "The Secrets of Long Life". National Geographic. 208 (5): 2–27. ISSN 0027-9358. Retrieved 2006-06-06. Excerpt. See also National Geographic, "Sights & Sounds of Longevity"
- Anderson Cooper, Gary Tuchman (November 16, 2005). "CNN Transcripts on Living Longer". Retrieved 2006-08-25. See on YouTube
- Kolata, Gina (2007-01-03). "A Surprising Secret to a Long Life: Stay in School". The New York Times.
-  Archived February 25, 2009, at the Wayback Machine.
- on YouTube
- "Three Strategic Issues: A World Survey". General Conference of Seventh-day Adventists, 2002. See question 26, on page 14 etc. Archived December 2, 2008, at the Wayback Machine.
- See also "The Myth of Vegetarianism" Keith Lockhart. Spectrum 34 (Winter 2006), p22–27
- "The Living Weapon: Operation Whitecoat." American Experience. Retrieved April 19, 2010, from http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/general-article/weapon-operation-whitecoat/.
- Tähtinen, Unto: Ahimsa. Non-Violence in Indian Tradition, London 1976, p. 107–109.
- "The Hindu : Sci Tech / Speaking Of Science : Changes in the Indian menu over the ages". Hinduonnet.com. October 21, 2004. Retrieved February 3, 2010.
- "The states where cow slaughter is legal in India". The Indian Express. 8 October 2015.
- "Vegetarian Muslim: Turning Away From a Meat-Based Diet". Huffington Post. Retrieved 2016-06-14.
- "Muslims can't be Vegetarian? : Islam : Dietery Law". Ipaki.com. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "lokpriya!". Lokpriya.com. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "IVU News – Islam and Vegetarianism". Ivu.org. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- "Vegetarianism Good For The Self And Good For The Environment" at The Jain Study Circle
- "Spiritual Traditions and Vegetarianism" at the Vegetarian Society of Colorado website. Archived March 1, 2014, at the Wayback Machine.
- Matthews, Warren: World Religions, 4th edition, Belmont: Thomson/Wadsworth 2005, p. 180. ISBN 0-534-52762-0
- Noah Lewis. "Why honey is not vegan". vegetus.org. Retrieved December 30, 2015.
-  Archived October 2, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- Kook, Avraham Yitzhak (1961). Cohen, David, ed. "A Vision of Vegetarianism and Peace" (PDF).
- "Judaism & Vegetarianism". Jewishveg.com. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- "ERRP | Expired Registration Recovery Policy". Europeanvegetarian.org. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "The Vision of Eden: Animal Welfare and Vegetarianism" in "Jewish Law and Mysticism", Orot 2003
- Osborne, L (1980), The Rasta Cookbook, 3rd ed. Mac Donald, London.
- "Ital Cooking". Eat Jamaican. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- Kebede, A., & Knotternus, D. (1998). "Beyond the pales of babylon: the ideational components and social psychological foundations of rastafari". Sociological Perspectives. 41 (3): 499–517. doi:10.2307/1389561.
- "Sikhism Religion of the Sikh People". Sikhs.org. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- I.J. Singh, Sikhs and Sikhism, Manohar, Delhi ISBN 978-81-7304-058-0: "Throughout Sikh history, there have been movements or subsects of Sikhism which have espoused vegetarianism. I think there is no basis for such dogma or practice in Sikhism."
- Surindar Singh Kohli, Guru Granth Sahib, An Analytical Study, Singh Bros. Amritsar ISBN 81-7205-060-7: "The ideas of devotion and service in Vaishnavism have been accepted by Adi Granth, but the insistence of Vaishnavas on vegetarian diet has been rejected."
- Gopal Singh, History of the Sikh People, World Sikh Univ. Press, Delhi, ISBN 978-81-7023-139-4: "Nowadays in the Community Kitchen attached to the Sikh temples, and called the Guru's Kitchen (or Guru-ka-langar), meat dishes are not served at all. Maybe it is on account of its being, perhaps, expensive or not easy to keep for long. Or perhaps the Vaishnava tradition is too strong to be shaken off."
- Randip Singh, Fools Who Wrangle Over Flesh, Sikh Philosophy Network, December 7, 2006. Retrieved January 15, 2010.
- "Sikh Reht Maryada, The Definition of Sikh, Sikh Conduct & Conventions, Sikh Religion Living, India". sgpc.net. Retrieved August 29, 2009.
- Jane Srivastava, "Vegetarianism and Meat-Eating in 8 Religions", Hinduism Today, Spring 2007. Retrieved January 9, 2010.
- Gyani Sher Singh, Philosophy of Sikhism, Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Amritsar: "As a true Vaisnavite, Kabir remained a strict vegetarian. Kabir, far from defying Brahmanical tradition as to the eating of meat, would not permit so much as the plucking of a flower (G.G.S. p. 479), whereas Nanak deemed all such scruples to be superstitions."
- "Volunteer. Guru Ka Langar. Mata Khivi Made Langar a Reality". Sikhwomen.com. 2005-03-06. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "Sikhism Home Page". Sikhs.org. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- Singh, Prithi Pal (2006). "3 Guru Amar Das". The History of Sikh Gurus. New Delhi: Lotus Press. p. 38. ISBN 81-8382-075-1.
- "Livestock's Long Shadow – Environmental issues and options". Fao.org. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- EPA. 2011. Inventory of U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and sinks: 1990–2009. United States Environmental Protection Agency. EPA 430-R-11-005. 459 pp.
- Olsson, Anna (2008-07-08). "Comment: Lab-grown meat could ease food shortage". New Scientist. Retrieved November 17, 2008.
- "Could vegetarians eat a 'test tube' burger? - BBC News". Bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "Why eating less meat could cut global warming | Environment". Guardian.co.uk. 2007-11-10. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- Mason, Chris (2009-05-12). "Europe | Belgian city plans 'veggie' days". News.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
- "Killing for a Living: How the Meat Industry Exploits Workers". Retrieved July 16, 2009.
- "Worker Health and Safety in the Meat and Poultry Industry". Hrw.org. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- "Food Safety, the Slaughterhouse, and Rights". Ncrlc.com. March 30, 2004. Archived from the original on December 23, 2007. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- Positive Safety Culture. The key to a safer meat industry, A literature review July 2000, safework.sa.gov.au
- "Sectoral Policies Department (SECTOR)". Ilo.org. Retrieved 2015-03-31.
-  Archived December 3, 2013, at the Wayback Machine.
- World Development Report 2008: Agriculture for Development, Published by World Bank Publications p. 207
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on May 17, 2008. Retrieved February 6, 2016.
- Hodson, Gordon (September 1, 2012). "Prejudice Against "Group X" (Asexuals)". Psychology Today. Retrieved December 30, 2013.
- Joanne McAllister Smart (February 1995). "The gender gap: if you're a vegetarian, odds are you're a woman. Why?". Vegetarian Times. Active Interest Media, Inc. (210): 74. ISSN 0164-8497. Retrieved 12 January 2016.
- "'More girl babies' for vegetarians". BBC News. August 7, 2000. Retrieved August 9, 2009.
- Adam D. Shprintzen, The Vegetarian Crusade: The Rise of an American Reform Movement, 1817-1921. Chapel Hill, NC: University of North Carolina Press, 2013.
- Resources/Support for Vegetarians
- International Congress on Vegetarian Nutrition
- Shattering The Meat Myth: Humans Are Natural Vegetarians by Kathy Freston, The Huffington Post, June 11, 2009
- Famous Vegetarians – slideshow by Life magazine
- MedlinePlus Encyclopedia
- The Vegetarian Resource Group (VRG)
- Vegetarian Society
- Vegetarian Vegan Factsheet