|Endothelial PAS domain protein 1|
PDB rendering based on 1p97.
|Symbols||; ECYT4; HIF2A; HLF; MOP2; PASD2; bHLHe73|
|External IDs||ChEMBL: GeneCards:|
|RNA expression pattern|
Endothelial PAS domain-containing protein 1 (EPAS1, also known as Hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha (HIF-2alpha)) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the EPAS1 gene. It is a type of hypoxia-inducible factors, a group of transcription factors involved in body response to oxygen level. The gene is active under low oxygen condition called hypoxia. It is also important in the development of heart, and maintaining catecholamine balance required for protection of the heart. Mutation often leads to neuroendocrine tumors.
However, a special version (allele) of EPAS1 produces EPAS1 which is responsible for high-altitude adaptation in humans. It is known that the variant gene confers increased athletic performance in some people, and hence, is dubbed the "super athlete gene".
The EPAS1 gene encodes a half of a transcription factor involved in the induction of genes regulated by oxygen, which is induced as oxygen levels fall (hypoxia). The encoded protein contains a basic helix-loop-helix domain protein dimerization domain as well as a domain found in proteins in signal transduction pathways which respond to oxygen levels. EPAS 1 is involved in the development of the embryonic heart and is expressed in the endothelial cells that line the walls of the blood vessels in the umbilical cord. It is essential in maintaining catecholamine homeostasis and protection against heart failure during early embryonic development.
Catecholamines include epinephrine and norepinephrine. It is important for the production of catecholamines to remain in homeostatic conditions so that both the delicate fetal heart and the adult heart do not overexert themselves and induce heart failure. Catecholamine production in the embryo is related to control of cardiac output by increasing the fetal heart rate.
Tibetans carry a high proportion of an allele that improves oxygen transport. The beneficial allele is also found in the extinct Denisovan genome, suggesting that it arose in them and entered the modern human population by hybridization.
Mutations in EPAS1 gene are related to early onset of neuroendocrine tumors such as paragangliomas, somatostatinomas and/or pheochromocytomas. The mutations are commonly somatic missense mutations that locate in the primary hydroxylation site of HIF-2α, which disrupt the protein hydroxylation/degradation mechanism, and leads to protein stabilization and pseudohypoxic signaling. In addition, these neuroendocrine tumors release erythropoietin (EPO) into circulating blood, and lead to polycythemia.
Mutations in this gene are associated with erythrocytosis familial type 4, pulmonary hypertension and chronic mountain sickness. There is also evidence that certain variants of this gene provide protection for people living at high altitude such as in Tibet. The effect is most profound among the Tibetans living in the Himalayas at an altitude of about 4,000 metres above sea level, the environment of which is intolerable to other human populations due to 40% less of atmospheric oxygen. The Tibetans suffer no health problems associated with altitude sickness, but instead produce low level of blood pigment (haemoglobin) sufficient for less oxygen, more elaborate blood vessels, and exhibit extraordinary high birth weight.
EPAS 1 is useful in high altitudes as a short term adaptive response. However, EPAS 1 can also cause excessive production of red blood cells leading to chronic mountain sickness that can lead to death and inhibited reproductive abilities. Some mutations that increase its expression are associated with increased hypertension and stroke at low altitude, with symptoms similar to mountain sickness. People permanently living at high altitudes might experience selection of EPAS 1 to reduce the fitness consequences of excessive red blood cell production.
- Tian H, McKnight SL, Russell DW (1997). "Endothelial PAS domain protein 1 (EPAS1), a transcription factor selectively expressed in endothelial cells". Genes & Development 11 (1): 72–82. doi:10.1101/gad.11.1.72. PMID 9000051.
- Hogenesch JB, Chan WK, Jackiw VH, Brown RC, Gu YZ, Pray-Grant M et al. (May 1997). "Characterization of a subset of the basic helix-loop-helix-PAS superfamily that interacts with components of the dioxin signaling pathway". J Biol Chem 272 (13): 8581–93. doi:10.1074/jbc.272.13.8581. PMID 9079689.
- Percy MJ, Beer PA, Campbell G, Dekker AW, Green AR, Oscier D et al. (2008). "Novel exon 12 mutations in the HIF2A gene associated with erythrocytosis". Blood 111 (11): 5400–2. doi:10.1182/blood-2008-02-137703. PMC 2396730. PMID 18378852.
- "Entrez Gene: EPAS1 endothelial PAS domain protein 1".
- Yi X, Liang Y, Huerta-Sanchez E, Jin X, Cuo ZX, Pool JE et al. (2010). "Sequencing of 50 Human Exomes Reveals Adaptation to High Altitude". Science 329 (5987): 75–78. doi:10.1126/science.1190371. PMID 20595611.
- Hanaoka M, Droma Y, Basnyat B, Ito M, Kobayashi N, Katsuyama Y et al. (2012). "Genetic Variants in EPAS1 Contribute to Adaptation to High-Altitude Hypoxia in Sherpas". PLoS ONE 7 (12): e50566. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0050566. PMC 3515610. PMID 23227185.
- Algar, Jim (1 July 2014). "Tibetan 'super athlete' gene courtesy of an extinct human species". Tech Times. Retrieved 22 July 2014.
- Tian H, Hammer RE, Matsumoto AM, Russell DW, McKnight SL (November 1998). "The hypoxia-responsive transcription factor EPAS1 is essential for catecholamine homeostasis and protection against heart failure during embryonic development". Genes Dev. 12 (21): 3320–4. doi:10.1101/gad.12.21.3320. PMC 317225. PMID 9808618.
- Jeong C, Alkorta-Aranburu G, Basnyat B, Neupane M, Witonsky DB, Pritchard JK et al. (2014-02-10). "Admixture facilitates genetic adaptations to high altitude in Tibet". Nature Communications 5: 3281. doi:10.1038/ncomms4281. PMID 24513612.
- Zhuang Z, Yang C, Lorenzo F, Merino M, Fojo T, Kebebew E et al. (September 2012). "Somatic HIF2A gain-of-function mutations in paraganglioma with polycythemia". N. Engl. J. Med. 367 (10): 922–30. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1205119. PMC 3432945. PMID 22931260.
- Yang C, Sun MG, Matro J, Huynh TT, Rahimpour S, Prchal JT et al. (March 2013). "Novel HIF2A mutations disrupt oxygen sensing, leading to polycythemia, paragangliomas, and somatostatinomas". Blood 121 (13): 2563–6. doi:10.1182/blood-2012-10-460972. PMC 3612863. PMID 23361906.
- Gale DP, Harten SK, Reid CD, Tuddenham EG, Maxwell PH (August 2008). "Autosomal dominant erythrocytosis and pulmonary arterial hypertension associated with an activating HIF2 alpha mutation". Blood 112 (3): 919–21. doi:10.1182/blood-2008-04-153718. PMID 18650473.
- Beall CM, Cavalleri GL, Deng L, Elston RC, Gao Y, Knight J et al. (June 2010). "Natural selection on EPAS1 (HIF2alpha) associated with low hemoglobin concentration in Tibetan highlanders". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 107 (25): 11459–64. doi:10.1073/pnas.1002443107. PMC 2895075. PMID 20534544.
- Beall CM (2006). "Andean, Tibetan, and Ethiopian patterns of adaptation to high-altitude hypoxia". Integrative and Comparative Biology 46 (1): 18–24. doi:10.1093/icb/icj004. PMID 21672719.
- Beall CM, Song K, Elston RC, Goldstein MC (2004). "Higher offspring survival among Tibetan women with high oxygen saturation genotypes residing at 4,000 m". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 101 (39): 14300–14304. doi:10.1073/pnas.0405949101. PMID 15353580.
- Hogenesch JB, Gu YZ, Jain S, Bradfield CA (May 1998). "The basic-helix-loop-helix-PAS orphan MOP3 forms transcriptionally active complexes with circadian and hypoxia factors". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (10): 5474–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.10.5474. PMC 20401. PMID 9576906.
- Brahimi-Horn MC, Pouysségur J (2005). "The hypoxia-inducible factor and tumor progression along the angiogenic pathway.". Int. Rev. Cytol. 242: 157–213. doi:10.1016/S0074-7696(04)42004-X. PMID 15598469.
- Haase VH (2006). "Hypoxia-inducible factors in the kidney.". Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol. 291 (2): F271–81. doi:10.1152/ajprenal.00071.2006. PMID 16554418.
- Andersson B, Wentland MA, Ricafrente JY, Liu W, Gibbs RA (1996). "A "double adaptor" method for improved shotgun library construction.". Anal. Biochem. 236 (1): 107–13. doi:10.1006/abio.1996.0138. PMID 8619474.
- Yu W, Andersson B, Worley KC, Muzny DM, Ding Y, Liu W et al. (1997). "Large-scale concatenation cDNA sequencing.". Genome Res. 7 (4): 353–8. doi:10.1101/gr.7.4.353. PMC 139146. PMID 9110174.
- Ema M, Taya S, Yokotani N, Sogawa K, Matsuda Y, Fujii-Kuriyama Y (1997). "A novel bHLH-PAS factor with close sequence similarity to hypoxia-inducible factor 1alpha regulates the VEGF expression and is potentially involved in lung and vascular development.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94 (9): 4273–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.94.9.4273. PMC 20712. PMID 9113979.
- Hogenesch JB, Gu YZ, Jain S, Bradfield CA (1998). "The basic helix-loop-helix-PAS orphan MOP3 forms transcriptionally active complexes with circadian and hypoxia factors.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 95 (10): 5474–9. doi:10.1073/pnas.95.10.5474. PMC 20401. PMID 9576906.
- Takahata S, Sogawa K, Kobayashi A, Ema M, Mimura J, Ozaki N et al. (1998). "Transcriptionally active heterodimer formation of an Arnt-like PAS protein, Arnt3, with HIF-1a, HLF, and clock.". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 248 (3): 789–94. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1998.9012. PMID 9704006.
- Ema M, Hirota K, Mimura J, Abe H, Yodoi J, Sogawa K et al. (1999). "Molecular mechanisms of transcription activation by HLF and HIF1alpha in response to hypoxia: their stabilization and redox signal-induced interaction with CBP/p300.". EMBO J. 18 (7): 1905–14. doi:10.1093/emboj/18.7.1905. PMC 1171276. PMID 10202154.
- Cockman ME, Masson N, Mole DR, Jaakkola P, Chang GW, Clifford SC et al. (2000). "Hypoxia inducible factor-alpha binding and ubiquitylation by the von Hippel-Lindau tumor suppressor protein.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (33): 25733–41. doi:10.1074/jbc.M002740200. PMID 10823831.
- Maemura K, de la Monte SM, Chin MT, Layne MD, Hsieh CM, Yet SF et al. (2001). "CLIF, a novel cycle-like factor, regulates the circadian oscillation of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene expression.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (47): 36847–51. doi:10.1074/jbc.C000629200. PMID 11018023.
- Luo JC, Shibuya M (2001). "A variant of nuclear localization signal of bipartite-type is required for the nuclear translocation of hypoxia inducible factors (1alpha, 2alpha and 3alpha).". Oncogene 20 (12): 1435–44. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1204228. PMID 11313887.
- Woods SL, Whitelaw ML (2002). "Differential activities of murine single minded 1 (SIM1) and SIM2 on a hypoxic response element. Cross-talk between basic helix-loop-helix/per-Arnt-Sim homology transcription factors.". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (12): 10236–43. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110752200. PMID 11782478.
- Lando D, Peet DJ, Whelan DA, Gorman JJ, Whitelaw ML (2002). "Asparagine hydroxylation of the HIF transactivation domain a hypoxic switch.". Science 295 (5556): 858–61. doi:10.1126/science.1068592. PMID 11823643.
- Mole DR, Pugh CW, Ratcliffe PJ, Maxwell PH (2002). "Regulation of the HIF pathway: enzymatic hydroxylation of a conserved prolyl residue in hypoxia-inducible factor alpha subunits governs capture by the pVHL E3 ubiquitin ligase complex.". Adv. Enzyme Regul. 42: 333–47. doi:10.1016/S0065-2571(01)00037-1. PMID 12123724.
- Sivridis E, Giatromanolaki A, Gatter KC, Harris AL, Koukourakis MI (2002). "Association of hypoxia-inducible factors 1alpha and 2alpha with activated angiogenic pathways and prognosis in patients with endometrial carcinoma.". Cancer 95 (5): 1055–63. doi:10.1002/cncr.10774. PMID 12209691.
- Elvert G, Kappel A, Heidenreich R, Englmeier U, Lanz S, Acker T et al. (2003). "Cooperative interaction of hypoxia-inducible factor-2alpha (HIF-2alpha ) and Ets-1 in the transcriptional activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (Flk-1).". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (9): 7520–30. doi:10.1074/jbc.M211298200. PMID 12464608.
- Sang N, Stiehl DP, Bohensky J, Leshchinsky I, Srinivas V, Caro J (2003). "MAPK signaling up-regulates the activity of hypoxia-inducible factors by its effects on p300.". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (16): 14013–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.M209702200. PMID 12588875.