Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor

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PPAR -alpha and -gamma pathways.

In the field of molecular biology, the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor proteins that function as transcription factors regulating the expression of genes.[1] PPARs play essential roles in the regulation of cellular differentiation, development, and metabolism (carbohydrate, lipid, protein), and tumorigenesis[2] of higher organisms.[3][4]

Nomenclature and tissue distribution[edit]

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha
Identifiers
Symbol PPARA
Alt. symbols PPAR
Entrez 5465
HUGO 9232
OMIM 170998
RefSeq NM_001001928
UniProt Q07869
Other data
Locus Chr. 22 q12-q13.1
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma
PPARg.png
Identifiers
Symbol PPARG
Entrez 5468
HUGO 9236
OMIM 601487
RefSeq NM_005037
UniProt P37231
Other data
Locus Chr. 3 p25
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor delta
Identifiers
Symbol PPARD
Entrez 5467
HUGO 9235
OMIM 600409
RefSeq NM_006238
UniProt Q03181
Other data
Locus Chr. 6 p21.2

Three types of PPARs have been identified: alpha, gamma, and delta (beta):[3]

History[edit]

PPARs were originally identified in Xenopus frogs as receptors that induce the proliferation of peroxisomes in cells.[6] The first PPAR (PPARα) was discovered during the search of a molecular target for a group of agents then referred to as peroxisome proliferators, as they increased peroxisomal numbers in rodent liver tissue, apart from improving insulin sensitivity.[7] These agents, pharmacologically related to the fibrates were discovered in the early 1980s. When it turned out that PPARs played a much more versatile role in biology, the agents were in turn termed PPAR ligands. The best-known PPAR ligands are the thiazolidinediones; see below for more details.

After PPARδ (delta) was identified in humans in 1992,[8] it turned out to be closely related to the PPARβ (beta) previously described during the same year in other animals (Xenopus). The name PPARδ is generally used in the US, whereas the use of the PPARβ denomination has remained in Europe where this receptor was initially discovered in Xenopus.

Physiological function[edit]

All PPARs heterodimerize with the retinoid X receptor (RXR) and bind to specific regions on the DNA of target genes. These DNA sequences are termed PPREs (peroxisome proliferator hormone response elements). The DNA consensus sequence is AGGTCANAGGTCA, with N being any nucleotide. In general, this sequence occurs in the promotor region of a gene, and, when the PPAR binds its ligand, transcription of target genes is increased or decreased, depending on the gene. The RXR also forms a heterodimer with a number of other receptors (e.g., vitamin D and thyroid hormone).

The function of PPARs is modified by the precise shape of their ligand-binding domain (see below) induced by ligand binding and by a number of coactivator and corepressor proteins, the presence of which can stimulate or inhibit receptor function, respectively.[9]

Endogenous ligands for the PPARs include free fatty acids and eicosanoids. PPARγ is activated by PGJ2 (a prostaglandin). In contrast, PPARα is activated by leukotriene B4. PPARγ activation by agonist RS5444 may inhibit anaplastic thyroid cancer growth.[10]

Genetics[edit]

The three main forms are transcribed from different genes:

Hereditary disorders of all PPARs have been described, generally leading to a loss in function and concomitant lipodystrophy, insulin resistance, and/or acanthosis nigricans.[11] Of PPARγ, a gain-of-function mutation has been described and studied (Pro12Ala) which decreased the risk of insulin resistance; it is quite prevalent (allele frequency 0.03 - 0.12 in some populations).[12] In contrast, pro115gln is associated with obesity. Some other polymorphisms have high incidence in populations with elevated body mass indexes.

Structure[edit]

Like other nuclear receptors, PPARs are modular in structure and contain the following functional domains:

  • (A/B) N-terminal region
  • (C) DBD (DNA-binding domain)
  • (D) flexible hinge region
  • (E) LBD (ligand binding domain)
  • (F) C-terminal region

The DBD contains two zinc finger motifs, which bind to specific sequences of DNA known as hormone response elements when the receptor is activated. The LBD has an extensive secondary structure consisting of 13 alpha helices and a beta sheet.[13] Natural and synthetic ligands bind to the LBD, either activating or repressing the receptor.

Pharmacology and PPAR modulators[edit]

PPARα and PPARγ are the molecular targets of a number of marketed drugs. For instance the hypolipidemic fibrates activate PPARα, and the anti diabetic thiazolidinediones activate PPARγ. The synthetic chemical perfluorooctanoic acid activates PPARα while the synthetic perfluorononanoic acid activates both PPARα and PPARγ. Berberine activates PPARγ, as well as other natural compounds from different chemical classes.[14][15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Michalik L, Auwerx J, Berger JP, Chatterjee VK, Glass CK, Gonzalez FJ, Grimaldi PA, Kadowaki T, Lazar MA, O'Rahilly S, Palmer CN, Plutzky J, Reddy JK, Spiegelman BM, Staels B, Wahli W (2006). "International Union of Pharmacology. LXI. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors". Pharmacol. Rev. 58 (4): 726–41. doi:10.1124/pr.58.4.5. PMID 17132851. 
  2. ^ Belfiore A, Genua M, Malaguarnera R (2009). "PPAR-gamma Agonists and Their Effects on IGF-I Receptor Signaling: Implications for Cancer". PPAR Res 2009: 830501. doi:10.1155/2009/830501. PMC 2709717. PMID 19609453. 
  3. ^ a b Berger J, Moller DE (2002). "The mechanisms of action of PPARs". Annu. Rev. Med. 53: 409–35. doi:10.1146/annurev.med.53.082901.104018. PMID 11818483. 
  4. ^ Feige JN, Gelman L, Michalik L, Desvergne B, Wahli W (2006). "From molecular action to physiological outputs: peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors are nuclear receptors at the crossroads of key cellular functions". Prog. Lipid Res. 45 (2): 120–59. doi:10.1016/j.plipres.2005.12.002. PMID 16476485. 
  5. ^ Tyagi S, Gupta P, Saini AS, Kaushal C, Sharma S (October 2011). "The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor: A family of nuclear receptors role in various diseases". J Adv Pharm Technol Res 2 (4): 236–40. doi:10.4103/2231-4040.90879. PMC 3255347. PMID 22247890. 
  6. ^ Dreyer C, Krey G, Keller H, Givel F, Helftenbein G, Wahli W (1992). "Control of the peroxisomal beta-oxidation pathway by a novel family of nuclear hormone receptors". Cell 68 (5): 879–87. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(92)90031-7. PMID 1312391. 
  7. ^ Issemann I, Green S (1990). "Activation of a member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily by peroxisome proliferators". Nature 347 (6294): 645–50. doi:10.1038/347645a0. PMID 2129546. 
  8. ^ Schmidt A, Endo N, Rutledge SJ, Vogel R, Shinar D, Rodan GA (1992). "Identification of a new member of the steroid hormone receptor superfamily that is activated by a peroxisome proliferator and fatty acids". Mol. Endocrinol. 6 (10): 1634–41. doi:10.1210/me.6.10.1634. PMID 1333051. 
  9. ^ Yu S, Reddy JK (2007). "Transcription coactivators for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1771 (8): 936–51. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2007.01.008. PMID 17306620. 
  10. ^ Marlow LA, Reynolds LA, Cleland AS, Cooper SJ, Gumz ML, Kurakata S, Fujiwara K, Zhang Y, Sebo T, Grant C, McIver B, Wadsworth JT, Radisky DC, Smallridge RC, Copland JA (February 2009). "Reactivation of suppressed RhoB is a critical step for the inhibition of anaplastic thyroid cancer growth". Cancer Res. 69 (4): 1536–44. doi:10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-08-3718. PMC 2644344. PMID 19208833. 
  11. ^ Meirhaeghe A, Amouyel P (2004). "Impact of genetic variation of PPARgamma in humans". Mol. Genet. Metab. 83 (1-2): 93–102. doi:10.1016/j.ymgme.2004.08.014. PMID 15464424. 
  12. ^ Buzzetti R, Petrone A, Ribaudo MC, Alemanno I, Zavarella S, Mein CA, Maiani F, Tiberti C, Baroni MG, Vecci E, Arca M, Leonetti F, Di Mario U (2004). "The common PPAR-gamma2 Pro12Ala variant is associated with greater insulin sensitivity". European Journal of Human Genetics 12 (12): 1050–4. doi:10.1038/sj.ejhg.5201283. PMID 15367918. 
  13. ^ Zoete V, Grosdidier A, Michielin O (2007). "Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor structures: ligand specificity, molecular switch and interactions with regulators". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1771 (8): 915–25. doi:10.1016/j.bbalip.2007.01.007. PMID 17317294. 
  14. ^ Atanasov AG, Wang JN, Gu SP, Bu J, Kramer MP, Baumgartner L, Fakhrudin N, Ladurner A, Malainer C, Vuorinen A, Noha SM, Schwaiger S, Rollinger JM, Schuster D, Stuppner H, Dirsch VM, Heiss EH (2013). "Honokiol: a non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist from nature". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1830 (10): 4813–9. doi:10.1016/j.bbagen.2013.06.021. PMC 3790966. PMID 23811337. 
  15. ^ Atanasov AG, Blunder M, Fakhrudin N, Liu X, Noha SM, Malainer C, Kramer MP, Cocic A, Kunert O, Schinkovitz A, Heiss EH, Schuster D, Dirsch VM, Bauer R (2013). "Polyacetylenes from Notopterygium incisum--new selective partial agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma". PLoS ONE 8 (4): e61755. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0061755. PMC 3632601. PMID 23630612. 

External links[edit]