Low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor

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"P75" redirects here. For the New Testament manuscript, see Papyrus 75. For Pentium processor at 75 MHz, see Intel P5 (microarchitecture).
Nerve growth factor receptor
Protein NGFR PDB 1sg1.png
PDB rendering based on 1sg1.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Identifiers
Symbols NGFR ; CD271; Gp80-LNGFR; TNFRSF16; p75(NTR); p75NTR
External IDs OMIM162010 MGI97323 HomoloGene1877 ChEMBL: 4762 GeneCards: NGFR Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE NGFR 205858 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 4804 18053
Ensembl ENSG00000064300 ENSMUSG00000000120
UniProt P08138 n/a
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002507 NM_033217
RefSeq (protein) NP_002498 NP_150086
Location (UCSC) Chr 17:
47.57 – 47.59 Mb
Chr 11:
95.57 – 95.59 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

The Low-Affinity Nerve Growth Factor Receptor (nerve growth factor receptor (TNFR superfamily, member 16), also called the LNGFR or p75 neurotrophin receptor) is one of the two receptor types for the neurotrophins, a family of protein growth factors that stimulate neuronal cells to survive and differentiate. LNGFR is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNF receptor)superfamily - indeed, LNGFR was the first member of this large family of receptors to be characterized.[1][2]

Neurotrophins[edit]

The neurotrophins are composed of four proteins, all of which bind to the LNGFR: Nerve Growth Factor (NGF), Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF), Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3), and Neurotrophin-4 (NT-4).

Nerve growth factor, the prototypical growth factor, is a protein secreted by a neuron's target. NGF is critical for the survival and maintenance of sympathetic and sensory neurons. NGF is released from the target cells, binds to and activates its high-affinity receptor (TrkA), and is internalized into the responsive neuron. The NGF/TrkA complex is subsequently trafficked back to the cell body. This movement of NGF from axon tip to soma is thought to be involved in the long-distance signaling of neurons.

The activation of TrkA by NGF is critical in inducing the survival and differentiation caused by this growth factor.

However, NGF binds at least two receptors on the surface of cells that are capable of responding to this growth factor, TrkA (pronounced "Track A") and the LNGFR.

Trk family of receptor tyrosine kinases[edit]

TrkA is a receptor tyrosine kinase (meaning it mediates its actions by causing the addition of phosphate molecules on certain tyrosines in the cell, activating cellular signaling). There are other related Trk receptors, TrkB and TrkC. Also, there are other neurotrophic factors structurally related to NGF: BDNF (for Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor), NT-3 (for Neurotrophin-3) and NT-4 (for Neurotrophin-4). While TrkA mediates the effects of NGF, TrkB binds and is activated by BDNF, NT-4, and NT-3, and TrkC binds and is activated only by NT-3.

Function[edit]

Neurotrophins activating LNGFR may signal a cell to die via apoptosis, but this effect is counteracted by anti-apoptotic signaling by TrkA, TrkB, or TrkC signaling in cells that also express those receptors. LNGFR functions in a complex with Nogo receptor (NgR, Reticulon 4 receptor) to mediate RhoA-dependent inhibition of growth of regenerating axons exposed to inhibitory proteins of CNS myelin, such as Nogo, MAG or OMgP. LNGFR also activates a caspase- dependent signaling pathway that promotes developmental axon pruning, and axon degeneration in neurodegenerative disease.

Recent research has suggested a number of roles for the LNGFR, including in development of the eyes and sensory neurons,[3][4] and in repair of muscle and nerve damage in adults.[5][6][7]

Two distinct subpopulations of Olfactory ensheathing glia (being researched for nerve repair) have been identified[8] with high or low cell surface expression of low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor (p75).

Role in Cancer Stem Cells[edit]

LNGFR has been implicated as a marker for cancer stem cells in melanoma and other cancers. Melanoma cells transplanted into an immunodeficient mouse model were shown to require expression of CD271 in order to grow a melanoma.[9] Gene knockdown of CD271 has also been shown to abolish neural crest stem cell properties of melanoma cells.[10]


Interactions[edit]

Low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor has been shown to interact with:

References[edit]

  1. ^ Johnson D, Lanahan A, Buck CR, Sehgal A, Morgan C, Mercer E, Bothwell M, Chao M (1986). "Expression and structure of the human NGF receptor". Cell 47 (4): 545–54. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(86)90619-7. PMID 3022937. 
  2. ^ Radeke MJ, Misko TP, Hsu C, Herzenberg LA, Shooter EM (1987). "Gene transfer and molecular cloning of the rat nerve growth factor receptor". Nature 325 (6105): 593–7. doi:10.1038/325593a0. PMID 3027580. 
  3. ^ Nicol GD (October 2008). "Nerve growth factor, sphingomyelins, and sensitization in sensory neurons". Sheng Li Xue Bao : [Acta Physiologica Sinica] 60 (5): 603–4. PMID 18958367. 
  4. ^ Di Girolamo N, Sarris M, Chui J, Cheema H, Coroneo MT, Wakefield D (December 2008). "Localization of the low-affinity nerve growth factor receptor p75 in human limbal epithelial cells". Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine 12 (6B): 2799–811. doi:10.1111/j.1582-4934.2008.00290.x. PMID 19210757. 
  5. ^ Chen LW, Yung KK, Chan YS, Shum DK, Bolam JP (December 2008). "The proNGF-p75NTR-sortilin signalling complex as new target for the therapeutic treatment of Parkinson's disease". CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets 7 (6): 512–23. doi:10.2174/187152708787122923. PMID 19128208. 
  6. ^ Kocsis JD, Lankford KL, Sasaki M, Radtke C (June 2009). "Unique in vivo properties of olfactory ensheathing cells that may contribute to neural repair and protection following spinal cord injury". Neuroscience Letters 456 (3): 137–42. doi:10.1016/j.neulet.2008.08.093. PMC 2713444. PMID 19429149. 
  7. ^ Deponti D, Buono R, Catanzaro G, Palma CD, Longhi R, Meneveri R, Bresolin N, Bassi MT, Cossu G, Clementi E, Brunelli S (June 2009). "The Low Affinity Receptor for Neurotrophins p75NTR Plays a Key Role for Satellite Cell Function in Muscle Repair Acting via RhoA". Molecular Biology of the Cell 20 (16): 3620–7. doi:10.1091/mbc.E09-01-0012. PMC 2777922. PMID 19553472. 
  8. ^ Honore, Axel (2011). "Isolation, characterization, and genetic profiling of subpopulations of olfactory ensheathing cells from the olfactory bulb". doi:10.1002/glia.22274. 
  9. ^ Boiko AD, Razorenova OV, van de Rijn M, Swetter SM, Johnson DL, Ly DP, Butler PD, Yang GP, Joshua B, Kaplan MJ, Longaker MT, Weissman IL (2010). "Human melanoma-initiating cells express neural crest nerve growth factor receptor CD271". Nature 466 (7302): 133–7. doi:10.1038/nature09161. PMC 2898751. PMID 20596026. 
  10. ^ Redmer T, Welte Y, Behrens D, Fichtner I, Przybilla D, Wruck W, Yaspo ML, Lehrach H, Schäfer R, Regenbrecht CR (2014). "The nerve growth factor receptor CD271 is crucial to maintain tumorigenicity and stem-like properties of melanoma cells". PLoS One 9 (5): e92596. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092596. PMC 4010406. PMID 24799129. 
  11. ^ Shonukan O, Bagayogo I, McCrea P, Chao M, Hempstead B (Jun 2003). "Neurotrophin-induced melanoma cell migration is mediated through the actin-bundling protein fascin". Oncogene 22 (23): 3616–23. doi:10.1038/sj.onc.1206561. PMID 12789270. 
  12. ^ a b Tcherpakov M, Bronfman FC, Conticello SG, Vaskovsky A, Levy Z, Niinobe M, Yoshikawa K, Arenas E, Fainzilber M (Dec 2002). "The p75 neurotrophin receptor interacts with multiple MAGE proteins". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (51): 49101–4. doi:10.1074/jbc.C200533200. PMID 12414813. 
  13. ^ Kuwako K, Taniura H, Yoshikawa K (Jan 2004). "Necdin-related MAGE proteins differentially interact with the E2F1 transcription factor and the p75 neurotrophin receptor". J. Biol. Chem. 279 (3): 1703–12. doi:10.1074/jbc.M308454200. PMID 14593116. 
  14. ^ Bronfman FC, Tcherpakov M, Jovin TM, Fainzilber M (Apr 2003). "Ligand-induced internalization of the p75 neurotrophin receptor: a slow route to the signaling endosome". J. Neurosci. 23 (8): 3209–20. PMID 12716928. 
  15. ^ Mukai J, Hachiya T, Shoji-Hoshino S, Kimura MT, Nadano D, Suvanto P, Hanaoka T, Li Y, Irie S, Greene LA, Sato TA (Jun 2000). "NADE, a p75NTR-associated cell death executor, is involved in signal transduction mediated by the common neurotrophin receptor p75NTR". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (23): 17566–70. doi:10.1074/jbc.C000140200. PMID 10764727. 
  16. ^ Nykjaer A, Lee R, Teng KK, Jansen P, Madsen P, Nielsen MS, Jacobsen C, Kliemannel M, Schwarz E, Willnow TE, Hempstead BL, Petersen CM (Feb 2004). "Sortilin is essential for proNGF-induced neuronal cell death". Nature 427 (6977): 843–8. doi:10.1038/nature02319. PMID 14985763. 
  17. ^ Lee R, Kermani P, Teng KK, Hempstead BL (Nov 2001). "Regulation of cell survival by secreted proneurotrophins". Science 294 (5548): 1945–8. doi:10.1126/science.1065057. PMID 11729324. 
  18. ^ Higuchi H, Yamashita T, Yoshikawa H, Tohyama M (Apr 2003). "PKA phosphorylates the p75 receptor and regulates its localization to lipid rafts". EMBO J. 22 (8): 1790–800. doi:10.1093/emboj/cdg177. PMC 154469. PMID 12682012. 
  19. ^ a b Ye X, Mehlen P, Rabizadeh S, VanArsdale T, Zhang H, Shin H, Wang JJ, Leo E, Zapata J, Hauser CA, Reed JC, Bredesen DE (Oct 1999). "TRAF family proteins interact with the common neurotrophin receptor and modulate apoptosis induction". J. Biol. Chem. 274 (42): 30202–8. doi:10.1074/jbc.274.42.30202. PMID 10514511. 
  20. ^ Krajewska M, Krajewski S, Zapata JM, Van Arsdale T, Gascoyne RD, Berern K, McFadden D, Shabaik A, Hugh J, Reynolds A, Clevenger CV, Reed JC (Jun 1998). "TRAF-4 expression in epithelial progenitor cells. Analysis in normal adult, fetal, and tumor tissues". Am. J. Pathol. 152 (6): 1549–61. PMC 1858434. PMID 9626059. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]