Suckling pig

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A suckling pig prepared in St. John Restaurant, London
A dead suckling pig prior to being roasted for consumption at an American tailgate party

A suckling pig is a piglet fed on its mother's milk (i.e., a piglet which is still a "suckling"). In culinary contexts, a suckling pig is slaughtered between the ages of two and six weeks. It is traditionally cooked whole, often roasted, in various cuisines. It is usually prepared for special occasions and gatherings. The most popular preparation can be found in Spain and Portugal under the name lechón (Spanish) or leitão (Portuguese).

The meat from suckling pig is pale and tender and the cooked skin is crisp and can be used for pork rinds. The texture of the meat can be somewhat gelatinous due to the amount of collagen in a young pig.

History[edit]

There are many ancient recipes for suckling pig from Roman and Chinese cuisine. Since the pig is one of the first animals domesticated by human beings for slaughter, many references to pigs are found in human culture. The suckling pig, specifically, appears in early texts such as the sixth-century Salic law. As an example of a law governing the punishment for theft, Title 2, article 1, is, in Latin, Si quis porcellum lactantem furaverit, et ei fuerit adprobatum (malb. chrane calcium hoc est) CXX dinarios qui faciunt solidos III culpabilis iudicetur. "If someone has stolen a suckling pig and this is proven against him, the guilty party will be sentenced to 120 denarii which adds up to three solidi (Latin coins)." The words chrane calcium are written in Frankish; calcium (or galza in other manuscripts) is the gloss for "suckling pig"; porcellum lactantem.[1] These glosses in Frankish, the so-called Malbergse Glossen, are considered the earliest attested words in Old Dutch.[2]

Controversy[edit]

Piglets in a pigpen (closeup)
Chinese suckling pig, Kolkata

It is often argued that the use of pigs for human consumption is unethical,[3][4] especially in the case of young animals removed from their mothers earlier than weaning would happen in nature:[5] natural weaning takes place at around 12 weeks of age, whereas suckling pigs are slaughtered at 2 to 6 weeks of age. Further, investigations by media and animal rights groups have uncovered animal cruelty and inhumane conditions related to the farming of suckling pigs.[6][7] The sows, mother pigs, are in many countries kept in gestation crates or farrowing crates, which render them nearly immobile and unable to interact with their newborn offspring.[4]

Pigs are regarded to be highly intelligent social animals.[8][9] Animal rights groups like PETA argue[10] that this makes their exploitation and suffering in the hands of the factory farming industry especially unethical.

Regional dishes[edit]

There are various preparations for suckling pig in Western and Asian cuisines.

Latin countries[edit]

Lechón/Leitão
2144Paang Bundok, La Loma, Quezon City 46.jpg
Lechón being roasted in one of the lechón stores in La Loma, Quezon City, Philippines
Alternative namesCochinillo
CourseDish
Place of originSpain, Portugal
Serving temperatureHot
Main ingredientssuckling pig
Su porcheddu, Sardinian cuisine

Lechón (Spanish, Spanish pronunciation: [leˈt͡ʃon]; from leche "milk" + -ón) or leitão (Portuguese; from leite "milk" + -ão) is a pork dish in several regions of the world, most specifically in Spain (in particular Segovia), Portugal (in particular Bairrada) and regions worldwide previously colonized by the Portuguese Empire or Spanish Empire. Lechón/Leitão is a word referring to a roasted baby pig (piglet) which was still fed by suckling its mother's milk (a suckling pig). Lechón/Leitão is a popular item in the cuisine in Los Angeles (in the United States), Spain, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Honduras, Argentina, Uruguay, Bolivia, Ecuador, Peru, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, and other Spanish-speaking nations in Latin America, as well as in Portugal, Cape Verde, Angola, Mozambique and other Portuguese-speaking nations.[11] It is also present as cochon de lait in the French-Swiss and French cuisines (in particular in Metz), in Italy (in particular in Sardinian cuisine as su porcheddu) and Romania.[12] The dish features a whole roasted suckling pig cooked over charcoal. It has been described as a national dish of Cuba, Puerto Rico, Spain, Portugal, as well as the Philippines whose pig-roasting traditions (similar to other Austronesian regions) have native pre-colonial origins. In the latter case, the meaning of the designation diverted in these regions from the original Spanish term[13] to become a general term for "roasted pig", and is nowadays used in reference to adult roasted pigs more often than to lechones (milk suckling pigs), with Cebu being asserted by American chef Anthony Bourdain as having the best pigs.[14][15]

In most of these regions, lechón/leitão is prepared throughout the year for special occasions, during festivals. It is the centerpiece of the tradition Cuban Christmas feast La Noche Buena.[16] After seasoning, the piglet is cooked by skewering the entire animal, entrails removed, on a large stick and cooking it in a pit filled with charcoal. The piglet is placed over the charcoal, and the stick or rod it is attached to is turned in a rotisserie action.

Puerto Rico[edit]

The dish has been described as a national dish of Puerto Rico.[17][a] The name of the dish in Puerto Rico is lechón asado.[20] It is a traditional dish served at festivals and holidays.[21]

Colombia[edit]

Lechona, also known as lechón asado, is a popular Colombian dish.[22]

It is similar in style to many preparations made in other South American countries, consisting of a roasted pig stuffed with yellow peas, green onion, yellow rice and spices, cooked in an outdoor brick oven for several hours.

It is mostly traditional to the Tolima Department in central Colombia and is usually accompanied by arepas, a corn-based bread.

Philippines[edit]

In most regions of the Philippines, lechón (spelled lechon without diacritic but also litson or lichon) is traditionally prepared throughout the year for special occasions, festivals, and the holidays. Although it acquired the Spanish name, Philippine lechon has pre-Hispanic origins as pigs are one of the native domesticated animals of all Austronesian cultures and were carried throughout the Austronesian Expansion all the way to Polynesia.[13] In the former Spanish colony of the Philippines, lechón (Filipino: litsón) is considered a national dish. As the usage of the term has evolved over the years, lechón has now come to refer to roasted pig in general (including suckling pigs). Suckling pigs in the country are referred to as lechón de leche, which corresponds to the term cochinillo in Spain.

The native name of lechón is inihaw [na baboy] in Tagalog, a general term meaning "charcoal-roasted/barbecued [pig]".[23] Native names were also preserved in other regions until recently, like in Cebu where it was previously more commonly known as inasal until Tagalog influence changed it to lechon in the 2000s.[24] As the usage of the Spanish loanword evolved over the years in the languages of the Philippines, "lechon" has come to refer to roasted pig in general (including suckling pigs).[25] Roasted suckling pigs are now referred to in the Philippines as "lechon de leche" (which in Spanish would be a linguistic redundancy, though corresponding to the term cochinillo in Spain).[26]

It is a national dish of the Philippines.[27] There are two major methods of preparing lechon in the Philippines, the "Manila lechon" (or "Luzon lechon"), and the "Cebu lechon" (or "Visayas lechon").[28][29]

Lechon being roasted in Cadiz, Negros Occidental, Philippines

Visayan lechon is prepared stuffed with herbs which usually include scallions, bay leaves, black peppercorn, garlic, salt, and distinctively tanglad (lemongrass) or leaves from native Citrus trees or tamarind trees, among other spices.[30] A variant among Hiligaynon people also stuffs the pig with the sour fruits of batuan or binukaw (Garcinia binucao). It is usually cooked over charcoal made from coconut husks. Since it is already flavored with spices, it is served with minimal dipping sauces, like salt and vinegar or silimansi (soy sauce, calamansi, and labuyo chili).[31][28][29][32]

Luzon lechon on the other hand, is typically not stuffed with herbs. When it is, it is usually just salt and pepper. Instead, the distinctiveness of Manila lechon comes from the liver-based sauce, known as the "lechon sauce". Lechon sauce is made from vinegar, brown sugar, salt, pepper, mashed liver (or liver spread), breadcrumbs, garlic and onion.[33] Manila lechon is also typically cooked over woodfire.[28]

Most lechon can either be cooked based on the two main versions, or mix techniques from both. Both variants also rub salt or spices unto the skin to make it crispier, as well as continually baste the lechon as it cooks. Sometimes carbonated drinks may also be used. They are cooked on a bamboo spit over charcoal for a few hours with constant (traditionally manual) turning. The pig is roasted on all sides for several hours until done. The process of cooking and basting usually results in making the pork skin crisp and is a distinctive feature of the dish.[25]

Leftover parts from the lechon, such as the head and feet, are usually cooked into another popular dish, lechon paksiw. Like lechon itself, lechon paksiw also differs based on whether it is prepared Luzon-style or Visayas-style, with the former using liver sauce as an essential ingredient, while the latter does not.[34][35] In some cases, these parts or stale lechon can be repurposed into another dish, such as Sisig.[36]

Remainder of Asia (other than the Philippines)[edit]

Cantonese style roasted whole suckling pig

There is also variant of suckling pig among the Indonesian non-Muslim ethnic groups, such as the Balinese, Batak, and Minahasa. Some pork dishes (e.g. in Singapore) are also influenced by ethnic Chinese. In Southeast Asia, roast suckling pig is eaten in Chinese or Vietnamese restaurants for important parties.[37] It is also a popular dish at wedding dinners or a party for a baby's completion of its first month of life.[38][39]

Non-Latin Europe[edit]

Odojak na ražnju, Croatian cuisine
Spanferkel, German cuisine

The European cuisines of Austria, Croatia, Georgia, Germany, Macedonia, the Netherlands, Russia, Serbia, Slovenia, Switzerland and Sweden[40][41] favor the dish highly as well. It accompanies goose as the traditional Christmas feast of families in Russia and Serbia, while the Russian Navy maintains a tradition of presenting a roast piglet (or several) to the crew of a ship returning from deployment.

Suckling pig is known in German, Austrian and German-Swiss cuisines as Spanferkel and in the Dutch cuisine as speenvarken. It can be roasted in the oven[42] or grilled, and is often served at festive occasions such as Oktoberfest.[43]

In Sweden suckling pig is called spädgris, it is usually cooked in the oven, or sometimes roasted directly over the fire. It is often stuffed with various fruits such as apples and plums, together with butter and breadcrumbs.[44]

United States[edit]

The suckling pig is used in Cajun cuisine in the southern U.S., where the Cochon de Lait Festival[45] is held annually in the small town of Mansura, Louisiana. During this festival, as its name implies, suckling pigs are roasted. Other uses for the suckling pig in the U.S. include slow roasting in an oven or (as in a Hawaiian-style pig roast) in a pit. The latter remains popular in the cuisine of the Southern United States.[citation needed]

See also[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ Other dishes, have also been described as a national dish of Puerto Rico, such as the following dishes: asopao,[18] arroz con gandules.[19]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gorlé, Frits; John Gilissen (1989). Historische inleiding tot het recht, Volume 1. Kluwer. p. 166. ISBN 978-90-6321-654-2.
  2. ^ Ruth Schmidt-Wiegand, "Die Malbergischen Glossen, eine frühe Überlieferung germanischer Rechtsprache," in Beck, Heinrich (1989). Germanische Rest- und Trümmersprachen; Volume 3 of Ergänzungsbände zum Reallexikon der germanischen Altertumskunde. Walter de Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-011948-0.
  3. ^ "Pigs". Animal Welfare Institute.
  4. ^ a b "Raise Pigs Right - Environment". World Animal Protection USA.
  5. ^ "Animal Facts - Pigs". www.veganpeace.com.
  6. ^ Sommerlad, Nick (7 March 2016). "Cruelty of pork revealed as dead pigs rot while others suffer terrible injuries". mirror.
  7. ^ "Pig Farrowing Crates: A "comfy" place, or a lifetime of confinement?". 11 September 2018.
  8. ^ Angier, Natalie (9 November 2009). "In Pig Cognition Studies, Reflections on Parallels With Humans". The New York Times.
  9. ^ "Pigs Are Intelligent, Emotional, and Cognitively Complex". Psychology Today.
  10. ^ "Pigs: Intelligent Animals Suffering on Farms and in Slaughterhouses". PETA. 1 March 2004.
  11. ^ Jonathan Deutsch; Megan J. Elias (15 April 2014). Barbecue: A Global History. Reaktion Books. p. 90. ISBN 978-1-78023-298-0.
  12. ^ Langenfeld, Annemarie (20 September 2009). "Spanferkel und Pizzen heiß begehrt". Der Westen. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
  13. ^ a b Palanca, Clinton. "This is the Philippines' love story with pork". Smile Magazine. Cebu Pacific. Retrieved 1 October 2019.
  14. ^ Lara Day (23 April 2009). "Pork Art". Time. Archived from the original on 29 April 2009. Retrieved 8 April 2013. Anthony Bourdain — whose love of all things porcine is famous — visited the Philippine island of Cebu with his show No Reservations and declared that he had found the best pig ever
  15. ^ Maclay, Elise (1 October 2014). "Restaurant Review: Zafra Cuban Restaurant & Rum Bar". Connecticut Magazine. New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Retrieved 26 December 2019. When it comes to "authentic" dishes like lechón asado (which Spain, Puerto Rico, The Philippines and Cuba all claim as their "national dish"), ingredients, recipes and methodology differ contentiously enough to start a war.
  16. ^ Raichlen, Steven (22 December 1999). "In Miami, Christmas Eve Means Roast Pig". The New York Times.
  17. ^ Squires, Kathleen (5 December 2014). "Where to Find the Best Roast Pork in Puerto Rico". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
    Ritschel, Chelsea (11 December 2019). "What Christmas Dinner Looks Like Around The World". Independent. United Kingdom. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  18. ^ Himilce Novas (2007). Everything You Need to Know about Latino History. Plume. p. 164. ISBN 978-0-452-28889-8.
  19. ^ Papadopoulos, Lena (16 March 2019). "From Mofongos to Maltas, Here's Everything You Should Eat and Drink in Puerto Rico". Fodors. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  20. ^ Gillan, Audrey (4 October 2018). "Around the Caribbean in 11 dishes". National Geographic. United Kingdom. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
    "The 21 Best Trips For Foodies Around The World". Business Insider. India. 28 August 2015. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
    "A 'Casual' Dinner in Puerto Rico". New York Times. 5 July 1978. Retrieved 26 December 2019.
  21. ^ Don Philpott (28 February 2003). Landmark Puerto Rico. Landmark Publishing Limited. p. 28. ISBN 978-1-901522-34-1.
  22. ^ "Lechona". Colombia.com. Retrieved 8 July 2017.
  23. ^ "LITSÓN". Tagalog Lang. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  24. ^ Eslao-Alix, Louella (1 September 2019). "From Pugapo to Lapu-lapu". Cebu Daily News. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  25. ^ a b Reynaldo G. Alejandro (8 December 2015). Food of the Philippines. Tuttle Publishing. p. 10. ISBN 978-1-4629-0545-4.
    Customs and Culture of the Philippines. Tuttle Publishing. 15 June 1963. pp. 112–113. ISBN 978-1-4629-1302-2.
  26. ^ "Lechon de Leche (Roasted Piglet)". Panlasang Pinoy Meaty Recipes. Retrieved 3 June 2022.
  27. ^ Vicky B. Bartlet (17 December 2011). "Palmonas: Make 'buko' juice as national drink". Business Mirror. Archived from the original on 10 January 2012. Retrieved 26 January 2012. In his House Resolution 1887, Agham (Science) Party-list Rep. Angelo Palmones said the Philippines has already a number of national symbols, such as narra as national tree, sampaguita as national flower, mango as national fruit, milkfish as national fish and lechon (roast pig) as national dish.
    Minahan, James B. (23 December 2009). The Complete Guide to National Symbols and Emblems [2 volumes]. ABC-CLIO. p. 152. ISBN 978-0-313-34497-8.
    Geis, Darlene (1961). A Colorslide Tour of the Philippines: Island Democracy : Bright Garden of the Pacific. Columbia Record Club. p. 11.
    Chan, Bernice (31 August 2017). "The secrets to great lechon - whole roasted suckling pig that's virtually a Filipino national dish". South China Morning Post. Hong Kong. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
    Winn, Patrick (20 December 2012). "Philippines: New Year's Eve Lechon". Public Radio International. Minneapolis. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
    Goodman, Vivian (26 December 2014). "Filipino community enjoys a taste of home in Akron". WKSU. Kent State University. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
    Gardiner, Michael A. (11 December 2017). "Pork fat rules at Porky's Lechon". San Diego City Beat. United States. Retrieved 14 December 2019.
  28. ^ a b c Faicol, Bea. "What's the Difference Between Luzon Lechon and Visayas Lechon?". Eat + Drink. Spot.ph. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  29. ^ a b Manahan, Millie (13 July 2017). "Manila or Cebu Lechon: A Staple Filipino Food for all Occasions". When In Manila. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  30. ^ sparksph (2 October 2021). "Cebu Lechon: The best in the country". Suroy.ph. Retrieved 10 August 2022.
  31. ^ "Nothing quite like Negros Lechon – Bacolod". Now We Are Hungry. Retrieved 3 February 2019.
  32. ^ Chan, Bernice. "The secrets to great lechon - whole roasted suckling pig that's virtually a Filipino national dish". South China Morning Post. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  33. ^ "Lechon Sauce". Kawaling Pinoy. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  34. ^ "The Lechon In Our Culture". EditorialToday A Guide to Business.
  35. ^ "Lechon Paksiw (Bisaya Style)". Chedz Culinary Club. Retrieved 25 January 2019.
  36. ^ Tiu, Cheryl (28 February 2015). "The Lechon Degustation: A Tribute to the Philippine Suckling Pig". Forbes. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
    Uy, Amy A. (1 January 2013). "Easy holiday leftover makeovers". GMA News. Philippines. Retrieved 19 February 2020.
  37. ^ "飲宴6招 色食肥 (Chinese)". eastweek. 6 October 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  38. ^ "久享盛名的四更烤乳豬 (Chinese)". travel.sina.com.hk. 9 September 2009. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  39. ^ "Siu Mei Kung Fu". rthk.hk. 6 October 2012. Retrieved 28 October 2012.
  40. ^ Langenfeld, Annemarie (20 September 2009). "Spanferkel und Pizzen heiß begehrt". Der Westen. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
  41. ^ Dadiani, Niko. "Gochi (Roast Suckling Pig)". About Georgia. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
  42. ^ Scheibler, Sophie Wilhelmine (1866). Allgemeines deutsches kochbuch für alle stände, oder gründliche anweisung alle arten speisen und backwerke auf die wohlfeilste und schmackhafteste art zuzubereiten: Ein unentbehrliches handbuch für angehende hausmütter, haushälterinnen und köchinnen. C.F. Amelang. pp. 157–58.
  43. ^ Dittrich, Michael (7 October 2009). "Oktoberfest mit Spanferkel". Stimberg Zeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 19 July 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2009.
  44. ^ Östman, Elisabeth (1911). Iduns kokbok. Isaac Marcus Boktryckeriaktiebolag. pp. 286–287.
  45. ^ "Cochon De Lait Festival in Mansura, Louisiana".