Apam balik

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Apam balik
Giant Apam Balik.jpg
A giant Apam balik in Malaysia.
Alternative names曼煎粿, Ban Jian Kuih, Chin Loong Pau, Min Chiang Kueh, Martabak Manis, Terang Bulan, Martabak Bangka, Kue Bandung, Apam Pulau Pinang, Kuih Haji, Kuih Malaya
TypePancakes
Place of originFujian Province, China[1][2]
Region or stateSoutheast Asia, Southeast Provinces of China, Taiwan
Associated national cuisineSingapore, Malaysia, Indonesia, Brunei
Main ingredientsFlour, hot water, baking powder, bicarbonate soda, sugar, eggs, peanut, margarine, butter

Apam balik (English: 'turnover pancake')[3] or terang bulan (English: 'bright moon') or martabak manis (English: 'sweet martabak') or 曼煎粿 Màn Jiān Guǒ (English: 曼煎 Màn Jiān is the homophone of 滿清 Mǎn Qīng, which was the final imperial dynasty in China and 粿 Guǒ means pancake [4]) is a dessert common in Southeast Provinces of China and Taiwan as well as Maritime Southeast Asia. It can be found in Quanzhou, Hong Kong and Taiwan, and it is also sold in many varieties at specialist roadside stalls throughout Brunei, Indonesia, Malaysia and Singapore.[5]

Origin[edit]

It is believed that the invention apam balik or 曼煎粿 is related to General Tso, who was a Chinese statesman and military leader of the late Qing dynasty[6]. In 1855, the army of the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom invaded the Fujian region and General Tso was appointed to lead an army to crush the rebels. In order to provide the soldiers with food without interfering the life of local people, General Tso decided to switch from the flatbread which was eaten together with spring onion and chilli sauce, to the pancake that used locally-sourced and mass-produced grinded cane sugar and peanut as filling. The recipe for the pancake was spread throughout the Fujian region, especially in places around Quanzhou and later on throughout the whole Southeast China. It was also brought into countries in Southeast Asia by the Chinese Hokkien immigrants.[7]

Other names[edit]

The dessert is also known by various names in different languages, depending on the region.

Indonesia[edit]

Malaysia and Singapore[edit]

  • Ban Jian Kueh (Hokkien)
  • Min Chiang Kueh (Mandarin, in Johor and Singapore)
  • Dai Gau Min (Cantonese, in Perak)
  • Chin Loong Pau (Cantonese, in Kuala Lumpur/Selangor)
  • Kap Biang (Hakka, in Sabah)
  • Apam Pulau Pinang (Malay, in Penang);[3]
  • Kuih Haji (Malay, in certain areas)
  • Apong (Kelantan)
  • Peanut Pancake (Singapore)

Brunei[edit]

  • Kuih Malaya (Malay, in Brunei), named after the place where it came from when it was still known as Malaya.

Hong Kong[edit]

  • 冷糕 (Cantonese)
  • 砂糖夾餅 (Cantonese)

Taiwan[edit]

Description[edit]

The pancake's batter is made from a mixture of flour, eggs, sugar, baking soda, coconut milk and water.[8] The batter is cooked upon a thick round iron frying pan in plenty of palm margarine to avoid it sticking to the pan. Then other ingredients are sprinkled as filling; the most common or traditional is crushed peanut granules with sugar and sweetcorn kernels (available from cans), but modern innovations such as chocolate sprinkles and cheddar cheese are also available.[8] Then, the pancake is folded (hence the name: "turnover pancake") and cut into several pieces.[9]

In Indonesia there is a smaller version made with smaller pan, they are called martabak mini or terang bulan mini.

The texture of the apam balik can vary depending on the amount of batter and type of pan used, from one that is akin to a crispier form of crumpets to small thin light pancake shells that break when bitten (the latter is usually called apam balik nipis, 'thin apam balik').

There is a Peranakan variant, the apom balik, that closely resembles the Indonesian Serabi.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20141220061848/http://www.renminbao.info/305/15782.htm
  2. ^ https://chioutian.pixnet.net/blog/post/331791659-%E6%AF%8F%E6%97%A5%E4%B8%80%E8%AD%98-%E6%9D%BF%E7%85%8E%E5%97%B2
  3. ^ a b "Deliciously Unique Pancakes..." The Malaysia Pancake Co. Archived from the original on 1 June 2013. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  4. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20141213155747/http://mag.sinchew-i.com/scgc/content.phtml?vol=20070826&sec=A75
  5. ^ Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei. Lonely Planet. 2010. pp. 119–. ISBN 978-1-74104-887-2. Retrieved 18 August 2013.
  6. ^ http://www.dartmouth.edu/~qing/WEB/TSO_TSUNG-T'ANG.html
  7. ^ https://web.archive.org/web/20141220061848/http://www.renminbao.info/305/15782.htm
  8. ^ a b c d e "Martabak Manis Alias Kue Terang Bulan" (in Indonesian). Femina. Retrieved 16 May 2015.
  9. ^ Rondoletto. "Indonesian Sweet Martabak / Terang Bulan". Food.com.

External links[edit]