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|Alternative names||chasu, char siu, chashao, cha sio and char siew, barbecued meat, xa xiu|
|Place of origin||China|
|Region or state||Chinese-speaking areas, Japan, Southeast Asia|
|Main ingredients||Pork, mixture of honey, five-spice powder, fermented tofu (red), dark soy sauce, hoisin sauce, and sherry or rice wine|
|Cookbook: Cha siu Media: Cha siu|
"Cha siu" in Traditional (top) in Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
|Literal meaning||"fork roasting"|
|Thai||หมูแดง [mǔː dɛ̄ːŋ]|
|Indonesian||babi panggang merah|
Pork cuts used for cha siu can vary, but a few main cuts are common:
- Pork loin
- Pork belly - produces juicy and fatter cha siu
- Pork butt (shoulder) - produces leaner cha siu
- Pork fat - fat
- Pork neck end - very marbled (jyu geng yuk)
Cha siu literally means "fork roasted" (siu being burn/roast and cha being fork, both noun and verb) after the traditional cooking method for the dish: long strips of seasoned boneless pork are skewered with long forks and placed in a covered oven or over a fire.
In ancient times, wild boar and other available meats were used to make cha siu. However, in modern times, the meat is typically a shoulder cut of domestic pork, seasoned with a mixture of honey, five-spice powder, red fermented bean curd, dark soy sauce, hoisin sauce, red food colouring (not a traditional ingredient but very common in today's preparations and is optional), and sherry or rice wine (optional). These seasonings turn the exterior layer of the meat dark red, similar to the "smoke ring" of American barbecues. Maltose may be used to give cha siu its characteristic shiny glaze.
Cha siu is typically consumed with starch, whether inside a bun (chasiu baau, 叉燒包), with noodles (chasiu min, 叉燒麵), or with rice (chasiu faan, 叉燒飯) in fast food establishments, or served alone as a centerpiece or main dish in traditional family dining establishments. If it is purchased outside of a restaurant, it is usually taken home and used as one ingredient in various complex entrees consumed at family meals.
Hong Kong cuisine
In Hong Kong, cha siu is usually purchased from a siu mei establishment, which specializes in meat dishes—cha siu pork, soy sauce chicken, white cut chicken, roasted goose, roasted pork, etc. These shops usually display the merchandise by hanging them in the window. As a result, cha siu is often consumed alongside one of these other meat dishes when eaten as an independent lunch item on a per-person basis in a "rice box" meal. More commonly it is purchased whole or sliced and wrapped and taken home to be used in family meals either by itself or cooked into one of many vegetable or meat dishes which use cha siu pork as an ingredient.
Southeast Asian cuisine
In Malaysia, Singapore, Indonesia, and Thailand, cha siew rice is found in many Chinese shāolà (烧腊) stalls along with roast duck and roast pork. The dish consists of slices of cha siu, cucumbers, white rice and is drenched in sweet gravy or drizzled with dark soy sauce. Cha siu rice is also a popular food within the Chinese community in Medan, Indonesia, where it is more called cha sio. Cha siew rice can also be found in Hainanese chicken rice stalls, where customers have a choice of having their cha siu rice served with plain white rice or chicken-flavoured rice, and choose from garlic, chilli and soy sauces. Cha siu is called mu daeng (Thai: หมูแดง, pronounced [mǔː dɛ̄ːŋ], "red pork") in Thailand.
Vegetarian cha siu also exists, usually made from wheat gluten. It can be found in vegetarian restaurants and stalls in South East Asian Chinese communities.
Japanese culture has adapted 叉燒 as chāshū (チャーシュー). Unlike its Chinese variant, it is prepared by rolling the meat into a log and then braising it at a low temperature. The Japanese adaptation is typically seasoned with honey and soy sauce, without the red food colouring, sugar, or five-spice powder. It is a typical ingredient in rāmen.
Pacific Rim cuisine
As a means of exceptional flavor and preparation, cha siu applications extend far beyond pork. In Hawaii, various meats are cooked cha siu style. The term cha siu refers to meats which have been marinated in cha siu seasoning prepared either from scratch or from store-bought cha siu seasoning packages, then roasted in an oven or over a fire. Ingredients in marinades for cha siu are similar to those found in China (honey, five-spice, wine, soy, hoisin, etc.), except that red food coloring is often used in place of the red bean curd for convenience. Cha siu is used to marinate and prepare a variety of meats which can either be cooked in a conventional or convection oven (often not requiring the use of a fork or cha(zi) as traditional Chinese ovens do), on a standard barbecue, or even in an underground Hawaiian imu. In Hawaii, cha siu chicken is as common as cha siu pork, and various wild birds, mountain goat, and wild boar are also often cooked cha siu style, as are many sausages and skewers.
As cha siu grows in popularity, innovative chefs from around the world, especially chefs from around the Pacific Rim, from Australia to California, are using various meats prepared cha siu style in their cuisines and culinary creations.
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