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Neuronal differentiation 1
External IDs OMIM601724 MGI1339708 HomoloGene1871 GeneCards: NEUROD1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE NEUROD1 206282 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 4760 18012
Ensembl ENSG00000162992 ENSMUSG00000034701
UniProt Q13562 Q60867
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002500 NM_010894
RefSeq (protein) NP_002491 NP_035024
Location (UCSC) Chr 2:
181.67 – 181.68 Mb
Chr 2:
79.45 – 79.46 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Neurogenic differentiation 1 (NeuroD1), also called β2,[1] is a transcription factor of the NeuroD-type. It is encoded by the human gene NEUROD1.

It is a member of the NeuroD family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors. The protein forms heterodimers with other bHLH proteins and activates transcription of genes that contain a specific DNA sequence known as the E-box. It regulates expression of the insulin gene, and mutations in this gene result in type II diabetes mellitus.[2]


NEUROD1 has been shown to interact with MAP3K10,[3] MAFA[4] and Cyclin D1.[5]


  1. ^ Poulin G, Turgeon B, Drouin J (November 1997). "NeuroD1/beta2 contributes to cell-specific transcription of the proopiomelanocortin gene". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (11): 6673–82. PMC 232521. PMID 9343431. 
  2. ^ "Entrez Gene: NEUROD1 neurogenic differentiation 1". 
  3. ^ Marcora, Edoardo; Gowan Katherine; Lee Jacqueline E (Aug 2003). "Stimulation of NeuroD activity by huntingtin and huntingtin-associated proteins HAP1 and MLK2". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. (United States) 100 (16): 9578–83. doi:10.1073/pnas.1133382100. ISSN 0027-8424. PMC 170960. PMID 12881483. 
  4. ^ Zhao, Li; Guo Min; Matsuoka Taka-Aki; Hagman Derek K; Parazzoli Susan D; Poitout Vincent; Stein Roland (Mar 2005). "The islet beta cell-enriched MafA activator is a key regulator of insulin gene transcription". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 280 (12): 11887–94. doi:10.1074/jbc.M409475200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 15665000. 
  5. ^ Ratineau, Christelle; Petry Mary W; Mutoh Hiroyuki; Leiter Andrew B (Mar 2002). "Cyclin D1 represses the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, BETA2/NeuroD". J. Biol. Chem. (United States) 277 (11): 8847–53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110747200. ISSN 0021-9258. PMID 11788592. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Fajans SS, Bell GI, Polonsky KS (2001). "Molecular mechanisms and clinical pathophysiology of maturity-onset diabetes of the young". N. Engl. J. Med. 345 (13): 971–80. doi:10.1056/NEJMra002168. PMID 11575290. 
  • Cho JH, Tsai MJ (2004). "The role of BETA2/NeuroD1 in the development of the nervous system". Mol. Neurobiol. 30 (1): 35–47. doi:10.1385/MN:30:1:035. PMID 15247487. 
  • Chae JH, Stein GH, Lee JE (2005). "NeuroD: the predicted and the surprising". Mol. Cells 18 (3): 271–88. PMID 15650322. 
  • Tamimi R, Steingrimsson E, Copeland NG, et al. (1996). "The NEUROD gene maps to human chromosome 2q32 and mouse chromosome 2". Genomics 34 (3): 418–21. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0306. PMID 8786144. 
  • Yokoyama M, Nishi Y, Miyamoto Y, et al. (1997). "Molecular cloning of a human neuroD from a neuroblastoma cell line specifically expressed in the fetal brain and adult cerebellum". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 42 (1): 135–9. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(96)00154-4. PMID 8915591. 
  • Yokoyama M, Nishi Y, Yoshii J, et al. (1997). "Identification and cloning of neuroblastoma-specific and nerve tissue-specific genes through compiled expression profiles". DNA Res. 3 (5): 311–20. doi:10.1093/dnares/3.5.311. PMID 9039501. 
  • Acharya HR, Dooley CM, Thoreson WB, Ahmad I (1997). "cDNA cloning and expression analysis of NeuroD mRNA in human retina". Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 233 (2): 459–63. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1997.6483. PMID 9144558. 
  • Poulin G, Turgeon B, Drouin J (1997). "NeuroD1/beta2 contributes to cell-specific transcription of the proopiomelanocortin gene". Mol. Cell. Biol. 17 (11): 6673–82. PMC 232521. PMID 9343431. 
  • Furuta H, Horikawa Y, Iwasaki N, et al. (1998). "Beta-cell transcription factors and diabetes: mutations in the coding region of the BETA2/NeuroD1 (NEUROD1) and Nkx2.2 (NKX2B) genes are not associated with maturity-onset diabetes of the young in Japanese". Diabetes 47 (8): 1356–8. doi:10.2337/diabetes.47.8.1356. PMID 9703340. 
  • Yoon YS, Noma T, Yamashiro Y, et al. (1998). "Molecular cloning and characterization of the gene encoding human NeuroD". Neurosci. Lett. 251 (1): 17–20. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(98)00490-X. PMID 9714454. 
  • Miyachi T, Maruyama H, Kitamura T, et al. (1999). "Structure and regulation of the human NeuroD (BETA2/BHF1) gene". Brain Res. Mol. Brain Res. 69 (2): 223–31. doi:10.1016/S0169-328X(99)00112-6. PMID 10366743. 
  • Noma T, Yoon YS, Yamashiro Y, et al. (1999). "Regulation of NeuroD expression by activation of the protein kinase-C pathway in Y79 human retinoblastoma cells". Neurosci. Lett. 272 (1): 45–8. doi:10.1016/S0304-3940(99)00569-8. PMID 10507539. 
  • Malecki MT, Jhala US, Antonellis A, et al. (1999). "Mutations in NEUROD1 are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus". Nat. Genet. 23 (3): 323–8. doi:10.1038/15500. PMID 10545951. 
  • Glick E, Leshkowitz D, Walker MD (2000). "Transcription factor BETA2 acts cooperatively with E2A and PDX1 to activate the insulin gene promoter". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (3): 2199–204. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.3.2199. PMID 10636926. 
  • Onions J, Hermann S, Grundström T (2000). "A novel type of calmodulin interaction in the inhibition of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors". Biochemistry 39 (15): 4366–74. doi:10.1021/bi992533u. PMID 10757985. 
  • Mochizuki M, Amemiya S, Kobayashi K, et al. (2002). "The association of Ala45Thr polymorphism in NeuroD with child-onset Type 1a diabetes in Japanese". Diabetes Res. Clin. Pract. 55 (1): 11–7. doi:10.1016/S0168-8227(01)00242-X. PMID 11755474. 
  • Ratineau C, Petry MW, Mutoh H, Leiter AB (2002). "Cyclin D1 represses the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, BETA2/NeuroD". J. Biol. Chem. 277 (11): 8847–53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110747200. PMID 11788592. 
  • Westerman BA, Poutsma A, Maruyama K, et al. (2002). "The proneural genes NEUROD1 and NEUROD2 are expressed during human trophoblast invasion". Mech. Dev. 113 (1): 85–90. doi:10.1016/S0925-4773(01)00665-7. PMID 11900979. 
  • Kanatsuka A, Tokuyama Y, Nozaki O, et al. (2002). "Beta-cell dysfunction in late-onset diabetic subjects carrying homozygous mutation in transcription factors NeuroD1 and Pax4". Metab. Clin. Exp. 51 (9): 1161–5. doi:10.1053/meta.2002.34707. PMID 12200761. 

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.