From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
AliasesNEUROD1, BETA2, BHF-1, MODY6, NEUROD, bHLHa3, neuronal differentiation 1, T2D
External IDsOMIM: 601724; MGI: 1339708; HomoloGene: 1871; GeneCards: NEUROD1; OMA:NEUROD1 - orthologs
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC)Chr 2: 181.67 – 181.68 MbChr 2: 79.28 – 79.29 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Neurogenic differentiation 1 (Neurod1), also called β2,[5] is a transcription factor of the NeuroD-type. It is encoded by the human gene NEUROD1.

In mice, Neurod1 expression is first seen at embryonic day 12 (E12).[6]

It is a member of the Neurod family of basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors, composed of Neurod1, Neurod2, Neurod4, and Neurod6. The protein forms heterodimers with other bHLH proteins and activates transcription of genes that contain a specific DNA sequence known as the E-box. It regulates expression of the insulin gene, and mutations in this gene result in type II diabetes mellitus in mouse models and in human clinical patients.[7]

Neurod1 is found to convert reactive glial cells into functional neurons in the mouse brain in vivo[8] In the adult cortex, Neurod1 expression is a marker of mature excitatory pyramidal neurons in the upper-most layers of the cortex.[9]


Neurod1 has been shown to interact with MAP3K10,[10] MAFA[11] and Cyclin D1.[12]


  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000162992Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000034701Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Poulin G, Turgeon B, Drouin J (November 1997). "NeuroD1/beta2 contributes to cell-specific transcription of the proopiomelanocortin gene". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 17 (11): 6673–82. doi:10.1128/mcb.17.11.6673. PMC 232521. PMID 9343431.
  6. ^ Bormuth, Ingo; Yan, Kuo; Yonemasu, Tomoko; Gummert, Maike; Zhang, Mingyue; Wichert, Sven; Grishina, Olga; Pieper, Alexander; Zhang, Weiqi; Goebbels, Sandra; Tarabykin, Victor; Nave, Klaus-Armin; Schwab, Markus H. (2013-01-09). "Neuronal Basic Helix–Loop–Helix Proteins Neurod2/6 Regulate Cortical Commissure Formation before Midline Interactions". Journal of Neuroscience. 33 (2): 641–651. doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0899-12.2013. ISSN 0270-6474. PMC 6704922. PMID 23303943. S2CID 25600245.
  7. ^ Malecki, Maciej T.; Jhala, Ulupi S.; Antonellis, Anthony; Fields, Liz; Doria, Alessandro; Orban, Tihamer; Saad, Mohammed; Warram, James H.; Montminy, Marc; Krolewski, Andrzej S. (November 1999). "Mutations in NEUROD1 are associated with the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus". Nature Genetics. 23 (3): 323–328. doi:10.1038/15500. ISSN 1546-1718. PMID 10545951. S2CID 3216136.
  8. ^ Guo Z, Zhang L, Wu Z, Chen Y, Wang F, Chen G (February 2014). "In vivo direct reprogramming of reactive glial cells into functional neurons after brain injury and in an Alzheimer's disease model". Cell Stem Cell. 14 (2): 188–202. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2013.12.001. PMC 3967760. PMID 24360883.
  9. ^ Tutukova, Svetlana; Tarabykin, Victor; Hernandez-Miranda, Luis R. (2021). "The Role of Neurod Genes in Brain Development, Function, and Disease". Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience. 14: 662774. doi:10.3389/fnmol.2021.662774. ISSN 1662-5099. PMC 8221396. PMID 34177462.
  10. ^ Marcora E, Gowan K, Lee JE (August 2003). "Stimulation of NeuroD activity by huntingtin and huntingtin-associated proteins HAP1 and MLK2". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 100 (16): 9578–83. Bibcode:2003PNAS..100.9578M. doi:10.1073/pnas.1133382100. PMC 170960. PMID 12881483.
  11. ^ Zhao L, Guo M, Matsuoka TA, Hagman DK, Parazzoli SD, Poitout V, Stein R (March 2005). "The islet beta cell-enriched MafA activator is a key regulator of insulin gene transcription". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (12): 11887–94. doi:10.1074/jbc.M409475200. PMID 15665000.
  12. ^ Ratineau C, Petry MW, Mutoh H, Leiter AB (March 2002). "Cyclin D1 represses the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, BETA2/NeuroD". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 277 (11): 8847–53. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110747200. PMID 11788592.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.