WT1

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
WT1
Protein WT1 PDB 1xf7.png
Available structures
PDBOrtholog search: PDBe RCSB
Identifiers
AliasesWT1, AEWS-GUD, NPHS4, WAGR, WIT-2, WT33, Wilms tumor 1, WT1 transcription factor
External IDsOMIM: 607102 MGI: 98968 HomoloGene: 11536 GeneCards: WT1
Gene location (Human)
Chromosome 11 (human)
Chr.Chromosome 11 (human)[1]
Chromosome 11 (human)
Genomic location for WT1
Genomic location for WT1
Band11p13Start32,387,775 bp[1]
End32,435,564 bp[1]
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE WT1 206067 s at fs.png

PBB GE WT1 216953 s at fs.png
More reference expression data
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)

NM_144783

RefSeq (protein)

n/a

Location (UCSC)Chr 11: 32.39 – 32.44 MbChr 2: 105.13 – 105.17 Mb
PubMed search[3][4]
Wikidata
View/Edit HumanView/Edit Mouse

Wilms' tumor protein is a protein that in humans is encoded by the WT1 gene on chromosome 11p.[5][6][7][8]

Function[edit]

This gene encodes a transcription factor that contains four zinc finger motifs at the C-terminus and a proline / glutamine-rich DNA-binding domain at the N-terminus. It has an essential role in the normal development of the urogenital system, and it is mutated in a subset of patients with Wilms' tumor, the gene's namesake. Multiple transcript variants, resulting from alternative splicing at two coding exons, have been well characterized. There is also evidence for the use of non-AUG (CUG) translation initiation site upstream of, and in-frame with the first AUG, leading to additional isoforms.[9]

Structure[edit]

WT1
Identifiers
SymbolWT1
PfamPF02165
InterProIPR000976

The WT1 gene product shows similarity to the zinc fingers of the mammalian growth regulated early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) and (EGR2) proteins.[10]

Clinical significance[edit]

Mutations of Wilms' tumor suppressor gene1 (WT1) are associated with embryonic malignancy of the kidney, affecting around 1-9 in 100,000 infants.[11] It occurs in both sporadic and hereditary forms. Inactivation of WT1 causes Wilms tumour, and Denys-Drash syndrome (DDS), leading to nephropathy and genital abnormalities. The WT1 protein has been found to bind a host of cellular factors, e.g. p53, a known tumor suppressor.[7][12][13][14] Despite the name, WT1 mutation is found in only about 5-10% of Wilms Tumor cases.[15] Some other genes associated with this disease are BRCA2 and GPC3

WT1 is mutated in a mutually exclusive manner with TET2, IDH1, and IDH2 in acute myeloid leukemia.[16] TET2 can be recruited by WT1 to its target genes and activates WT1-target genes by converting 5mC into 5hmC residues at the genes’ promoters,[17] representing an important feature of a new regulatory WIT pathway linked to the development of AML.[18]

The serine protease HtrA2 binds to WT1 and it cleaves WT1 at multiple sites following the treatment with cytotoxic drugs.[19][20]

Using immunohistochemistry, WT1 protein can be demonstrated in the cell nuclei of 75% of mesotheliomas and in 93% of ovarian serous carcinomas, as well as in benign mesothelium and fallopian tube epithelium. This allows these tumours to be distinguished from other, similar, cancers, such as adenocarcinoma. Antibodies to the WT1 protein, however, also frequently cross-react with cytoplasmic proteins in a variety of benign and malignant cells, so that only nuclear staining can be considered diagnostic.[21]

Mutation in WT1 causes predisposition to hernias.[22]

As a drug target[edit]

WT1 has been ranked by the National Cancer Institute (NCI) as the Number 1 target for cancer immunotherapy.[23][24]

A vaccine that induces an acquired immune response against WT1 is in clinical trials for various cancers.[23][24][25] T cell therapies (TCR-T) are also being tested in clinical trials for leukemia.[26][27]

Disease monitoring[edit]

WT1 gene is overexpressed in case of hematological malignancies. This fact is widely used for disease monitoring - evaluations of treatment success, as well as relapse or remission post-treatment checks. Preferably quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is used to establish the levels of WT1 expression. The rising level of WT1 expression is significantly connected with disease progression and relaps of the proliferative disorder.[28] WT1 as a marker is used as a "golden standard" for monitoring of acute myeloid leukemia, however other hematological malignancies such as chronic myeloid leukemia or myeloproliferative syndrome can manifest with overexpressed WT1 and for in specific cases WT1 monitoring can be used even in patients diagnosed with those types of cancer.[29]

Interactions[edit]

WT1 has been shown to interact with TET2,[17] U2AF2,[30] PAWR,[31] UBE2I[32] and WTAP.[33] In combination with Cited2 activates WT1 the Steroidogenic factor 1[34]

RNA editing[edit]

There is some evidence for RNA editing of human WT1 mRNA. As with alternative splicing of the gene RNA editing increases the number of isoforms of this protein.[35][36]

Editing is tissue specific and developmentally regulated. Editing shown to be restricted in testis and kidney in the rat.[35] Editing of this gene product has been found to occur in mice and rats as well as humans.[35][37]

Editing type[edit]

The editing site is found at nucleotide position 839 found in exon 6 of the gene. It causes a codon change from a Proline codon (CCC) to a Leucine codon (CUC)[35]

The type of editing is a Uridine to Cytidine( U to C) base change .The editing reaction is thought to be an amidation of uridine which converts it to a Cytidine.The relevance of this editing is unknown as is the enzyme responsible for this editing.The region where editing occurs like that of other editing sites e.g. ApoB mRNA editing is conserved.Mice, rat and humans have conserved sequences flanking the editing site consisting of 10 nucleotides before the editing site and four after the site.[35]

Effects of editing[edit]

RNA editing results in an alternative amino acid being translated.[35] The changes in amino acid occur in a region identified as a domain involved in transcription activation function.[38]

Editing has been shown to decrease repressive regulation of transcription of growth promoting genes in vitro compared to the non edited protein. Although the physiological role of editing has yet to be determined, suggestions have been made that editing may play a role in the pathogenesis of Wilms tumour.[37]

Experimental models[edit]

WT1 gene can be found as well in the genome of mice. The mouse model with a WT1 knock-out shows symptoms corresponding to human pathophysiology. The mice were observed to have defects of urogenital tract similar to cases patients when WT1 signalling has been malfunctionig.[29] The mouse had absent kindeys as their development failed during embryonic stages. This suggests that WT1 is unconditionally required for a proper kidney formation and development.[39]

Apart from that, the WT1 knock-out mice lacked several types of glands, such as gonads or adrenal glands. The effect of the knock-out was as well visible on heart and blood circulation - several abnormalities concerning heart and diaphragm, as well as troubles with swelling and lymph circulation were described. Due to those defects, the mouse died before it was even born.[39]

Mouse model is used to study some specific disorder connected with WT1 expression, too, such as acute myeloid leukemia.<[40] To examine the expression levels and localisation of WT1, a mouse model using WT1-GFP (green fluorescent protein) knock-in has been made. This model showed, that WT1 is significantly overexpressed in leukemic cells compared to none or minor expression in normal untransformed cells from bone marow, either hematopoietic stem cells or hematopoietic progenitors and precursors.[41]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ENSG00000184937 - Ensembl, May 2017
  2. ^ a b c GRCm38: Ensembl release 89: ENSMUSG00000016458 - Ensembl, May 2017
  3. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  4. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine.
  5. ^ Burgin AB, Parodos K, Lane DJ, Pace NR (February 1990). "The excision of intervening sequences from Salmonella 23S ribosomal RNA". Cell. 60 (3): 405–14. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(90)90592-3. PMID 2406020. S2CID 39909491.
  6. ^ Call KM, Glaser T, Ito CY, Buckler AJ, Pelletier J, Haber DA, Rose EA, Kral A, Yeger H, Lewis WH (February 1990). "Isolation and characterization of a zinc finger polypeptide gene at the human chromosome 11 Wilms' tumor locus". Cell. 60 (3): 509–20. doi:10.1016/0092-8674(90)90601-A. PMID 2154335. S2CID 29092372.
  7. ^ a b Gessler M, Poustka A, Cavenee W, Neve RL, Orkin SH, Bruns GA (February 1990). "Homozygous deletion in Wilms tumours of a zinc-finger gene identified by chromosome jumping" (PDF). Nature. 343 (6260): 774–8. doi:10.1038/343774a0. PMID 2154702. S2CID 4235306.
  8. ^ Huang A, Campbell CE, Bonetta L, McAndrews-Hill MS, Chilton-MacNeill S, Coppes MJ, Law DJ, Feinberg AP, Yeger H, Williams BR (November 1990). "Tissue, developmental, and tumor-specific expression of divergent transcripts in Wilms tumor". Science. 250 (4983): 991–4. doi:10.1126/science.2173145. PMID 2173145.
  9. ^ "Entrez Gene: WT1 Wilms tumor 1".
  10. ^ Han Y, San-Marina S, Yang L, Khoury H, Minden MD (2007). "The zinc finger domain of Wilms' tumor 1 suppressor gene (WT1) behaves as a dominant negative, leading to abrogation of WT1 oncogenic potential in breast cancer cells". Breast Cancer Research. 9 (4): R43. doi:10.1186/bcr1743. PMC 2206716. PMID 17634147.
  11. ^ RESERVED, INSERM US14-- ALL RIGHTS. "Orphanet: Nephroblastoma". www.orpha.net. Retrieved 2019-05-06.
  12. ^ Rauscher FJ (July 1993). "The WT1 Wilms' tumor gene product: a developmentally regulated transcription factor in the kidney that functions as a tumor suppressor". FASEB Journal. 7 (10): 896–903. doi:10.1096/fasebj.7.10.8393820. PMID 8393820.
  13. ^ Buckler AJ, Pelletier J, Haber DA, Glaser T, Housman DE (March 1991). "Isolation, characterization, and expression of the murine Wilms' tumor gene (WT1) during kidney development". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 11 (3): 1707–12. doi:10.1128/mcb.11.3.1707. PMC 369476. PMID 1671709.
  14. ^ Little MH, Prosser J, Condie A, Smith PJ, Van Heyningen V, Hastie ND (June 1992). "Zinc finger point mutations within the WT1 gene in Wilms tumor patients". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. 89 (11): 4791–5. doi:10.1073/pnas.89.11.4791. PMC 49173. PMID 1317572.
  15. ^ Davidoff, Andrew M. (2012). "Wilms Tumor". Advances in Pediatrics. 59 (1): 247–267. doi:10.1016/j.yapd.2012.04.001. PMC 3589819. PMID 22789581. Retrieved 2019-01-28.
  16. ^ Rampal R, Alkalin A, Madzo J, Vasanthakumar A, Pronier E, Patel J, Li Y, Ahn J, Abdel-Wahab O, Shih A, Lu C, Ward PS, Tsai JJ, Hricik T, Tosello V, Tallman JE, Zhao X, Daniels D, Dai Q, Ciminio L, Aifantis I, He C, Fuks F, Tallman MS, Ferrando A, Nimer S, Paietta E, Thompson CB, Licht JD, Mason CE, Godley LA, Melnick A, Figueroa ME, Levine RL (December 2014). "DNA hydroxymethylation profiling reveals that WT1 mutations result in loss of TET2 function in acute myeloid leukemia". Cell Reports. 9 (5): 1841–1855. doi:10.1016/j.celrep.2014.11.004. PMC 4267494. PMID 25482556.
  17. ^ a b Wang Y, Xiao M, Chen X, Chen L, Xu Y, Lv L, Wang P, Yang H, Ma S, Lin H, Jiao B, Ren R, Ye D, Guan KL, Xiong Y (February 2015). "WT1 recruits TET2 to regulate its target gene expression and suppress leukemia cell proliferation". Molecular Cell. 57 (4): 662–673. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2014.12.023. PMC 4336627. PMID 25601757.
  18. ^ Sardina JL, Graf T (February 2015). "A new path to leukemia with WIT". Molecular Cell. 57 (4): 573–574. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2015.02.005. PMID 25699704.
  19. ^ Essafi A, Hastie ND (January 2010). "WT1 the oncogene: a tale of death and HtrA". Molecular Cell. 37 (2): 153–5. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2010.01.010. PMID 20122396.
  20. ^ Hartkamp J, Carpenter B, Roberts SG (January 2010). "The Wilms' tumor suppressor protein WT1 is processed by the serine protease HtrA2/Omi". Molecular Cell. 37 (2): 159–71. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2009.12.023. PMC 2815029. PMID 20122399.
  21. ^ Leong AS, Cooper K, Leong FJ (2003). Manual of Diagnostic Cytology (2 ed.). Greenwich Medical Media, Ltd. pp. 447–448. ISBN 978-1-84110-100-2.
  22. ^ Jorgenson, E.; Makki, N.; Shen, L.; Chen, D. C.; Tian, C.; Eckalbar, W. L.; Hinds, D.; Ahituv, N.; Avins, A. (2015). "A genome-wide association study identifies four novel susceptibility loci underlying inguinal hernia - PubMed". Nature Communications. 6: 10130. doi:10.1038/ncomms10130. PMC 4703831. PMID 26686553.
  23. ^ a b SELLAS Life Sciences Announces Positive WT1 Cancer Vaccine (galinpepimut-S) Clinical Results at the 13th International Conference of the International Mesothelioma Interest Group (iMig)
  24. ^ a b Pleural mesothelioma WT1 vaccine is renamed "galinpepimut-S"
  25. ^ Oka Y, Tsuboi A, Kawakami M, Elisseeva OA, Nakajima H, Udaka K, Kawase I, Oji Y, Sugiyama H (2006). "Development of WT1 peptide cancer vaccine against hematopoietic malignancies and solid cancers". Current Medicinal Chemistry. 13 (20): 2345–52. doi:10.2174/092986706777935104. PMID 16918359.
  26. ^ Chapuis, Aude G.; Egan, Daniel N.; Bar, Merav; Schmitt, Thomas M.; McAfee, Megan S.; Paulson, Kelly G.; Voillet, Valentin; Gottardo, Raphael; Ragnarsson, Gunnar B. (July 2019). "T cell receptor gene therapy targeting WT1 prevents acute myeloid leukemia relapse post-transplant". Nature Medicine. 25 (7): 1064–1072. doi:10.1038/s41591-019-0472-9. ISSN 1078-8956. PMC 6982533. PMID 31235963.
  27. ^ Tawara, Isao; Kageyama, Shinichi; Miyahara, Yoshihiro; Fujiwara, Hiroshi; Nishida, Tetsuya; Akatsuka, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Hiroaki; Tanimoto, Kazushi; Terakura, Seitaro (2017-11-02). "Safety and persistence of WT1-specific T-cell receptor gene−transduced lymphocytes in patients with AML and MDS". Blood. 130 (18): 1985–1994. doi:10.1182/blood-2017-06-791202. ISSN 0006-4971. PMID 28860210.
  28. ^ Candoni A, Toffoletti E, Gallina R, Simeone E, Chiozzotto M, Volpetti S, Fanin R (March 2011). "Monitoring of minimal residual disease by quantitative WT1 gene expression following reduced intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia". Clinical Transplantation. 25 (2): 308–16. doi:10.1111/j.1399-0012.2010.01251.x. PMID 20412098. S2CID 6677442.
  29. ^ a b Sugiyama H (May 2010). "WT1 (Wilms' tumor gene 1): biology and cancer immunotherapy". Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology. 40 (5): 377–87. doi:10.1093/jjco/hyp194. PMID 20395243.
  30. ^ Davies RC, Calvio C, Bratt E, Larsson SH, Lamond AI, Hastie ND (October 1998). "WT1 interacts with the splicing factor U2AF65 in an isoform-dependent manner and can be incorporated into spliceosomes". Genes & Development. 12 (20): 3217–25. doi:10.1101/gad.12.20.3217. PMC 317218. PMID 9784496.
  31. ^ Johnstone RW, See RH, Sells SF, Wang J, Muthukkumar S, Englert C, Haber DA, Licht JD, Sugrue SP, Roberts T, Rangnekar VM, Shi Y (December 1996). "A novel repressor, par-4, modulates transcription and growth suppression functions of the Wilms' tumor suppressor WT1". Molecular and Cellular Biology. 16 (12): 6945–56. doi:10.1128/mcb.16.12.6945. PMC 231698. PMID 8943350.
  32. ^ Wang ZY, Qiu QQ, Seufert W, Taguchi T, Testa JR, Whitmore SA, Callen DF, Welsh D, Shenk T, Deuel TF (October 1996). "Molecular cloning of the cDNA and chromosome localization of the gene for human ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 271 (40): 24811–6. doi:10.1074/jbc.271.40.24811. PMID 8798754.
  33. ^ Little NA, Hastie ND, Davies RC (September 2000). "Identification of WTAP, a novel Wilms' tumour 1-associating protein". Human Molecular Genetics. 9 (15): 2231–9. doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.hmg.a018914. PMID 11001926.
  34. ^ Val P, Martinez-Barbera JP, Swain A (June 2007). "Adrenal development is initiated by Cited2 and Wt1 through modulation of Sf-1 dosage". Development. 134 (12): 2349–58. doi:10.1242/dev.004390. PMID 17537799.
  35. ^ a b c d e f Sharma PM, Bowman M, Madden SL, Rauscher FJ, Sukumar S (March 1994). "RNA editing in the Wilms' tumor susceptibility gene, WT1". Genes & Development. 8 (6): 720–31. doi:10.1101/gad.8.6.720. PMID 7926762.
  36. ^ Wagner KD, Wagner N, Schedl A (May 2003). "The complex life of WT1". Journal of Cell Science. 116 (Pt 9): 1653–8. doi:10.1242/jcs.00405. PMID 12665546.
  37. ^ a b Mrowka C, Schedl A (November 2000). "Wilms' tumor suppressor gene WT1: from structure to renal pathophysiologic features". Journal of the American Society of Nephrology. 11 Suppl 16: S106–15. PMID 11065340.
  38. ^ Wang ZY, Qiu QQ, Deuel TF (May 1993). "The Wilms' tumor gene product WT1 activates or suppresses transcription through separate functional domains". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 268 (13): 9172–5. PMID 8486616.
  39. ^ a b Ozdemir DD, Hohenstein P (April 2014). "Wt1 in the kidney--a tale in mouse models". Pediatric Nephrology. 29 (4): 687–93. doi:10.1007/s00467-013-2673-7. PMID 24240471. S2CID 2019375.
  40. ^ Gaiger A, Reese V, Disis ML, Cheever MA (August 2000). "Immunity to WT1 in the animal model and in patients with acute myeloid leukemia". Blood. 96 (4): 1480–9. doi:10.1182/blood.V96.4.1480. PMID 10942395.
  41. ^ Hosen N, Shirakata T, Nishida S, Yanagihara M, Tsuboi A, Kawakami M, Oji Y, Oka Y, Okabe M, Tan B, Sugiyama H, Weissman IL (August 2007). "The Wilms' tumor gene WT1-GFP knock-in mouse reveals the dynamic regulation of WT1 expression in normal and leukemic hematopoiesis". Leukemia. 21 (8): 1783–91. doi:10.1038/sj.leu.2404752. PMID 17525726.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]