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Interferon regulatory factor 4
Protein IRF4 PDB 2dll.png
PDB rendering based on 2dll.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols IRF4 ; LSIRF; MUM1; NF-EM5; SHEP8
External IDs OMIM601900 MGI1096873 HomoloGene1842 GeneCards: IRF4 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE IRF4 216986 s at tn.png
PBB GE IRF4 216987 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3662 16364
Ensembl ENSG00000137265 ENSMUSG00000021356
UniProt Q15306 Q64287
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_001195286 NM_013674
RefSeq (protein) NP_001182215 NP_038702
Location (UCSC) Chr 6:
0.39 – 0.41 Mb
Chr 13:
30.75 – 30.77 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Interferon regulatory factor 4 also known as MUM1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRF4 gene,[1][2][3] located at 6p25-p23.

The MUM1 symbol is polysemous; although it is an older synonym for IRF4 (HGNC:6119), it is also the current HGNC official symbol for melanoma associated antigen (mutated) 1 (HGNC:29641; located at 19p13.3).

Clinical significance[edit]

In melanocytic cells the IRF4 gene may be regulated by MITF.[4] IRF4 is a transcription factor that has been implicated in acute leukemia.[5] This gene is strongly associated with pigmentation: sensitivity of skin to sun exposure, freckles, blue eyes, and brown hair color.[6]


IRF4 has been shown to interact with:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Grossman A, Mittrücker HW, Nicholl J, Suzuki A, Chung S, Antonio L, Suggs S, Sutherland GR, Siderovski DP, Mak TW (Feb 1997). "Cloning of human lymphocyte-specific interferon regulatory factor (hLSIRF/hIRF4) and mapping of the gene to 6p23-p25". Genomics 37 (2): 229–33. doi:10.1006/geno.1996.0547. PMID 8921401. 
  2. ^ Xu D, Zhao L, Del Valle L, Miklossy J, Zhang L (Jun 2008). "Interferon regulatory factor 4 is involved in Epstein-Barr virus-mediated transformation of human B lymphocytes". J Virol 82 (13): 6251–8. doi:10.1128/JVI.00163-08. PMC 2447047. PMID 18417578. 
  3. ^ "Entrez Gene: IRF4 interferon regulatory factor 4". 
  4. ^ Hoek KS, Schlegel NC, Eichhoff OM, Widmer DS, Praetorius C, Einarsson SO, Valgeirsdottir S, Bergsteinsdottir K, Schepsky A, Dummer R, Steingrimsson E (2008). "Novel MITF targets identified using a two-step DNA microarray strategy". Pigment Cell Melanoma Res. 21 (6): 665–76. doi:10.1111/j.1755-148X.2008.00505.x. PMID 19067971. 
  5. ^ Adamaki M, Lambrou GI, Athanasiadou A, Tzanoudaki M, Vlahopoulos S, Moschovi M (2013). "Implication of IRF4 aberrant gene expression in the acute leukemias of childhood". PLoS ONE 8 (8): e72326. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0072326. PMC 3744475. PMID 23977280. 
  6. ^ Praetorius C, Grill C, Stacey SN, Metcalf AM, Gorkin DU, Robinson KC, Van Otterloo E, Kim RS, Bergsteinsdottir K, Ogmundsdottir MH, Magnusdottir E, Mishra PJ, Davis SR, Guo T, Zaidi MR, Helgason AS, Sigurdsson MI, Meltzer PS, Merlino G, Petit V, Larue L, Loftus SK, Adams DR, Sobhiafshar U, Emre NC, Pavan WJ, Cornell R, Smith AG, McCallion AS, Fisher DE, Stefansson K, Sturm RA, Steingrimsson E (November 2013). "A Polymorphism in IRF4 Affects Human Pigmentation through a Tyrosinase-Dependent MITF/TFAP2A Pathway". Cell 155 (5): 1022–33. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2013.10.022. PMID 24267888. 
  7. ^ a b Gupta S, Jiang M, Anthony A, Pernis AB (December 1999). "Lineage-specific modulation of interleukin 4 signaling by interferon regulatory factor 4". J. Exp. Med. 190 (12): 1837–48. doi:10.1084/jem.190.12.1837. PMC 2195723. PMID 10601358. 
  8. ^ Rengarajan J, Mowen KA, McBride KD, Smith ED, Singh H, Glimcher LH (April 2002). "Interferon regulatory factor 4 (IRF4) interacts with NFATc2 to modulate interleukin 4 gene expression". J. Exp. Med. 195 (8): 1003–12. doi:10.1084/jem.20011128. PMC 2193700. PMID 11956291. 
  9. ^ Brass AL, Zhu AQ, Singh H (February 1999). "Assembly requirements of PU.1-Pip (IRF-4) activator complexes: inhibiting function in vivo using fused dimers". EMBO J. 18 (4): 977–91. doi:10.1093/emboj/18.4.977. PMC 1171190. PMID 10022840. 
  10. ^ Escalante CR, Shen L, Escalante MC, Brass AL, Edwards TA, Singh H, Aggarwal AK (July 2002). "Crystallization and characterization of PU.1/IRF-4/DNA ternary complex". J. Struct. Biol. 139 (1): 55–9. doi:10.1016/S1047-8477(02)00514-2. PMID 12372320. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.