According to the same study, NPAS1 and NPAS3 disruption leads to reduced expression of reelin, which is also consistently found to be reduced in the brains of human patients with schizophrenia and psychotic bipolar disorder. Among the 49 genomic regions that undergone rapid changes in humans compared with their evolutionary ancestors, NPAS3 was found to be located in the region 21.
Disruption of NPAS3 was found in one family affected by schizophrenia and NPAS3 gene is thought to be associated with psychiatric illness and learning disability. In a genetic study of several hundred subjects conducted in 2008, interacting haplotypes at the NPAS3 locus were found to affect the risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder.
^Pickard BS, Malloy MP, Porteous DJ, Blackwood DH, Muir WJ (Jul 2005). "Disruption of a brain transcription factor, NPAS3, is associated with schizophrenia and learning disability". American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics136B (1): 26–32. doi:10.1002/ajmg.b.30204. PMID15924306.
^Pickard BS, Pieper AA, Porteous DJ, Blackwood DH, Muir WJ (2006). "The NPAS3 gene--emerging evidence for a role in psychiatric illness". Annals of Medicine38 (6): 439–48. doi:10.1080/07853890600946500. PMID17008307.
^Pickard BS, Christoforou A, Thomson PA, Fawkes A, Evans KL, Morris SW, Porteous DJ, Blackwood DH, Muir WJ (Sep 2009). "Interacting haplotypes at the NPAS3 locus alter risk of schizophrenia and bipolar disorder". Molecular Psychiatry14 (9): 874–84. doi:10.1038/mp.2008.24. PMID18317462.
^Lavedan C, Volpi S, Mack K, et al. Whole-genome association study identifies polymorphisms in the NPAS3 gene associated with super-response to iloperidone treatment in patients with schizophrenia. Program and abstracts of the 57th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Human Genetics; October 23–27, 2007; San Diego, California. Abstract 1035/T
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