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Interferon regulatory factor 1
Protein IRF1 PDB 1if1.png
PDB rendering based on 1if1.
Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe, RCSB
Symbols IRF1 ; IRF-1; MAR
External IDs OMIM147575 MGI96590 HomoloGene1658 GeneCards: IRF1 Gene
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE IRF1 202531 at tn.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
Entrez 3659 16362
Ensembl ENSG00000125347 ENSMUSG00000018899
UniProt P10914 P15314
RefSeq (mRNA) NM_002198 NM_001159393
RefSeq (protein) NP_002189 NP_001152865
Location (UCSC) Chr 5:
132.48 – 132.49 Mb
Chr 11:
53.77 – 53.78 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]

Interferon regulatory factor 1 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IRF1 gene.[1][2]


Interferon regulatory factor 1 was the first member of the interferon regulatory transcription factor (IRF) family identified. Initially described as a transcription factor able to activate expression of the cytokine Interferon beta,[3] IRF-1 was subsequently shown to function as a transcriptional activator or repressor of a variety of target genes. IRF-1 regulates expression of target genes by binding to an interferon stimulated response element (ISRE) in their promoters. The IRF-1 protein binds to the ISRE via an N-terminal helix-turn-helix DNA binding domain,[4] which is highly conserved among all IRF proteins.

Beyond its function as a transcription factor, IRF-1 has also been shown to trans-activate the tumour suppressor protein p53 through the recruitment of its co-factor p300.[5]

IRF-1 has been shown to play roles in the immune response, regulating apoptosis, DNA damage and tumor suppression.[6]


It has been shown that the extreme C-terminus of IRF-1 regulates its ability to activate transcription, nanobodies targeting this domain (MF1) are able to increase IRF-1 activity.[7]

Model organisms[edit]

Model organisms have been used in the study of IRF1 function. A conditional knockout mouse line, called Irf1tm1a(EUCOMM)Wtsi[11][12] was generated as part of the International Knockout Mouse Consortium program — a high-throughput mutagenesis project to generate and distribute animal models of disease to interested scientists — at the Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.[13][14][15]

Male and female animals underwent a standardized phenotypic screen to determine the effects of deletion.[9][16] Twenty five tests were carried out and two phenotypes were reported. Homozygous mutant animals had abnormal peripheral blood lymphocytes, specifically decreased CD8-positive T cell and NK cell numbers and an increase in CD4-positive T cells. The mice also had an abnormal integument phenotype determined by a study of tail epidermis.[9]


IRF1 has been shown to interact with:

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Maruyama M, Fujita T, Taniguchi T (Jun 1989). "Sequence of a cDNA coding for human IRF-1". Nucleic Acids Res 17 (8): 3292. doi:10.1093/nar/17.8.3292. PMC 317732. PMID 2726461. 
  2. ^ Itoh S, Harada H, Nakamura Y, White R, Taniguchi T (Nov 1991). "Assignment of the human interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF1) gene to chromosome 5q23-q31". Genomics 10 (4): 1097–9. doi:10.1016/0888-7543(91)90208-V. PMID 1680796. 
  3. ^ Miyamoto M, Fujita T, Kimura Y, Maruyama M, Harada H, Sudo Y, Miyata T, Taniguchi T (September 1988). "Regulated expression of a gene encoding a nuclear factor, IRF-1, that specifically binds to IFN-beta gene regulatory elements". Cell 54 (6): 903–13. doi:10.1016/S0092-8674(88)91307-4. PMID 3409321. 
  4. ^ Escalante CR, Yie J, Thanos D, Aggarwal AK (January 1998). "Structure of IRF-1 with bound DNA reveals determinants of interferon regulation". Nature 391 (6662): 103–6. doi:10.1038/34224. PMID 9422515. 
  5. ^ Dornan D, Eckert M, Wallace M, Shimizu H, Ramsay E, Hupp TR, Ball KL (November 2004). "Interferon regulatory factor 1 binding to p300 stimulates DNA-dependent acetylation of p53". Mol. Cell. Biol. 24 (22): 10083–98. doi:10.1128/MCB.24.22.10083-10098.2004. PMC 525491. PMID 15509808. 
  6. ^ "Entrez Gene: IRF1 interferon regulatory factor 1". 
  7. ^ Möller A, Pion E, Narayan V, Ball KL (December 2010). "Intracellular activation of interferon regulatory factor-1 by nanobodies to the multifunctional (Mf1) domain". J. Biol. Chem. 285 (49): 38348–61. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.149476. PMC 2992268. PMID 20817723. 
  8. ^ "Citrobacter infection data for Irf1". Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute. 
  9. ^ a b c Gerdin AK (2010). "The Sanger Mouse Genetics Programme: High throughput characterisation of knockout mice". Acta Ophthalmologica 88 (S248). doi:10.1111/j.1755-3768.2010.4142.x. 
  10. ^ Mouse Resources Portal, Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute.
  11. ^ "International Knockout Mouse Consortium". 
  12. ^ "Mouse Genome Informatics". 
  13. ^ Skarnes WC, Rosen B, West AP, Koutsourakis M, Bushell W, Iyer V, Mujica AO, Thomas M, Harrow J, Cox T, Jackson D, Severin J, Biggs P, Fu J, Nefedov M, de Jong PJ, Stewart AF, Bradley A (2011). "A conditional knockout resource for the genome-wide study of mouse gene function". Nature 474 (7351): 337–342. doi:10.1038/nature10163. PMC 3572410. PMID 21677750. 
  14. ^ Dolgin E (June 2011). "Mouse library set to be knockout". Nature 474 (7351): 262–3. doi:10.1038/474262a. PMID 21677718. 
  15. ^ Collins FS, Rossant J, Wurst W (January 2007). "A mouse for all reasons". Cell 128 (1): 9–13. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.12.018. PMID 17218247. 
  16. ^ van der Weyden L, White JK, Adams DJ, Logan DW (2011). "The mouse genetics toolkit: revealing function and mechanism.". Genome Biol 12 (6): 224. doi:10.1186/gb-2011-12-6-224. PMC 3218837. PMID 21722353. 
  17. ^ Narayan V, Pion E, Landré V, Müller P, Ball KL (October 2010). "Docking dependent ubiquitination of the interferon regulatory factor-1 tumour suppressor protein by the ubiquitin ligase CHIP". J Biol Chem. 286 (1): 607–19. doi:10.1074/jbc.M110.153122. PMC 3013021. PMID 20947504. 
  18. ^ Kular RK, Yehiely F, Kotlo KU, Cilensek ZM, Bedi R, Deiss LP (October 2009). "GAGE, an antiapoptotic protein binds and modulates the expression of nucleophosmin/B23 and interferon regulatory factor 1". J. Interferon Cytokine Res. 29 (10): 645–55. doi:10.1089/jir.2008.0099. PMID 19642896. 
  19. ^ Narayan V, Eckert M, Zylicz A, Zylicz M, Ball KL (September 2009). "Cooperative regulation of the interferon regulatory factor-1 tumor suppressor protein by core components of the molecular chaperone machinery". J Biol Chem. 284 (38): 25889–99. doi:10.1074/jbc.M109.019505. PMC 2757990. PMID 19502235. 
  20. ^ Schaper F, Kirchhoff S, Posern G, Köster M, Oumard A, Sharf R, Levi BZ, Hauser H (October 1998). "Functional domains of interferon regulatory factor I (IRF-1)". Biochem. J. 335 (1): 147–57. PMC 1219763. PMID 9742224. 
  21. ^ Sharf R, Azriel A, Lejbkowicz F, Winograd SS, Ehrlich R, Levi BZ (June 1995). "Functional domain analysis of interferon consensus sequence binding protein (ICSBP) and its association with interferon regulatory factors". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (22): 13063–9. doi:10.1074/jbc.270.22.13063. PMID 7768900. 
  22. ^ Umegaki N, Tamai K, Nakano H, Moritsugu R, Yamazaki T, Hanada K, Katayama I, Kaneda Y (June 2007). "Differential regulation of karyopherin alpha 2 expression by TGF-beta1 and IFN-gamma in normal human epidermal keratinocytes: evident contribution of KPNA2 for nuclear translocation of IRF-1". J. Invest. Dermatol. 127 (6): 1456–64. doi:10.1038/sj.jid.5700716. PMID 17255955. 
  23. ^ Negishi H, Fujita Y, Yanai H, Sakaguchi S, Ouyang X, Shinohara M, Takayanagi H, Ohba Y, Taniguchi T, Honda K (October 2006). "Evidence for licensing of IFN-gamma-induced IFN regulatory factor 1 transcription factor by MyD88 in Toll-like receptor-dependent gene induction program". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 103 (41): 15136–41. doi:10.1073/pnas.0607181103. PMC 1586247. PMID 17018642. 
  24. ^ Masumi A, Wang IM, Lefebvre B, Yang XJ, Nakatani Y, Ozato K (March 1999). "The histone acetylase PCAF is a phorbol-ester-inducible coactivator of the IRF family that confers enhanced interferon responsiveness". Mol. Cell. Biol. 19 (3): 1810–20. PMC 83974. PMID 10022868. 
  25. ^ Chatterjee-Kishore M, van Den Akker F, Stark GR (July 2000). "Adenovirus E1A down-regulates LMP2 transcription by interfering with the binding of stat1 to IRF1". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (27): 20406–11. doi:10.1074/jbc.M001861200. PMID 10764778. 
  26. ^ Sgarbanti M, Borsetti A, Moscufo N, Bellocchi MC, Ridolfi B, Nappi F, Marsili G, Marziali G, Coccia EM, Ensoli B, Battistini A (May 2002). "Modulation of human immunodeficiency virus 1 replication by interferon regulatory factors". J. Exp. Med. 195 (10): 1359–70. doi:10.1084/jem.20010753. PMC 2193759. PMID 12021315. 
  27. ^ Lee JH, Chun T, Park SY, Rho SB (September 2008). "Interferon regulatory factor-1 (IRF-1) regulates VEGF-induced angiogenesis in HUVECs". Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1783 (9): 1654–62. doi:10.1016/j.bbamcr.2008.04.006. PMID 18472010. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]

This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, which is in the public domain.